Beginnings of the Civil Rights Movement

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Beginnings of the Civil Rights Movement

  1. 1. The Civil Rights Movement …beginnings
  2. 2. “I am an “invisible man. “No, I am not a spook like those who “ haunted Edgar Allan Poe; nor am I “ one of your Hollywood ectoplasms.
  3. 3. I am a man of substance, of flesh and bone, and liquids, and I might even be said to possess a mind. I am invisible, understand, simply because people refuse to see me…. When they approach me they see only my surroundings, themselves, or figments of their imagination — indeed, everything and anything except me.
  4. 4. Nor is my invisibility exactly a matter of biochemical accident to my epidermis. That invisibility to which I refer occurs because of a peculiar disposition of the eyes of those with whom I come into contact. A matter of construction of their inner eyes, those eyes with which they look through their physical eyes upon reality.
  5. 5. I am not complaining, nor am I protesting either. It is sometimes advantageous to be unseen, although it is most often rather wearing on the nerves. Then, too, you’re constantly being bumped against by those of poor vision. Or again, you often doubt if you really exist.
  6. 6. You wonder whether you aren’t simply a phantom in other people’s minds. Say, a figure in a nightmare which the sleeper tries with all his strength to destroy.
  7. 7. It’s when you feel like this that, out of resentment, you begin to bump people back.”
  8. 8. It’s when you feel like this that, out of resentment, you begin to bump people back.”
  9. 9. 2 Questions
  10. 10. 2 Stories
  11. 11. Ultimate Causes?
  12. 12. Proximate Causes?
  13. 13. CRM ! MLK
  14. 14. <1>
  15. 15. Ultimate: Preconditions for Racial Change
  16. 16. Ideological shifts
  17. 17. Liberal Environmentalism
  18. 18. Nazi ideology
  19. 19. 1948
  20. 20. Cold War Competition
  21. 21. Migration
  22. 22. > North, > cities
  23. 23. 89% (80% rural) S 1910
  24. 24. >80% (urban) 1970s
  25. 25. Why?
  26. 26. 50% 1960
  27. 27. Urban power base
  28. 28. Af-Am Church
  29. 29. Af-Am Church
  30. 30. Af-Am Colleges
  31. 31. Af-Am High Schools
  32. 32. Af-Am High Schools
  33. 33. Af-Am High Schools
  34. 34. Af-Am High Schools
  35. 35. Af-Am High Schools
  36. 36. 15,000 1930
  37. 37. 75,000 1950
  38. 38. Protest Organizations
  39. 39. National Association for the Advancement of Colored Peoples
  40. 40. Thurgood Marshall
  41. 41. Economic Growth
  42. 42. United Negro College Fund
  43. 43. Supreme Court Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954)
  44. 44. majority Northerners
  45. 45. 20% ers ern uth So
  46. 46. Today I have stood…from this Cradle of the Confederacy, this very Heart of the Great AngloSaxon Southland, that today we sound the drum for freedom as have our generations of forebears before us done, time and time again through history…
  47. 47. Let us…send our answer to the tyranny that clanks its chains upon the South. In the name of the greatest people that have ever trod this earth, I draw the line in the dust …and I say . . . segregation today . . . segregation tomorrow . . . segregation forever.
  48. 48. “They [white southerners] are not bad people. All they are concerned about is…that their sweet little girls are not required to sit in school alongside some big overgrown Negroes.”
  49. 49. </1>
  50. 50. <2>
  51. 51. Proximate: AntiSegregation Tactics
  52. 52. “I know the one thing we did right Was the day we started to fight. Keep your eyes on the prize, Hold on, hold on.”
  53. 53. Montgomery Bus Boycott
  54. 54. Rosa Parks
  55. 55. Women’s Political Council
  56. 56. SCLC Southern Christian Leadership Council
  57. 57. 381 days
  58. 58. “unConstitutional” Alabama, 1956
  59. 59. CORE Congress of Racial Equality
  60. 60. “Freedom Rides”
  61. 61. SNCC: Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee
  62. 62. </2>
  63. 63. <3>
  64. 64. RESULTS: Legislative Triumph
  65. 65. Civil Rights Act 1964
  66. 66. Voting Rights Act 1965
  67. 67. 36% registered 1964
  68. 68. 65% registered 1969
  69. 69. 300 black mayors 1965
  70. 70. 300 black mayors 1980
  71. 71. 72 black reps 1965
  72. 72. 4200 black reps 1987
  73. 73. </3>
  74. 74. “We had breakfast while we were waiting for the rain to stop, and I [was] sitting with the [Indianapolis] Clowns in a restaurant behind Griffith Stadium and hearing them break all the plates in the kitchen after we were finished eating. What a horrible sound.
  75. 75. Even as a kid, the irony of it hit me: here we were in the capital in the land of freedom and equality, and they had to destroy the plates that had touched the forks that had been in the mouths of black men. If dogs had eaten off those plates, they’d have washed them.”
  76. 76. “There was often a hate letter or two in the mail, and I was always concerned about Barbara and the kids being abused when they went to the ballpark…. Returning to the South took some of the boy from Mobile out of me, and replaced it with a man who was weary of the way things were.
  77. 77. I was tired of being invisible.
  78. 78. “I was the equal of any ballplayer in the world, damn it, and if nobody was going to give me my due, it was time to grab for it.” – Henry Aaron

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