About articles:• They are considered adjectives;• There are three kinds of articles:a) Indefinite articles: a, an;b) The definite article: the;c) Zero article.
Indefinite articles a and an• Used before count nouns;• We use a and an with singular count nouns that are not specific and are being mentioned for the first time. (FOLSE, Keith: 2009.)
Indefinite articles: a, an Rule Example1. Use a before a noun or anadjective (+noun) that begins 1.A girl, a blond girlwith a consonant sound.2. Use an before a noun or anadjective (+noun) that begins 2.An idea, an absurd ideawith a vowel sound.3. Remember that words 3.a hat, an hour (the word hatbeginning with the letters h or begins with the consonantu can be problematic. The use sound /h/, but hour begins withof a and an depends on the a vowel sound because thebeginning sound of the word. letter h is silent. (FOLSE, Keith: 2009.)
Indefinite articles a and an“A boy with blond hair was eating an apple.”
The Definite article the• We use the: 1.“when identifying a specific person, place or thing (…)” 2. “when something is unique or, in other words, there is only one of that object (…)”
Rules for the Definite Article 1. Use the when talking about something specific.The blue umbrella is not mine.
Rules for the Definite Article 2. Use the when the speaker and the listener are talking about the same specific item.William, don’t forget to closethe refrigerator!
Rules for the Definite Article 3. Use the for the second and all other references to the same noun.The computer lets us access theInternet quickly.
Rules for the Definite Article 4. Use the with the superlative form of na adjective,which means with the word most or with the ending –est.In a jewelry store, diamonds arethe most expensive item.
Rules for the Definite Article 5. Use the for the names of the countries that look plural, including countries that end in –s or have the words united, kingdom, republic, or union. The United States The PhilippinesThe Dominican Repulic The United Kingdom
Rules the parts the Definite general, we6. Use the for for of something. (Exception: In Articledo not use the for body parts.) The cabinet is brown. The wall is different. The mixer is red. The stove is silver.
Rules for the Definite Article 7. Use the with most bodies of water except individual lakes. The Mississippi River.ATTENTION! This is Lake Michigan. The Great Lakes.
Ruleswith geographic parts of the globe and geographic 8. Use the for the Definite Article areas, deserts, and peninsulas. The North The South
No article Rule Example1. When you want to talk about Cats can be great pets. a category or group in general, use no article.2. Use no article before abstract Patience is a virtue. nouns such as feelings or ideas.
Common ELL Mistakes1. Do not use a singular count noun without an article (or other determiner). wrong: job, apple, reason, best choice correct: a job, na apple, the reason, the best choice2. Do not use a with a noun that begins with a vowel sound. wrong: a hour, a heir correct: an hour, an heir
Common ELL Mistakes3. Do not use the with a plural count noun that refers to th whole category. wrong: I don’t trust the politicians. correct: I don’t trust politicians.4. Do not use the with abstract nouns or ideas. wrong: The education is the most important thing in my life. correct: Education is the most important thing in my life.