Nelson Mandela - Great Leadership

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Why did we choose Nelson Mandela?
A true great leader of his time, creating his dream and personal passion and motivation to ride South Africa of “Apartheid”, one man, one vote – he aspired followers to work toward his vision with his charisma, motivation, intelligence and being trust worthy.
Why is he a visionary leader?
His vision is clear and motivation is strong with the persistence endurance have inspired his followers to work together with him towards a vision. A vision that was for all people including native Africans to be granted the right to cast their vote in National Elections and that all citizens to be treated equally.

Extreme differences from radical left wing to conservative right
Violent clashes and public execution killing of AWB soldiers by Bophutatswana police
AWB wanting a separate Afrikaner state, National Party initiated apartheid but also instrumental in the dissolution of it


Environmental / Behaviour – “In my country we go to prison first and then become president.”
Leader Behaviour - In prison... “in stable environments, change can be incremental, with most emphasis on managing the task and relationship” (Page 73 of Avery).

Inspiration – “Only free men can negotiate; prisoners cannot enter into contracts. Your freedom and mine cannot be separated” (Page 73 of Avery).

Consultative - Seeks participation, he adapted his behaviour for a win-win situation (Page 74 of Avery).





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  • Notes:
    Why did we choose Nelson Mandela?
    A true great leader of his time, creating his dream and personal passion and motivation to ride South Africa of “Apartheid”, one man, one vote – he aspired followers to work toward his vision with his charisma, motivation, intelligence and being trust worthy.
    Why is he a visionary leader?
    His vision is clear and motivation is strong with the persistence endurance have inspired his followers to work together with him towards a vision. A vision that was for all people including native Africans to be granted the right to cast their vote in National Elections and that all citizens to be treated equally.
  • Extreme differences from radical left wing to conservative right
    Violent clashes and public execution killing of AWB soldiers by Bophutatswana police
    AWB wanting a separate Afrikaner state, National Party initiated apartheid but also instrumental in the dissolution of it
    Democratic party more liberal than NP
    A range of nebulous parties – ACDP, Soccer party (legalise marijuana), KISS about 24 parties in election
    Inkhata Freedom Party for the Zulu people in KwaZulu Natal
    ANC led by NM, offering freedom and fairness to all
    SACP
    PAC’s cry of “One settler, one bullet”
    White population afraid, buying generators, tinned food etc
    Black population ranging from excited to militant
    Needed a special leader to prevent a civil war
  • Admired his Dedication & Persistence
    Born on July 18th 1918 (He followed African Traditions and Customs)
    1941 onwards was dedicated to the advancement of his Native people.
    1941 – 1943 he graduated in law at the University of Witwatersrand.
    1942 joined the African National Congress (ANC).
    1943 – 1948 he became increasingly involved with the ANC with the aim to establish a multi-nationalist movement.
    In 1948 a far right government was elected by the white population. The policy of this government was to introduce “Apartheid”.
    1956 - 1961 he faced a five year trial for treason.
    1963 He returned to South Africa and was thrown into jail until his release in 1990 (28 yrs in jail)
    1993, Nelson Mandela shared the Nobel Peace Prize with F.W. de Klerk for dismantling apartheid.
    1994 he became the first democratically elected South African president. 
    1999, Nelson Mandela retired from the presidency, and returned to live in the town of Qunu, Transkei, in which was born.      
    Notes:
    1941 onwards was dedicated to the advancement of his Native people. For everyone to be afforded equal rights. For all discriminatory laws to be rescinded, especially that of apartheid.
    1942 joined the African National Congress (ANC). He acknowledged ANC charter (est. 1912) was that all people including native Africans be granted the right to cast their vote in National Elections. In Johannesburg where he became an active member of the African National Congress (A.N.C) The conditions for African Nationals (Blacks) were declining rapidly.
    In 1948 a far right government was elected (Whites were the only citizens permitted to vote). Their policy was to introduce “Apartheid” which would segregate people on the basis of race. Mandela opposed this policy it is was the complete opposite to his views, values and to that of the ANC. He with his colleague Oliver Tambo and others fought relentlessly to have the policy overturned and for the government to accept that all citizens had the right to vote.
    1956 - 1961 he faced a five year trial for treason. he was acquitted and traveled abroad to receive military training and raise funds for the ANC
  • Sleeping with the Enemy – “If you want to make peace with your enemy, you have to work with your enemy. Then he becomes your partner”.
    Environmental / Behaviour – “In my country we go to prison first and then become president.”
    Leader Behaviour - In prison... “in stable environments, change can be incremental, with most emphasis on managing the task and relationship” (Page 73 of Avery).
    Inspiration – “Only free men can negotiate; prisoners cannot enter into contracts. Your freedom and mine cannot be separated” (Page 73 of Avery).
    Consultative - Seeks participation, he adapted his behaviour for a win-win situation (Page 74 of Avery).
  • Drive - His motivation was inspired by his dedication to his country and people.
    Desire to Lead – His persistence and dedication of his life to the cause of freedom was undiminished by adversity.
    Integrity – Consistent values and promoted passive resistance (www.time.com , Time Magazine, Man of the Year 1993, sited 17th Jan 2009). He formed a trusting relationship with followers and he did not violate his promises or confidences (Avery, p71). “He influenced his people to initially embrace peaceful disobedience and campaigns. He later agreed with the adoption of more direct action with a preference for non-violence” (???).
    Self-Confidence – “There is no passion to be found playing small – in settling for a life that is less than the one you are capable of living” (www.ineedmotivation.com, My Favorite Nelson Mandela Quotes, 7th Oct, 2008).
    Business Knowledge – His extensive studies law and smuggled in messages kept Mandela up to date while in goal.
    The majority of the black South African population were followers and recognized his influence on the A.N.C
    He relied on the powerful ANC in which he had significant influence, to adopt and implement his ideas and policies.
    High-level intelligence – High EI (Emotional Intelligence), and had completed a degree in law. Therefore we approximate that he had a moderate level of intelligence.
    Notes:
    His main source of power came from within. His persistence and dedication of his life to the cause of freedom was undiminished by adversity.
    He also relied on the powerful (African national Congress) A.N.C, on which he had significant influence, to adopt and implement his ideas and policies.
    He influenced his people to adopt peaceful disobedience campaigns and later on1950s/60s take direct action direct against the unjust laws (Apartheid) imposed by the minority elected white government. He was able to swell the ranks of the ANC from 10,000 to100, 000 in a relatively short period. (In short people power: (Motivation)
    His dedication and persistence throughout his life. Examples are: - when he was charged with treason and faced trial for 5 years 1956-1961. When in 1963 He was sentenced to prison for life on a similar charge. (He served 28 years of the sentence before being released in 1990.
    The majority of the black South African populations were his followers. Not always directly but through his influence on the ANC and senior policy makers within the organization. He was also an influential team player.
    This man dedicated his life to the cause of South Africa and its native inhabitance. He had respect for other races residing within the country and was prepared to share the benefits of the country with them. Throughout a lifetime of dedication to the cause he achieved equality of all people within the Republic of SA and became the first elected black president in 1994
  • Mandela video: 6:39
    Mandela, in effect, put his money where his mouth is. During his opening statement at the 1964 Rivonia trial, in which he faced a sabotage charge and, if convicted, possible execution, he concluded with these words:
    I have fought against white domination, and I have fought against black domination. I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve. But if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die.
  • High Emotional Maturity => Emotional Intelligence:
    To integrate emotion into thought => People just want Freedom (He never abandoned his vision and values of Freedom)
    To manage emotion => High emotional maturity to maintain cooperative relationships with peers and enemies
    Emotion = followers
    Inspirational, Visionary and Charismatic.
    Leaders form an emotional connection with their followers, through their vision by using language and positive communication, ie; symbols, (page 108, Avery).
    High Emotional Maturity:
    Emotion & thought integration
    Emotion management
    Followers inspiration
  • Charismatic leaders
    Role model
    Extraordinary emotional effects on their followers
    Positive impact on social system
    Appealing vision of the future that becomes the basis for the cause
  • The sketches have been executed in simple black charcoal lines with selected elements highlighted in pure pastel colors. The symbolism behind Nelson Mandela's choice in use of line, color and composition is significant, color having symbolic value in African culture. It is this, and the simple use of line, that plays a dominant role in all the drawings.
    About the Artist
    In the winter of 1964, Nelson Mandela arrived on Robben Island where he would spend 18 of his 27 prison years. Confined to a small cell, the floor his bed a bucket for a toilet, he was forced to do hard labor in a quarry.
    He was allowed one visitor a year for 30 minutes. He could write and receive one letter every six months.
    But Robben Island became the crucible which transformed him. Through his intelligence, charm and dignified defiance, Mandela eventually bent even the most brutal prison officials to his will, assumed leadership over his jailed comrades and became the master of his own prison. He emerged from it the mature leader who would fight and win the great political battles that would create a new democratic South Africa.
    In his drawings called the Struggle Series, we see a panel of five charcoal sketches: a raised, defiant fist, 'Struggle'; chained wrists, 'Imprisonment'; chains broken, 'Freedom'; hands clasped in peace, 'Unity' (Mandela's chalk-mark on all his drawings); an adult and child's hands clasped together 'Future.'
    "These sketches not so much about my life as they are about my own country," says Mandela. "I drew hands because they are powerful instruments, hands can hurt or heal, punish or uplift. They can also be bound but a quest for righteousness can never be repressed. In time, we broke loose the shackles of injustice, we joined hands across social divides and national boundaries, between continents and over oceans and now we look to the future, knowing that even if age makes us wiser guides, it is the youth that remind us of love, of trust and the value of life."
  • Notes: Basis of his success:
    The right of all people to have to have an equal vote in elections (irrespective of race)
    Everyone to have the opportunity to advance themselves on merit
    Wealth to be shared more evenly by the leveling of appropriate taxes
    The Sharpeville massacres in 1961 (where sixty nine black anti-apartheid demonstrators were shot), motivated him to go abroad and seek assistance to help the ANC fight apartheid.
    His motivation was so strong that he was able to endure 28 years in jail then to be released and eventually in 1994 become the first black president of South Africa
    His many set-backs fuelled his motivation to achieve his objectives. (That all citizens are treated equally and that everyone had the right to vote)
    Legitimate Power (Definitely, headed the MK and was very involved with the youth league, executive of the Transvaal ANC and later part of the executive of the full ANC)
    Expert Power (law degree and ANC contacts, setting up MK sought knowledge from other miltiary leaders in Africa and around the world.)
  • http://www.personal.psu.edu/users/j/m/jmc441/NelsonMandela.htm – Type of leadership
    According to Stengel (1994), Mandela recalled the following lesson regarding leadership from when he was a young cattle herder: - see quote above.
  • Our question is:
    Can we apply Nelson’s leadership into an organisation today?
  • RESILIENCY is our capacity to endure and to overcome our own mountains. The concept of resilience is the ability of human beings or the community to face adversities and emerge even transformed.
     
    Introspection: The art to ask questions to themselves and give an honest answer.
    Independence: How to set boundaries between themselves and half with problems, they can maintain physical and emotional distance without falling into isolation.
    Ability to relate: Establish links with other people, so they can balance their own need for affection with the attitude given to others.
    Initiative: They like to be tested and required to progressively do more complex tasks.
    They are creative: They have the ability to create order, beauty and purpose, from problems and disorder.
    Morality: As a result personal desire to expand the welfare of all humanity and ability to engage in securities.
    Humor: You can find it in their own comic tragedy.
    Self-Esteem Consistent: This means a constant emotional care.
  • Personal Traits:
    Passionate about his beliefs.
    Has Clear vision and ability share value with his followers.
    His persistence and endurance focus on his vision and his dedication motivated /inspired his followers.
    Behavioural: Used his personal skill and humility combined every situational opportunities to achieve goal.
    His dedication of his life to the cause of freedom was undiminished by adversity.
    1941 onwards, he was dedicated to the advancement of his Native people that for everyone to be afforded equal rights, for all discriminatory laws to be rescinded, especially that of apartheid.
    1942 joined the African National Congress (ANC). He acknowledged ANC charter (est. 1912) was that all people including native Africans be granted the right to cast their vote in National Elections. In Johannesburg where he became an active member of the African National Congress (A.N.C) The conditions for African Nationals (Blacks) were declining rapidly.
    In 1948 a far right government was elected (Whites were the only citizens permitted to vote). Their policy was to introduce “Apartheid” which would segregate people on the basis of race. Mandela opposed this policy it is was the complete opposite to his views, values and to that of the ANC. He with his colleague Oliver Tambo and others fought relentlessly to have the policy overturned and for the government to accept that all citizens had the right to vote.
    1956 - 1961 he faced a five year trial for treason. he was acquitted and traveled abroad to receive military training and raise funds for the ANC.
    His dedication and persistence throughout his life. Examples are: - when he was charged with treason and faced trial for 5 years 1956-1961. When in 1963 He was sentenced to prison for life on a similar charge. (He served 28 years of the sentence before being released in 1990).
    Contingency:
    He relied on the powerful (African national Congress) A.N.C, on which he had significant influence, to adopt and implement his ideas and policies.
    He influenced his people to adopt peaceful disobedience campaigns and later on1950s/60s take direct action direct against the unjust laws (Apartheid) imposed by the minority elected white government. He was able to swell the ranks of the ANC from 10,000 to100, 000 in a relatively short period. (In short people power: (Motivation)
    Transformational:
    His listening skills and his compassion made people feel that he cared about them and their feeling and he demonstrated his sympathy to the individual. 
    His concern and compassion made him a more compelling leader to follow in his cause.
    He was also an influential team player.
    The majority of the black South African populations were his followers. Not always directly but through his influence on the ANC and senior policy makers within the organization.
    Mandela dedicated his life to the cause of South Africa and its native inhabitance. He had respect for other races residing within the country and was prepared to share the benefits of the country with them. Throughout a lifetime of dedication to the cause he achieved equality of all people within the Republic of SA and became the first elected black president in 1994.
  • Nelson Mandela - Great Leadership

    1. 1. Visionary Leadership: Nelson Mandela "One man, one vote," has always been his mantra.
    2. 2. “Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.” “For to be free is not merely to cast off one's chains, but to live in a way that respects and enhances the freedom of others.” “I detest racialism, because I regard it as a barbaric thing, whether it comes from a black man or a white man.” “I learned that courage was not the absence of fear, but the triumph over it. The brave man is not he who does not feel afraid, but he who conquers that fear.”
    3. 3. “There can be no keener revelation of a society's soul than the way in which it treats its children.” 1918 Birth 1927 Mqheekezweni 1937 1939 Fort Beaufort Fort Hare 1918 1939 1918 - 1939 Education 1918 1940 - 1964 ANC Years 1963 - 1991 Robben Island 1991
    4. 4. “There is no passion to be found playing small in settling for a life that is less than the one you are capable of living.” 1948 National Party comes to Power 1952 1954 Mayibuyi Afrika Freedom Charter 1947 1950 1941 1943 Executive of Transvaal ANC National Day of Freedom Johannesburg Protests 1963 MK Seized 1953 M-Plan 1962 Black Pimpernel 1956 - 1961 High Treason 1940 1963 1918 - 1939 Education 1918 1939 - 1962 ANC Years 1963 - 1991 Robben Island 1991
    5. 5. Leadership Behaviour Sleeping with the Enemy Environmental / Behavioural Inspiration Consultative • “... Work with your Enemy ...” • “In my country we go to Prison First and then we become President” • “Only free can negotiate... • “A nation should not be judged by how it treats its highest citizen, but it’s lowest ones”
    6. 6. Leader Traits Drive Desire to Lead Integrity Self-Confidence Business Knowledge High-level intelligence Source: Adapted from Kirkpatrick and Locke, 1991.
    7. 7. His Vision All citizens (blacks and whites) have to be treated equally and everyone have the right to vote Key Attributes: • • • • • Brief => concise Clear Have a future orientation Remain stable Be inspiring to followers Delivery: • Inspirational speeches • Appeals to shared values • Role modelling • Behaving consistently with the vision
    8. 8. Emotional Intelligence Emotional connection Followers Source: Picture from www.gwipl.org accessed: 17th Jan 2009. Text adapted from Avery, p108, 2008
    9. 9. Great Charisma: Through Mandela's vision he was able to transform the needs, values, preferences and aspirations of his followers from selfinterest to collective interest. Personalised from: Avery, pp 93 and 94, 2008.
    10. 10. Cultural/Symbolic Icons – Early Beginnings • Through use of Art in his prison in Robben Island Source: Pictures from ???? accessed: ??? Jan 2009.
    11. 11. Key attributes of Leadership Success • His strong personal motivation and endurance. • His many set-backs fuelled his motivation to achieve his objectives • His motivation was inspired by his dedication to his country and people.
    12. 12. Leadership Paradigms used – Consensus and Visionary paradigm "When you want to get a herd to move in a certain direction," Mandella said, "you stand at the back with a stick. Then a few of the more energetic cattle move to the front and the rest of the cattle follow. You are really guiding them from behind." He paused before saying with a smile, "That is how a leader should do his work“ Adapted from Stengel, 1994
    13. 13. Followers where and how he motivated them? • Mandela’s leadership success can be attributed to his use of consensus. By sharing problems with group and having a group decision enhanced the follower interest and commitment • Also use of drawings starting in prison was used as motivation both with SA and internationally Adapted from Johnson & Johnson, 2006
    14. 14. More Effective Leader • Strengths – – – – – – Integrity Patience Passion Inspirational Symbolism Relationships / Social connection – Born to Lead – Education / Intelligence • Weaknesses – All things to all people – Timing – Narrow Focus – No succession planning – One man band / Self-interest
    15. 15. Key Learnings from Nelson Mandella • His vision was too narrow, to apply in today’s business environment.
    16. 16. Mandela’s Resiliency RESILIENCE is the "human capacity and ability to face, overcome, be strengthened by, and even be transformed by experiences of adversity”. (http://www.resilnet.uiuc.edu/abtrnet.html) Some characteristics of the resilience concept are: Introspection Creativity Independence Morality Ability to relate Humor Initiative Self-Esteem Consistent Source: Adapted from Raul Herrera Abarca, 03-01-2006.
    17. 17. • Questions ?
    18. 18. References • • • • • • Avery, 2008. Johnson & Johnson, 2006 Kirkpatrick and Locke, 1991. Stengel, 1994 Herrera, 2006 www.gwipl.org
    19. 19. Leadership Theories • Charismatic and visionary individual influence followers to produce extraordinary results. • Facilitative/Contact, Strategic

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