Articles ayala eliana


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Task for TDC course - 2013 2nd semester

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Articles ayala eliana

  1. 1. Articles Ayala Camarano Martins Eliana Siqueira
  2. 2. Articles are problematic for ELLs because some languages have no articles, some have only the definite article, and others have the same articles as English but their usage are not exactly related. For ELLs, these little words can cause a great amount of damage with their English. Most English speakers recognize three articles: the indefinite articles a and an and the definite article the, but there is another article usage that occurs as well: the use of no article. We could say that the 3 articles in English are a, an, the and no article. The learner has to decide noun-by-noun which one of the articles to use. Native-speakers, of course, use the articles correctly without thinking. English learners, on the other hand, need to have some guidelines for making the right choice.
  3. 3. Indefinite Articles a and an We use the indefinite articles a and na only before singular count nouns. We use a and na with singular count nouns that are not specific and are not being mentioned for the first time. A penguin is a small and white bird.
  4. 4. Indefinite Articles: a, an Rule 1. Use a before a noun or an adjective (+noun) that begins with a consonant sound. 2. Use na before a noun or an adjective (+noun) that begins with a vowel sound. Example • A feather, a gray feather • an idea, na absurd idea
  5. 5. Indefinite Articles: a, an Rule 3. Remember that words beginning with the letters h or u can be problematic. The use of a and na depends on the beginning sound of the word. It is determined by the next word’s initial sound, not its spelling. Example a hat, an hour The word hat begins with the consonant sound /h/, but hour begins with a vowel sound because the letter h is silent. a university, an umbrella The word university begins with the consonant sound /y/, but umbrella begins with a vowel sound.
  6. 6. The Definite Article: the There are several different situations in which we use the definite article the in English. Articles in English are invariable. That is, they do not change according to the gender or number of the noun they refer to, e.g. the boy, the woman, the children
  7. 7. The Definite Article: the Rule 1. Use the when you are talking about something specific. 2. Use the to refer to something which has already been mentioned. 3. Use the when both the speaker and listener know what is being talked about, even if it has not been mentioned before. Example • specific: The umbrella next to the door is not mine. • second reference: The mouse loved the elephant's long trunk. • 'Where's the bathroom?' 'It's on the first floor.'
  8. 8. The Definite Article: the Rule 4. Use the to refer to objects we regard as unique. 5. Use the before superlatives and ordinal numbers. 6. Use the with names of geographical areas and oceans. 7. Use the with most bodies of water except individuals lakes. Example • the sun, the moon, the world • the highest building, the first page, the last chapter. • 'Where's the bathroom?' 'It's on the first floor.' • the Mississippi River, the Pacific Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea, the Great Lakes.
  9. 9. No Article: (O) • In English there are a few situations in which we do not use any article with a noun. In these cases, many other languages require the use of the, so a common ELL error is overuse of the.
  10. 10. No Article: (O) Rule 1. We use no article when we refer to general ideas, plurals or uncountable nouns we do not use THE. 2. We use no article with names of people, books and plays (unless it is part of the title). 3. We use no article with towns, cities, states and countries. Example • Religion is an important issue. Mexican food is spicy. • I have read Romeo and Juliet • Cape Town Montana Vietnam
  11. 11. No Article: (O) Rule 4. We use no articles with lakes, single islands, continents or mountains. 5. We use no articles with planets. 6. We use no articles with sports or games 7. We use no articles with Meals Example • Lake Victoria / Jamaica Asia / Mt Fuji • Mars, Jupter, Saturn • Soccer / tennis / skiing / monopoly • Brekfast / lunch / dinner