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20th Century Ideologies


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20th Century Ideologies

  1. 1. Types of Ideologies
  2. 2. <ul><li>Stresses individual rights and freedom of choice </li></ul><ul><li>Includes the idea of decentralized government but one that does promote personal freedom and reduce inequities </li></ul><ul><li>Faith in human progress </li></ul><ul><li>Respect for sovereignty of the reasoning individual </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>John Locke and John Stuart Mill believed human beings are equal and independent. </li></ul><ul><li>They believed that humans have certain inalienable rights such as the right to life, liberty, equality and ownership of property. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Belief that individuals and society have a moral responsibility to respect past traditions, customs and habits. </li></ul><ul><li>When individuals and society wish to make reforms, they we must be slow and gradual. </li></ul><ul><li>Belief that society should structured in a hierarchical fashion. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Edmund Burke believed society should be structured in a hierarchy with those best suited to leadership at the top, because people do not have equal abilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Government should be chosen by a limited electorate with special rights, responsibilities, and privileges. </li></ul><ul><li>Stability must be achieved through law and order and the maintenance of customs and traditions that bind society together. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Associated with the writings of Karl Marx. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on the concepts of class struggle. </li></ul><ul><li>Where Marxism focused on violent revolution to create a classless society, Socialism focused on peaceful social change in the interest of the working class. </li></ul><ul><li>Belief that resources should be controlled by the public for the benefit of everyone in society. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Robert Owen believed that the harshness of life under capitalism corrupted human nature. </li></ul><ul><li>Believed that education was the key to a humane society. </li></ul><ul><li>Belief that everyone should be beneficially employed. </li></ul><ul><li>Believed that living and working conditions needed to improve for all. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Radical form of socialism </li></ul><ul><li>According to Karl Marx, the only way to overthrow capitalism was through a class struggle between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie—which would then bring about significant change to society. </li></ul><ul><li>Belief that society should be classless. </li></ul><ul><li>The state should direct the economy to achieve economic equality for all citizens. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Karl Marx and Friedrich Engles elaborated on the ideas of Marxism in the Communist Manifesto. </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas such as abolition of private property, centralization of factories and free education for all were promoted. </li></ul><ul><li>Vladimir Lenin expanded on Marx’s ideas for the purpose of carrying out the Russian Revolution and establishing a dictatorship of the proletariat in the USSR. </li></ul>