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SEVEN ADVANCED
TOOLS OF QUALITY
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved.
© Operational Excellence Consulting
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
2
Acquire knowledge on the
seven advanced quality
tools for project planning
and management.
Learn how to apply the
seven management and
planning tools to problem
solving, projects,
communication and daily
management work.
1 2
NOTE: This is a PARTIAL PREVIEW.
To download the complete presentation, please
visit: https://www.oeconsulting.com.sg
© Operational Excellence Consulting
CONTENTS
3
1. PDCA Problem-Solving
2. Stratification
3. Check Sheet
4. Pareto Chart
5. Cause and Effect Diagram
6. Histogram
7. Scatter Diagram
8. Control Chart
© Operational Excellence Consulting
PROBLEM SOLVING FUNNEL
4
Source: Adapted from Dennis
Breakdown
Go See
Grasp the situation
§ Actual vs. standard
§ Actual vs. ideal
Point of cause
§ Time and place where
events cause abnormality
5 Why
Analysis Why?
Root cause
Countermeasures
Big vague concern
© Operational Excellence Consulting
“
The problems that exist in
the world cannot be solved
by the level of thinking that
created them.”
ALBERT EINSTEIN
5
© Operational Excellence Consulting
PDCA CONCEPT
6
● PDCA stands for Plan-Do-Check-Act,
a four-step problem-solving
methodology
● It follows a continuous cycle of
improvement
● Emphasizes iterative refinement for
better outcomes
The
PDCA
Cycle
© Operational Excellence Consulting
THE PDCA CYCLE IS THE ENGINE OF CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT
7
Consolidation
through
Standardization
Quality
Improvement
P
D
C
A
P
D
C
A
Current
Standard
New
Standard
Time
Continuous
Improvement
© Operational Excellence Consulting
PDCA PROBLEM SOLVING: PHASE DESCRIPTIONS
8
PLAN:
Identify issues, set clear
goals, and make a detailed
project plan. Form a team, get
leadership support, and define
the scope. This phase creates
a roadmap aligning with
goals.
DO:
Execute the plan. Collect
data, understand the issue,
and implement corrective
actions. Monitor progress,
allocate resources, and
communicate effectively for
smooth execution.
ACT:
Standardize successful
processes, train the team, and
establish continuous
monitoring. Implement
feedback mechanisms for
ongoing improvement. Make
successful practices a routine
for continuous learning.
CHECK:
“Check” involves evaluating
results. Measure outcomes
against targets, gather feedback,
and analyze deviations.
Document lessons learned and
celebrate successes. Ensure the
actions effectively address the
issues.
PDCA
Problem
Solving
Process
© Operational Excellence Consulting
ALIGNING PDCA CYCLE WITH THE PROBLEM-SOLVING PROCESS
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Select the Theme
Plan the Schedule
Grasp the Present Situation
Establish the Target
Analyze the Cause & Identify Corrective Action
Implement Corrective Action
Evaluate the Result
Standardize & Follow-up
PLAN
ACT
CHECK
DO
© Operational Excellence Consulting
THE 8-STEP PDCA PROBLEM SOLVING PROCESS MODEL
10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8 Select the
Theme
Plan the
Schedule
Grasp the
Present
Situation
Establish
the Target
Analyze the
Cause & Identify
Corrective
Action
Implement
Corrective
Action
Evaluate
the Result
Standardize &
Follow Up
PDCA
PROBLEM
SOLVING
PROCESS
© Operational Excellence Consulting
WHERE ARE THE TOOLS USED IN PDCA PROBLEM SOLVING?
11
Phase Problem Solving Steps Applicable Tools
PLAN
1. Select the Theme
Brainstorming / Matrix Diagram / Selection Criteria / Team
Consensus
2. Plan the Schedule Gantt Chart
3. Grasp the Present Situation
Data Collection / Stratification / Flowcharting / Pie Chart / Check
Sheet / Pareto Diagram / Bar Chart / Histogram
4. Set the Target Pareto Analysis / Conduct Experiments / Check Past Trends
5. Analyze the Cause & Identify
Corrective Action
Brainstorming / Cause & Effect Diagram / 5 Whys / Tree Diagram /
Control Chart / Scatter Diagram / Alternative Solutions
DO 6. Implement Corrective Action Arrow Diagram / Process Flowchart / Pictures / Diagrams
CHECK 7. Evaluate the Result
Collect New Data / Check Sheet / Pareto Comparison / Bar Chart
Comparison / Radar Chart / Target Variance
ACT 8. Standardize & Follow Up
In the standardization plan, document the new procedures. Display
on notice board or intranet or conduct briefings.
Show the follow-up actions using the PDPC.
© Operational Excellence Consulting
THE 7 ADVANCED TOOLS OF QUALITY
12
1. Affinity Diagram
2. Relations Diagram
3. Tree Diagram
4. Matrix Diagram
5. Matrix Data Analysis Chart
6. Arrow Diagram
7. Process Decision Program Chart (PDPC)
© Operational Excellence Consulting
AFFINITY DIAGRAM: PURPOSES
13
Pattern
Recognition
Identify patterns and
relationships among
ideas.
Problem Solving
Systematically analyze
and solve complex
problems.
Idea Generation
Organize and generate
ideas collaboratively.
© Operational Excellence Consulting
EXAMPLE: AFFINITY DIAGRAM OF LATE ORDERS
14
Orders Consistently Late Last Quarter
Communications Issues
Sales & Marketing
Fail to alert when price
changes may affect
volume
Inconsistent adherence to
due dates
Fail to check production
schedule before promising
product
Manufacturing
Fail to keep production
schedule updated
Fail to keep inventory
updated
Fail to communicate
unscheduled equipment
down-time
Equipment Issues
Equipment Breakdown
Inconsistent adherence to
maintenance dates
Equipment operated
outside of specifications
Old equipment, due to be
replaced, not operating at
peak capacity
External Factors
Major Supplier Filed
for Bankruptcy
Just-in-time inventory
system failed
Lack of inventory affects
60 orders
New supplier overloaded
with new clients
ILLUSTRATIVE
© Operational Excellence Consulting
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved.
CREATING AN AFFINITY DIAGRAM
Instructions:
1. Generate ideas.
2. Display the ideas.
3. Sort ideas into related groups.
4. Create header cards for the groups.
5. Draw the finished Affinity Diagram.
15
© Operational Excellence Consulting 16
RELATIONS DIAGRAM: WHEN TO USE
Process
Optimization
In process improvement
projects to map out
interactions.
Systems Thinking
When adopting a
systems thinking
approach to problem-
solving.
Interdisciplinary
Collaboration
When multiple
disciplines or teams
collaborate on a project.
© Operational Excellence Consulting
EXAMPLE: RELATIONSHIPS AMONG CAUSES OF LOW CUSTOMER
SATISFACTION
17
ILLUSTRATIVE
HR Management 3/0
Lack of Training 1/1
Bad Hiring 1/1
Low Staffing 2/1
Unskilled Employees 4/2
Bad Design 2/1
Wrong Answers 1/1
Poor Support 1/4
Long Hold Times 1/1
Faulty Market Surveys 1/1
Poor Materials 1/1
Low Quality Product 1/3
Ineffective Marketing 1/1
High Pricing 2/1
Low Customer Satisfaction 0/3
© Operational Excellence Consulting
RELATIONS DIAGRAM: PROCEDURES
18
1. Identify Elements: Identify and list the elements or factors involved.
2. Determine Relationships: Define and determine the relationships between
elements.
3. Create Diagram: Use arrows or lines to visually represent the relationships.
4. Label Connections: Clearly label the connections between elements.
5. Prioritize Relationships: Prioritize or emphasize key relationships.
6. Review and Update: Periodically review and update the diagram as needed.
© Operational Excellence Consulting
TREE DIAGRAM: PURPOSES
19
Decision Mapping
Map out decisions and
their potential
outcomes.
Complex Issue
Analysis
Break down complex
issues into manageable
components.
Hierarchy
Visualization
Visually represent
hierarchical
relationships and
structures.
© Operational Excellence Consulting
EXAMPLE 1: RISK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE
20
Project Risks
Technical
Requirements
Technology
Complexity
External
Subcontractors
Regulatory
Market
Customer
Weather
Organizational
Project
Dependencies
Resources
Funding
Prioritization
Project
Management
Estimating
Planning
Controlling
Communication
ILLUSTRATIVE
Vertical Tree Diagram
© Operational Excellence Consulting
● Clearly define the specific
objective or decision to be mapped
● Identify and label major branches
representing key factors or options
● Break down major branches into
detailed subcategories or factors
TREE DIAGRAM: PRACTICAL TIPS
● Arrange branches in a logical and
sequential order for clarity
● Use concise and clear labels for
each branch and subcategory
● Represent hierarchy visually,
emphasizing main branches and
subcategories
21
© Operational Excellence Consulting
TYPES OF MATRIX DIAGRAMS
22
Matrix Type Description
L-Shaped Matrix Represents relationships between two sets of items, often used for analyzing
interactions or dependencies.
Y-Shaped Matrix Expands on the L-shaped matrix by incorporating a third factor, allowing for a
more comprehensive analysis.
C-Shaped Matrix Focuses on comparing items across two dimensions, typically used for
decision-making or prioritization.
X-Shaped Matrix Integrates four sets of items, providing a more intricate analysis of
relationships among multiple factors.
Linear Matrix Organizes items in a linear format, suitable for straightforward comparisons
and evaluations.
T-Shaped Matrix Incorporates three sets of items, forming a T-shape, useful for analyzing
relationships among multiple factors.
© Operational Excellence Consulting 23
MATRIX DIAGRAM: WHEN TO USE
Resource
Allocation
In determining the
allocation of resources
to different factors.
Process
Optimization
In process improvement
initiatives to analyze
and optimize
relationships.
Complex Issue
Resolution
When resolving
complex issues with
multiple interrelated
factors.
© Operational Excellence Consulting
EXAMPLE 1: L-SHAPED MATRIX DIAGRAM
24
Cost Handling Features Compact Size Quality of Shots
Nikon F4 ¢ ¤ Δ ¤
Nikon F90 Δ ¢ ¤ ¤
Nikon FM2 Δ Δ ¤ ¢
Nikon F50 ¤ Δ Δ ¢
Nikon F-601 ¢ ¤ Δ ¤
Evaluation of Cameras
Criteria
Camera Model
Key: ¤ Strong Relationship ¢ Average Relationship Δ Weak Relationship
ILLUSTRATIVE
© Operational Excellence Consulting
MATRIX DATA ANALYSIS CHART (MDAC): PURPOSES
25
Comparative
Assessment
Compare and evaluate
data points across
different categories.
Pattern
Recognition
Identify patterns or
trends in data
interactions.
Relationship
Analysis
Analyze and illustrate
relationships between
two sets of data.
© Operational Excellence Consulting
EXAMPLE 2: CUSTOMER FEEDBACK
26
ILLUSTRATIVE
Demographics
Positive
Feedback
Neutral
Feedback
Negative
Feedback
Age Group 20-39 80% 15% 5%
Age Group 40-59 60% 25% 15%
Age Group 60 &
Above
50% 30% 20%
© Operational Excellence Consulting
MDAC: PROCEDURES
27
1. Define Categories: Clearly define the categories for both sets of data.
2. Collect Data: Collect and organize relevant data for each category.
3. Create Matrix: Establish a matrix with categories as rows and columns.
4. Input Data: Input the data values into the respective cells of the matrix.
5. Apply Formatting: Use formatting techniques to enhance visual clarity.
6. Interpret Results: Analyze the matrix to identify relationships or patterns.
© Operational Excellence Consulting 28
ARROW DIAGRAM: WHEN TO USE
Resource
Allocation
In allocating resources
and scheduling for
optimal efficiency.
Complex Project
Management
For complex projects
with multiple
interrelated tasks.
Project Planning
When planning the
sequence and
dependencies of project
tasks.
© Operational Excellence Consulting
EXAMPLE 1: CRITICAL PATH METHOD
29
ILLUSTRATIVE
10 30
20
50
40
A
B C
E
D F
T=3 wk
T=1 wk T=3 wk
T=4 wk
T=2 wk
T=3 wk
© Operational Excellence Consulting
ARROW DIAGRAM: PROCEDURES
30
1. Task Identification: Identify and list all project tasks.
2. Determine Dependencies: Establish dependencies between tasks.
3. Sequence Tasks: Arrange tasks in a logical sequence.
4. Assign Durations: Estimate the duration for each task.
5. Create Arrows: Use arrows to represent task dependencies.
6. Critical Path Analysis: Identify and analyze the critical path.
© Operational Excellence Consulting
PROCESS DECISION PROGRAM CHART (PDPC): PURPOSES
31
Contingency
Planning
Develop contingency
plans to address
identified risks.
Visualizing
Outcomes
Visualize potential
outcomes and their
implications.
Risk Identification
Identify and analyze
potential risks in a
project or process.
© Operational Excellence Consulting
EXAMPLE: PDPC FOR VACATION PLANNING
32
Can’t agree
All sites
already full
Can’t get time
off work
As vacation
approaches, get too
busy to leave
Will choose same
date as everyone
else - crowds
All hotels
already full
Won’t be able to
find quality hotel
in site area
Choose vacation
site
Choose vacation
date
Choose hotel
Make arrangements
for absence
Make basic
choices
PLANNING A
VACATION
Research
Develop budget
Start discussing
sites early
Choose off-peak
date and inform
work in advance
Go to site with
many hotels to
choose from
ILLUSTRATIVE
© Operational Excellence Consulting
● Clearly define the primary
objectives and sub-objectives
● Systematically identify potential
failures or obstacles
● Develop and map out contingency
actions for each failure point
PDPC: PRACTICAL TIPS
● Prioritize contingency actions
based on severity and impact
● Collaborate with individuals from
different functions for diverse
insights
● Regularly review and update the
PDPC as the project evolves
33
© Operational Excellence Consulting
“
Quality is not an act,
it is a habit.”
ARISTOTLE
34
© Operational Excellence Consulting
Operational Excellence Consulting is a
management training and consulting firm
that assists organizations in improving
business performance and effectiveness.
Based in Singapore, the firm’s mission is to
create business value for organizations
through innovative design and operational
excellence management training and
consulting solutions. For more information,
please visit www.oeconsulting.com.sg
ABOUT OPERATIONAL EXCELLENCE CONSULTING

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Seven Advanced Tools of Quality (Seven Advanced QC Tools)

  • 1. SEVEN ADVANCED TOOLS OF QUALITY © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved.
  • 2. © Operational Excellence Consulting LEARNING OBJECTIVES 2 Acquire knowledge on the seven advanced quality tools for project planning and management. Learn how to apply the seven management and planning tools to problem solving, projects, communication and daily management work. 1 2 NOTE: This is a PARTIAL PREVIEW. To download the complete presentation, please visit: https://www.oeconsulting.com.sg
  • 3. © Operational Excellence Consulting CONTENTS 3 1. PDCA Problem-Solving 2. Stratification 3. Check Sheet 4. Pareto Chart 5. Cause and Effect Diagram 6. Histogram 7. Scatter Diagram 8. Control Chart
  • 4. © Operational Excellence Consulting PROBLEM SOLVING FUNNEL 4 Source: Adapted from Dennis Breakdown Go See Grasp the situation § Actual vs. standard § Actual vs. ideal Point of cause § Time and place where events cause abnormality 5 Why Analysis Why? Root cause Countermeasures Big vague concern
  • 5. © Operational Excellence Consulting “ The problems that exist in the world cannot be solved by the level of thinking that created them.” ALBERT EINSTEIN 5
  • 6. © Operational Excellence Consulting PDCA CONCEPT 6 ● PDCA stands for Plan-Do-Check-Act, a four-step problem-solving methodology ● It follows a continuous cycle of improvement ● Emphasizes iterative refinement for better outcomes The PDCA Cycle
  • 7. © Operational Excellence Consulting THE PDCA CYCLE IS THE ENGINE OF CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT 7 Consolidation through Standardization Quality Improvement P D C A P D C A Current Standard New Standard Time Continuous Improvement
  • 8. © Operational Excellence Consulting PDCA PROBLEM SOLVING: PHASE DESCRIPTIONS 8 PLAN: Identify issues, set clear goals, and make a detailed project plan. Form a team, get leadership support, and define the scope. This phase creates a roadmap aligning with goals. DO: Execute the plan. Collect data, understand the issue, and implement corrective actions. Monitor progress, allocate resources, and communicate effectively for smooth execution. ACT: Standardize successful processes, train the team, and establish continuous monitoring. Implement feedback mechanisms for ongoing improvement. Make successful practices a routine for continuous learning. CHECK: “Check” involves evaluating results. Measure outcomes against targets, gather feedback, and analyze deviations. Document lessons learned and celebrate successes. Ensure the actions effectively address the issues. PDCA Problem Solving Process
  • 9. © Operational Excellence Consulting ALIGNING PDCA CYCLE WITH THE PROBLEM-SOLVING PROCESS 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Select the Theme Plan the Schedule Grasp the Present Situation Establish the Target Analyze the Cause & Identify Corrective Action Implement Corrective Action Evaluate the Result Standardize & Follow-up PLAN ACT CHECK DO
  • 10. © Operational Excellence Consulting THE 8-STEP PDCA PROBLEM SOLVING PROCESS MODEL 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Select the Theme Plan the Schedule Grasp the Present Situation Establish the Target Analyze the Cause & Identify Corrective Action Implement Corrective Action Evaluate the Result Standardize & Follow Up PDCA PROBLEM SOLVING PROCESS
  • 11. © Operational Excellence Consulting WHERE ARE THE TOOLS USED IN PDCA PROBLEM SOLVING? 11 Phase Problem Solving Steps Applicable Tools PLAN 1. Select the Theme Brainstorming / Matrix Diagram / Selection Criteria / Team Consensus 2. Plan the Schedule Gantt Chart 3. Grasp the Present Situation Data Collection / Stratification / Flowcharting / Pie Chart / Check Sheet / Pareto Diagram / Bar Chart / Histogram 4. Set the Target Pareto Analysis / Conduct Experiments / Check Past Trends 5. Analyze the Cause & Identify Corrective Action Brainstorming / Cause & Effect Diagram / 5 Whys / Tree Diagram / Control Chart / Scatter Diagram / Alternative Solutions DO 6. Implement Corrective Action Arrow Diagram / Process Flowchart / Pictures / Diagrams CHECK 7. Evaluate the Result Collect New Data / Check Sheet / Pareto Comparison / Bar Chart Comparison / Radar Chart / Target Variance ACT 8. Standardize & Follow Up In the standardization plan, document the new procedures. Display on notice board or intranet or conduct briefings. Show the follow-up actions using the PDPC.
  • 12. © Operational Excellence Consulting THE 7 ADVANCED TOOLS OF QUALITY 12 1. Affinity Diagram 2. Relations Diagram 3. Tree Diagram 4. Matrix Diagram 5. Matrix Data Analysis Chart 6. Arrow Diagram 7. Process Decision Program Chart (PDPC)
  • 13. © Operational Excellence Consulting AFFINITY DIAGRAM: PURPOSES 13 Pattern Recognition Identify patterns and relationships among ideas. Problem Solving Systematically analyze and solve complex problems. Idea Generation Organize and generate ideas collaboratively.
  • 14. © Operational Excellence Consulting EXAMPLE: AFFINITY DIAGRAM OF LATE ORDERS 14 Orders Consistently Late Last Quarter Communications Issues Sales & Marketing Fail to alert when price changes may affect volume Inconsistent adherence to due dates Fail to check production schedule before promising product Manufacturing Fail to keep production schedule updated Fail to keep inventory updated Fail to communicate unscheduled equipment down-time Equipment Issues Equipment Breakdown Inconsistent adherence to maintenance dates Equipment operated outside of specifications Old equipment, due to be replaced, not operating at peak capacity External Factors Major Supplier Filed for Bankruptcy Just-in-time inventory system failed Lack of inventory affects 60 orders New supplier overloaded with new clients ILLUSTRATIVE
  • 15. © Operational Excellence Consulting © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. CREATING AN AFFINITY DIAGRAM Instructions: 1. Generate ideas. 2. Display the ideas. 3. Sort ideas into related groups. 4. Create header cards for the groups. 5. Draw the finished Affinity Diagram. 15
  • 16. © Operational Excellence Consulting 16 RELATIONS DIAGRAM: WHEN TO USE Process Optimization In process improvement projects to map out interactions. Systems Thinking When adopting a systems thinking approach to problem- solving. Interdisciplinary Collaboration When multiple disciplines or teams collaborate on a project.
  • 17. © Operational Excellence Consulting EXAMPLE: RELATIONSHIPS AMONG CAUSES OF LOW CUSTOMER SATISFACTION 17 ILLUSTRATIVE HR Management 3/0 Lack of Training 1/1 Bad Hiring 1/1 Low Staffing 2/1 Unskilled Employees 4/2 Bad Design 2/1 Wrong Answers 1/1 Poor Support 1/4 Long Hold Times 1/1 Faulty Market Surveys 1/1 Poor Materials 1/1 Low Quality Product 1/3 Ineffective Marketing 1/1 High Pricing 2/1 Low Customer Satisfaction 0/3
  • 18. © Operational Excellence Consulting RELATIONS DIAGRAM: PROCEDURES 18 1. Identify Elements: Identify and list the elements or factors involved. 2. Determine Relationships: Define and determine the relationships between elements. 3. Create Diagram: Use arrows or lines to visually represent the relationships. 4. Label Connections: Clearly label the connections between elements. 5. Prioritize Relationships: Prioritize or emphasize key relationships. 6. Review and Update: Periodically review and update the diagram as needed.
  • 19. © Operational Excellence Consulting TREE DIAGRAM: PURPOSES 19 Decision Mapping Map out decisions and their potential outcomes. Complex Issue Analysis Break down complex issues into manageable components. Hierarchy Visualization Visually represent hierarchical relationships and structures.
  • 20. © Operational Excellence Consulting EXAMPLE 1: RISK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE 20 Project Risks Technical Requirements Technology Complexity External Subcontractors Regulatory Market Customer Weather Organizational Project Dependencies Resources Funding Prioritization Project Management Estimating Planning Controlling Communication ILLUSTRATIVE Vertical Tree Diagram
  • 21. © Operational Excellence Consulting ● Clearly define the specific objective or decision to be mapped ● Identify and label major branches representing key factors or options ● Break down major branches into detailed subcategories or factors TREE DIAGRAM: PRACTICAL TIPS ● Arrange branches in a logical and sequential order for clarity ● Use concise and clear labels for each branch and subcategory ● Represent hierarchy visually, emphasizing main branches and subcategories 21
  • 22. © Operational Excellence Consulting TYPES OF MATRIX DIAGRAMS 22 Matrix Type Description L-Shaped Matrix Represents relationships between two sets of items, often used for analyzing interactions or dependencies. Y-Shaped Matrix Expands on the L-shaped matrix by incorporating a third factor, allowing for a more comprehensive analysis. C-Shaped Matrix Focuses on comparing items across two dimensions, typically used for decision-making or prioritization. X-Shaped Matrix Integrates four sets of items, providing a more intricate analysis of relationships among multiple factors. Linear Matrix Organizes items in a linear format, suitable for straightforward comparisons and evaluations. T-Shaped Matrix Incorporates three sets of items, forming a T-shape, useful for analyzing relationships among multiple factors.
  • 23. © Operational Excellence Consulting 23 MATRIX DIAGRAM: WHEN TO USE Resource Allocation In determining the allocation of resources to different factors. Process Optimization In process improvement initiatives to analyze and optimize relationships. Complex Issue Resolution When resolving complex issues with multiple interrelated factors.
  • 24. © Operational Excellence Consulting EXAMPLE 1: L-SHAPED MATRIX DIAGRAM 24 Cost Handling Features Compact Size Quality of Shots Nikon F4 ¢ ¤ Δ ¤ Nikon F90 Δ ¢ ¤ ¤ Nikon FM2 Δ Δ ¤ ¢ Nikon F50 ¤ Δ Δ ¢ Nikon F-601 ¢ ¤ Δ ¤ Evaluation of Cameras Criteria Camera Model Key: ¤ Strong Relationship ¢ Average Relationship Δ Weak Relationship ILLUSTRATIVE
  • 25. © Operational Excellence Consulting MATRIX DATA ANALYSIS CHART (MDAC): PURPOSES 25 Comparative Assessment Compare and evaluate data points across different categories. Pattern Recognition Identify patterns or trends in data interactions. Relationship Analysis Analyze and illustrate relationships between two sets of data.
  • 26. © Operational Excellence Consulting EXAMPLE 2: CUSTOMER FEEDBACK 26 ILLUSTRATIVE Demographics Positive Feedback Neutral Feedback Negative Feedback Age Group 20-39 80% 15% 5% Age Group 40-59 60% 25% 15% Age Group 60 & Above 50% 30% 20%
  • 27. © Operational Excellence Consulting MDAC: PROCEDURES 27 1. Define Categories: Clearly define the categories for both sets of data. 2. Collect Data: Collect and organize relevant data for each category. 3. Create Matrix: Establish a matrix with categories as rows and columns. 4. Input Data: Input the data values into the respective cells of the matrix. 5. Apply Formatting: Use formatting techniques to enhance visual clarity. 6. Interpret Results: Analyze the matrix to identify relationships or patterns.
  • 28. © Operational Excellence Consulting 28 ARROW DIAGRAM: WHEN TO USE Resource Allocation In allocating resources and scheduling for optimal efficiency. Complex Project Management For complex projects with multiple interrelated tasks. Project Planning When planning the sequence and dependencies of project tasks.
  • 29. © Operational Excellence Consulting EXAMPLE 1: CRITICAL PATH METHOD 29 ILLUSTRATIVE 10 30 20 50 40 A B C E D F T=3 wk T=1 wk T=3 wk T=4 wk T=2 wk T=3 wk
  • 30. © Operational Excellence Consulting ARROW DIAGRAM: PROCEDURES 30 1. Task Identification: Identify and list all project tasks. 2. Determine Dependencies: Establish dependencies between tasks. 3. Sequence Tasks: Arrange tasks in a logical sequence. 4. Assign Durations: Estimate the duration for each task. 5. Create Arrows: Use arrows to represent task dependencies. 6. Critical Path Analysis: Identify and analyze the critical path.
  • 31. © Operational Excellence Consulting PROCESS DECISION PROGRAM CHART (PDPC): PURPOSES 31 Contingency Planning Develop contingency plans to address identified risks. Visualizing Outcomes Visualize potential outcomes and their implications. Risk Identification Identify and analyze potential risks in a project or process.
  • 32. © Operational Excellence Consulting EXAMPLE: PDPC FOR VACATION PLANNING 32 Can’t agree All sites already full Can’t get time off work As vacation approaches, get too busy to leave Will choose same date as everyone else - crowds All hotels already full Won’t be able to find quality hotel in site area Choose vacation site Choose vacation date Choose hotel Make arrangements for absence Make basic choices PLANNING A VACATION Research Develop budget Start discussing sites early Choose off-peak date and inform work in advance Go to site with many hotels to choose from ILLUSTRATIVE
  • 33. © Operational Excellence Consulting ● Clearly define the primary objectives and sub-objectives ● Systematically identify potential failures or obstacles ● Develop and map out contingency actions for each failure point PDPC: PRACTICAL TIPS ● Prioritize contingency actions based on severity and impact ● Collaborate with individuals from different functions for diverse insights ● Regularly review and update the PDPC as the project evolves 33
  • 34. © Operational Excellence Consulting “ Quality is not an act, it is a habit.” ARISTOTLE 34
  • 35. © Operational Excellence Consulting Operational Excellence Consulting is a management training and consulting firm that assists organizations in improving business performance and effectiveness. Based in Singapore, the firm’s mission is to create business value for organizations through innovative design and operational excellence management training and consulting solutions. For more information, please visit www.oeconsulting.com.sg ABOUT OPERATIONAL EXCELLENCE CONSULTING