Democracies in Africa

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Democracies in Africa

  1. 1. How Are YOUR Notes? • What do you write down? What’s important? • When you read a lot of specific information, how do you pick out what is important?
  2. 2. How Are YOUR Notes? • Question: What about dates? – Be able to put major events in order – Be able to compare what is going on in 2 different regions at the same time • Question: What about names? – Major leaders who changed the course of a countries history are important – Know major accomplishments/impact • Question: What about specific events? – Know the general themes (civil wars, disruptions, many groups wanting power…etc)
  3. 3. • What should I do during lectures with my notes? – Mark all underlined/colored phrases emphasized by PowerPoint or teacher – If you do not have these in your notes, write yourself a note to the side to add them – If you didn’t take notes for the quiz, take short notes of the main ideas, go home and flesh them out with more detail
  4. 4. New Nations in Africa Main Idea: After WW2, African leaders throw off colonial rule and created independent countries Why it matters now? Today, many of those independent countries are engaged in building political and economic stability
  5. 5. Setting the Stage • Africa was unwilling to return to colonial domination after WW2 • European imperialists left Africans unprepared to deal with independence
  6. 6. Background to Independence • African middle class emerged (many went abroad for college) • Inspired by what they saw abroad (ie: Harlem Renaissance) • Negritude movement= a movement to celebrate African culture, heritage and values (black consciousness) • Many African fought alongside Europeans in WW2- made them unwilling to accept colonial domination
  7. 7. Ghana(British Colony) • Gold Coast- first African colony south of Sahara to receive independence (1957) • Kwame Nkrumah- – studied in US – organized strikes and boycotts – Ghana’s first prime minister and later president for life – took on costly projects  hurt economy – inspired by Marcus Garvey (Africa ruled by Africans) – while in China, army and police took power • Power shifted between civilian and military rule • First open elections- 2000
  8. 8. Kenya(British Colony) • 2 black self government movements: • Jomo Kenyatta- Kikuyu (Kenya’s most populous ethnic group), nationalist, condemned Mau Mau • Mau Mau- secret society of Kikuyu land owners who were kicked out of their land – Goal= scare the white farmers out of their land
  9. 9. Kenya • Independence- 1963 • Result- 10,000 black Kenyans 100 white Kenyans killed • 1st President- Kenyatta – Worked hard to unite the various ethnic groups • 2nd President- Daniel arap Moi – Faced major opposition, strikes forced Moi to make Kenya more democratic, his government was corrupted
  10. 10. Congo (Belgium Colony) • Independence- 1960 • Name change- Zaire (from 1965- 1997) • First prime minister- Patrice Lumumba – Ruled a divided country • Leaders in Congo – Moise Tshombe- declared parts of Congo independent – Mobutu Sese Seko- overthrew Lumumba and turned him over to Tshombe (later murdered) – Tshombe was overthrown by Mobutu
  11. 11. Mobutu Comes to Power • Mobutu ruled Zaire (Congo) – Zaire had the resources to become one of the richest countries in Africa but under Mobutu’s rule it became one of the poorest – Overthrown in 1997 by Laurent Kabila who banned all political parties • Promised free elections in 1999, never came • By 2000, civil war had broken out
  12. 12. Algeria (French Colony) • = France’s principal overseas colony • Many French colonists had been there for years and didn’t want to give up their land • France claimed to offer full citizenship rights to colonial subjects (assimilation)
  13. 13. Algeria • FLN (Algerian National Liberation Front)- intention to fight for independence – French sent over troops to fight the FLN • Charles de Gaulle- French WW2 hero, made President, concluded Algeria could not be held by force – Feared rebellion would spread, so France let go of many of his possessions in Africa • Independence- 1962
  14. 14. Algeria • First Prime Minister/President- Ahmed Ben Bella, leader of FLN, overthrown by his chief of staff • FIS- Islamic Salvation Front, led riots against “secular” government • Civil War- Islamic militants and government, continues till today • Talks of a peace conference
  15. 15. Angola (Portuguese Colony) • Portuguese- first into Africa, last out • Accounts of other African countries receiving independence inspired them • Portugal spent tons of $ to keep colonies and many Portuguese at home didn’t agree – Portuguese withdrew- 1975 • Lack of preparation for independence led to many outside groups (Communists, Cubans, Soviets, South Africa, US) becoming involved • Bloody civil war continued into 2000’s
  16. 16. Section 2: Democratic Challenges in African Nations • Main Idea: As the recent histories of Nigeria and South Africa show, ethnic and racial conflicts can hinder democracy • Why it matters now? As Nigeria struggled with democracy, in 1996 South Africa adopted a bill of rights that promotes racial quality
  17. 17. Colonial Rule Hampers Democracy • Colonial rule did little to prepare the African colonies for independence • Europeans ignored ethnic & cultural divisions • No sense of national identity • Europeans developed colonies for their profit and never expected to help the African countries develop • Not educated
  18. 18. Short Lived Democracies • When Europeans left, rival groups fought each other for power • Military dictatorships usually replaced democracies
  19. 19. Nigeria Erupts in Civil War • Nigeria- former British colony, won independence in 1960 • Africa’s most populated country and one of its richest
  20. 20. A Land of Many Peoples • 3 major ethnic groups and other smaller ones lived in Nigeria – Muslim (Hausa-Fulani) – Christians and animists (Igbo) – Yoruba were a farming people • Federal System= power is shared between the state governments and central authority (like US)….each group had their own state
  21. 21. War with Biafra • Nigerian civil war • Igbo (largest ethnic group in Nigeria) were persecuted and fled and the eastern region of Nigeria seceded from Nigeria and declared itself a new nation Biafra • Igbo were outnumbered and outgunned • Martial Law= temporary military rule in Nigeria • 1970, Biafra surrendered, Nigeria was reunited • Result: several million Igbo died, most from starvation
  22. 22. Nigeria’s Struggle for Democracy • Military governed most of 1970’s • 7th largest oil producer • Tried to return to federal system, with strong central govt. and 19 regional units • 1979, returned to democracy • 1983, military overthrew civilian govt. • 1999, elected first civilian president in 20 years
  23. 23. South Africa under White Rule • Under British and Dutch rule, South Africa was racially divided • Small white minority ruled a large black majority • 1910, gained independence from Britain • New constitution denied rights to blacks
  24. 24. Apartheid Segregates Society • 1948, new party promotes Dutch South African nationalism • Apartheid= complete separation of the races • Segregation of schools, hospitals and neighborhoods • 75% of population was black, but only 13% of the land was given to them to live on
  25. 25. Blacks Protest • Black South Africans resisted white minority rule • ANC- African National Congress to fight for their rights, organized strikes, boycotts • Nelson Mandela- one leader of ANC • Outbreaks, deaths…led to state of emergency in 1986
  26. 26. South Africa Moves Toward Democracy • Desmond Tutu- led economic campaigns against apartheid • He called for other nations to impose trading restrictions on South Africa • South Africa was banned from Olympics • Tut was Nobel Peace Prize in 1984 for his nonviolent methods
  27. 27. First Steps • New President: F.W. de Klerk • Goal: Transform South Africa and end its isolation • Accomplishments: legalized ANC, release Mandela from prison, repealed apartheid laws, first universal elections in 1994 where all races could vote • Mandela is election President (later stepped down in 1999, but democracy continued)
  28. 28. New Constitution • 1996, new constitution • Included bill of rights modeled after US B.o.R’s • Forbid discrimination of minorities • Right to travel freely (previously denied to blacks)

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