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©LeanCor 2013
A3 THINKING
©LeanCor 2013
A3 Thinking
“Successful A3 use depends on an open and
respectful process of sharing information and
giving f...
©LeanCor 2013
What is an A3?
Single page report used to tell a story by
applying the cycle of PDCA –
Plan, Do, Check, Act.
©LeanCor 2013
A3 is a Size of Paper
International Paper
Dimension of
297mm x 420mm
or
11” x 17”
©LeanCor 2013
Benefits of Using an A3
 Focused - allows the team to identify the critical elements of the problem
solving...
©LeanCor 2013
Plan – Do – Check – Act
 Cyclical method for continuous improvement of processes.
1. Clarify the Problem
2....
©LeanCor 2013
A3 is a Standard
Although A3 Thinking is a standard meant to tell
a story from beginning to end, the A3 tem...
©LeanCor 2013
Many A3 Templates
A3’s as the tool for Hoshin Planning (policy
deployment)
A3’s as a tool for the problem ...
©LeanCor 2013
A3 FOR HOSHIN KANRI
©LeanCor 2013
What is Hoshin Kanri?
 Strategy or policy deployment
 Literal definition: ship maintaining course through ...
©LeanCor 2013
Hoshin Kanri Process Map
What do
we need to
do?
How should
we do it?
How are we
doing?
How will we
learn and...
©LeanCor 2013
A3E – A3Z – A3T
ActCheckDoPlan
E = Executive Z = Zone T = Tactical
ActCheckDoPlan
©LeanCor 2013
Catchball Process
Vision: High Level
direction for the
organization.
Strategy: Methods and
approaches to
acc...
©LeanCor 2013
Group Workout
 Assign the following process steps with the level of A3 Thinking.
 Who should be involved?
...
©LeanCor 2013
Strategy Deployment – Cadence
 A3-E (Executive)
 Reviewed and revised twice per year
 Contains rolling go...
©LeanCor 2013
M V G P Strategies Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
M V G P
0
0
0
0
0
0
Year: #...
©LeanCor 2013
The Zone (Departmental) A3 - A3Z
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Reflection on Last Year's Activities
Dept.
Follow-u...
©LeanCor 2013
The Tactical A3 – A3T
Theme of A3 Area & Process Project Lead Start & End Date
Description of Current State
...
©LeanCor 2013
A3T Sample
Initiative taken
straight from
A3Z Action Plan
Visuals used to
keep it clean &
concise
Are all
ph...
©LeanCor 2013
S =
I =
X =
Vision Correlation / Contributioncorrelation
Tactics
Strategies
important correlation or core te...
©LeanCor 2013
Example A3X
©LeanCor 2013
A3 FOR PROBLEM SOLVING
©LeanCor 2013
8-Disciplines Problem Solving
D0: Recognize
the Problem
D1: Establish the
Team
D2: Describe the
Problem
D3: ...
©LeanCor 2013
Why?
 These 8 Disciplines give us a structured & documented approach to
solving problems,
 To ELIMINATE th...
©LeanCor 2013
 A problem can be defined as any deviation from the standard or an unfulfilled
customer need.
 Problems ca...
©LeanCor 2013
 Understand that all people have different personal styles
 Know people’s capabilities and willingness to ...
©LeanCor 2013
D2: Describe the Problem
 Should be focused on the current situation and clearly identify the gap between t...
©LeanCor 2013
Agree on the Problem Statement
©LeanCor 2013
D3: Determine & Implement
Containment Actions
 First priority should be to PROTECT THE
CUSTOMER(S) from rec...
©LeanCor 2013
D4: Identify Root Cause(s)
 We will review the following
tools that can help you
narrow possible causes
and...
©LeanCor 2013
The Process Map
What is it?
 Road Map
 Critical element of a process’ documentation
 Not just a documenta...
©LeanCor 2013
Three Versions of a Process…
What you
think it is
What it
actually is
What you would
like it to be
Go to the...
©LeanCor 2013
The Hidden Factory
No
Determine
which AGV
stock is on
using PF9
N: Hilo driver
S: RF
Stock location on
AGV
F...
©LeanCor 2013
Mapping Steps
Identify the starting and ending
boundaries – the bookends
Identify all steps in the process
S...
©LeanCor 2013
Step 1:
Identify the boundaries for your
process map
S I P O C
Make
coffee
Start
End
Coffee
in hand
and
read...
©LeanCor 2013
Step 2:
Identify all Steps in the Process
 Identify all steps in the process between the boundaries
 Level...
©LeanCor 2013
Step 3:
Show the Outputs at each Step
 Identify the “desired” outputs at each step
 Some of these outputs ...
©LeanCor 2013
Step 4:
List the Input Variables
Grind Coffee Beans
Place ground coffee,filter,
and water in coffee maker
Br...
©LeanCor 2013
Input Variables - Categories
1. Material - defects, shortages, unleveled flow, batch sizes
2. Machine - brea...
©LeanCor 2013
Swimlane Process Map
LFC OUTBOUND PROCESS – from generation of pick list to material arriving at ZF
PickingV...
©LeanCor 2013
Problem
Possible Cause
Possible Cause
Major Cause Major Cause Major Cause
Major Cause
Possible Cause
Possibl...
©LeanCor 2013
Fishbone Diagram Example
Measurement Materials Method
Manpower MachineEnvironment /
Management
Not closing L...
©LeanCor 2013
5 “Why’s” Analysis for Root Cause
By repeatedly asking the question "Why?” five times on a problem, you
can ...
©LeanCor 2013
5 Why Analysis Example
WHY?
THEREFORE…
©LeanCor 2013
5 Why and Therefore
Problem: I woke up in a road side ditch
1. People wanted to see how tough I was
2. Peopl...
©LeanCor 2013
1. Brainstorm the critical
variables to your project and
weigh them on a scale of
100%. Agree on the
definit...
©LeanCor 2013
XY Matrix Example
XY - Prioritization Matrix > Critical
Variables
Ease to Implement
1 = IT, Sr Mgmt
2 = ENGR...
©LeanCor 2013
D6: Implement & Validate
Corrective Action
1. What action will be performed?
2. How are the actions inter-re...
©LeanCor 2013
The Gantt Chart
 Summarizes all project actions under Task Name, with duration of the task and owner
 The ...
©LeanCor 2013
Gantt Chart
List all action
items for
improvement
and
check/adjust.
Assign a
Champion (owner)
to each action...
©LeanCor 2013
Make Countermeasures Visible
 Check progress regularly
 Anticipate obstacles and breakthrough
 Thoroughly...
©LeanCor 2013
D7: Prevent Recurrence
©LeanCor 2013
Update or Create Standard Work
 The safest, easiest and most effective way of doing the job
that we current...
©LeanCor 2013
Developing Standard Work
 Engage employees in the development process
 Encourage team members to collabora...
©LeanCor 2013
Takt Time: Cycle Time: Operation:
5min 5min Drawing a really cool cat
Step # Cycle Time: Example / Guide:
1 ...
©LeanCor 2013
1. People make mistakes!
2. People want to have quality in their work!
3. Errors turn into defects only if t...
©LeanCor 2013
Poka Yoke - Everyday Examples
©LeanCor 2013
Preventing Defects 101
The rules for every individual, regarding
defects:
1. Never take one
2. Never make on...
©LeanCor 2013
 Make the problem solving process visible by posting the A3 for all to
see and communicating to all those i...
©LeanCor 2013
Documenting the 8D’s on an A3
©LeanCor 2013
Review Questions for Problem Solving A3
©LeanCor 2013
A3 FOR PROPOSAL WRITING
©LeanCor 2013
A3 for Capital Expenditure Requests
 Carefully analyze the situation in a fact based manner.
 Do we really...
©LeanCor 2013
A3 Proposal Template Sample
©LeanCor 2013
A3 Proposal Template Sample
©LeanCor 2013
So What?
 Less is more – challenge the amount of initiatives
 Set a cadence that is realistic and will be ...
©LeanCor 2013
Work Out
What are the current strategies we are embracing?
 Do they support our guiding principles ?
 Are ...
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A3 thinking

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A3 Thinking is a Lean concept intended to keep everyone in the process on the same page! At LeanCor, we use it in each department and across functions when we need a quick way to share what we're working on.

Published in: Leadership & Management

A3 thinking

  1. 1. ©LeanCor 2013 A3 THINKING
  2. 2. ©LeanCor 2013 A3 Thinking “Successful A3 use depends on an open and respectful process of sharing information and giving feedback.” Jeffrey Liker, Toyota Way
  3. 3. ©LeanCor 2013 What is an A3? Single page report used to tell a story by applying the cycle of PDCA – Plan, Do, Check, Act.
  4. 4. ©LeanCor 2013 A3 is a Size of Paper International Paper Dimension of 297mm x 420mm or 11” x 17”
  5. 5. ©LeanCor 2013 Benefits of Using an A3  Focused - allows the team to identify the critical elements of the problem solving, enough to fit the summary of those elements on one sheet of paper  Highly visible – used to communicate story and progress  Collaborative - allows the team to collaborate and think about the problem from beginning to end in the PDCA process. Encourages cross-functional dialogue and action  Disciplined - uses standardized formats and processes  People-Centric – built in PDCA learning cycles  Reflective – places emphasis on reflection and problem solving  System Mindset – helps develop a disciplined, systems thinking and acting culture
  6. 6. ©LeanCor 2013 Plan – Do – Check – Act  Cyclical method for continuous improvement of processes. 1. Clarify the Problem 2. Break down the problem 3. Set a target for improvement 4. Analyze the root cause 5. Develop countermeasures 6. See countermeasures through 7. Evaluate both results and process 8. Standardize successes 9. Learn from and adjust failures 10. Continue to check and adjust
  7. 7. ©LeanCor 2013 A3 is a Standard Although A3 Thinking is a standard meant to tell a story from beginning to end, the A3 template itself is flexible. Owner Champion / Function Problem Theme Est. Start Date Est. End Date Focus Purpose Who Start End Status Operate Plan & perform the work. Identify gap between plan vs. actual condition. Review Document & validate current state. Develop a clearly defined problem statement. Learn Identify all possible causes to the problem. Isolate critical few root causes to the problem. Optimize Develop solutions that address the root causes to the problem. Ensure the solutions support the entire value-stream. Execute Communicate, train, and Implement the solution. Measure and monitor the impact of the solution. Check Tool and Principle Selection Who Start End Status Operate - Voice of Customer CTQ Checklist Team Member Standard Work Visual Management Run Charts Scoreboards Leader Standard Work X Learn - A3O and Project Master Timeline (Gantt Chart ) Go See Management Data Collection Process Map Swim Lane Map Current State Value Stream Map In Scope / Go See Out Of Scope Current Metrics Future Metrics Pareto - Critical Few Brainstorming Cause & Effect 5 Why Analysis Optimize- Future State Improvement Tools 5S Visual Management Standard Work / Checklist Quality at the Source - Error proofing Team Leaders Team Members Who will be affected Who I need to talk to Velocity - One Piece Flow Leveled Flow Pull Systems Time and Motion Chart Takt Time Calculation Future State Maps & Gap Analysis XY Matrix for Prioritization Execute - Implementation Plan Timeline FMEA Dashboards Communication Plan Review Process Other Other Other Other Other Voice of Customer - internal and/or external Future State VisionCurrent State - Problem Statement Business Case - Why is this important Build the Team Executive Level Timeline
  8. 8. ©LeanCor 2013 Many A3 Templates A3’s as the tool for Hoshin Planning (policy deployment) A3’s as a tool for the problem solving process A3’s as a tool for proposal writing A3’s as an operational tool  Standardized work  Visual controls
  9. 9. ©LeanCor 2013 A3 FOR HOSHIN KANRI
  10. 10. ©LeanCor 2013 What is Hoshin Kanri?  Strategy or policy deployment  Literal definition: ship maintaining course through a storm  Planning, execution, and reflection system that helps companies focus efforts and achieve results  Constancy of purpose  Organizational alignment  First used by Japanese companies after WWII and leverages the teachings of Dr. Deming (PDCA)  Top down and bottom up execution  The process requires discipline and collaboration to deliver sustainable results  Supported by other lean tools:  A3 thinking  Leader Standard Work  Visual management
  11. 11. ©LeanCor 2013 Hoshin Kanri Process Map What do we need to do? How should we do it? How are we doing? How will we learn and adjust?
  12. 12. ©LeanCor 2013 A3E – A3Z – A3T ActCheckDoPlan E = Executive Z = Zone T = Tactical ActCheckDoPlan
  13. 13. ©LeanCor 2013 Catchball Process Vision: High Level direction for the organization. Strategy: Methods and approaches to accomplishing the organization’s vision. Tactical: Engaging projects for workers to accomplish to meet company strategies and visions. Work Plan: Day to day plans to accomplish tactical projects. CEO Executive Management Middle Management Front Line Management Team Members Strategy Tactical Work Plan Input Vision Strategy Tactical Work Plan
  14. 14. ©LeanCor 2013 Group Workout  Assign the following process steps with the level of A3 Thinking.  Who should be involved?  At what cadence should each A3 be checked?
  15. 15. ©LeanCor 2013 Strategy Deployment – Cadence  A3-E (Executive)  Reviewed and revised twice per year  Contains rolling goals for 3-5 years out  A3-Z (Zone)  Reviewed and revised monthly  Contains strategies and tactics for one year – directly off of A3E  A3-T (Tactical)  Reviewed and revised weekly  Contains short term detailed tactics directly off of the A3-Z ActCheckDoPlan
  16. 16. ©LeanCor 2013 M V G P Strategies Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 M V G P 0 0 0 0 0 0 Year: # # # # # 0 Revenue 0 0 0 EBIT 0 0 0 M V G P 0 0 People # # # # # 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 M V G P 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Date CorporateDevelopment Strategies ValueStreamSupport MissionValues Date Rolling5YearGoals Value Stream LeanDeploymentOperations Vision Date Key Measure Company Presence Company Vision Company Mission Howourstrategiesalignwithourmission,values,andgoals Company Rolling 5 Year Goals Visual representation of executive goals Strategies Gantt structure divided by year then quarter Howstrategieswillbemeasured Company Values The Executive A3 – A3E
  17. 17. ©LeanCor 2013 The Zone (Departmental) A3 - A3Z J F M A M J J A S O N D Reflection on Last Year's Activities Dept. Follow-up, Unresolved, & Potential Issues Sign Off Analysis/Justification to This Year's Activities Last Year's Results/This Year's Targets/Mid-Term Targets Action Plan TacticsActivities Schedule Activity Key Results/Issues Focus/Need: Theme: Rating Last Years Metrics & Results This Year’s Targets (Monthly, Quarterly, or Yearly) What activities did we perform last year? What were the results of last year’s activities? Rating What activities will ensure that we meet this year’s targets? What do those actions mean from a tactical project perspective? When should we expect these projects to be complete? What justifies the action plan for this year? What actions are outstanding from last year? What barriers to completion are we facing? What barriers to success to we foresee for this year? Leadership Signoff Key Focus Area Theme Statement for Focus Dept.
  18. 18. ©LeanCor 2013 The Tactical A3 – A3T Theme of A3 Area & Process Project Lead Start & End Date Description of Current State •Problem Statement •Target for Improvement •Gap between target and actual Background & Supporting Data •Facts & Figures •Charts & Graphs •Descriptive Stats–Avg. / St. Dev Root Cause Analysis •Process Maps •Fishbone •5 Why Analysis •Any other Problem Solving Methods Action Plan •Countermeasures for root cause(s) •Who, What, & When Check & Follow Up •Verify results of each countermeasure •Who, What, & When PLAN, CHECK, ACTDO,
  19. 19. ©LeanCor 2013 A3T Sample Initiative taken straight from A3Z Action Plan Visuals used to keep it clean & concise Are all phases of the PDCA cycle included in this A3?
  20. 20. ©LeanCor 2013 S = I = X = Vision Correlation / Contributioncorrelation Tactics Strategies important correlation or core team member Correlation Correlation / Contribution strong correlation or team leader Legend Team Members Correlation Correlation / Contribution weak correlation or rotating team member Accountability Goals Are we Aligned? The A3X Tactical Project List Organizational GoalsMngt Strategies What Kind Of Correlation Exists? Which Team Members Are Involved? Organizational Visions Are Strategies In Line with Visions? Do your Goals Match your Tactics? Do your Goals Match Your Visions? Who Does What?
  21. 21. ©LeanCor 2013 Example A3X
  22. 22. ©LeanCor 2013 A3 FOR PROBLEM SOLVING
  23. 23. ©LeanCor 2013 8-Disciplines Problem Solving D0: Recognize the Problem D1: Establish the Team D2: Describe the Problem D3: Determine & Implement Containment Actions Identify Potential Causes Select Likely Causes Identify Possible Corrective Actions Root Cause? D4: D5: Choose & Verify Corrective Actions D6: Implement & Validate Corrective Actions D7: Prevent Recurrence D8: Congratulate the Team No Yes
  24. 24. ©LeanCor 2013 Why?  These 8 Disciplines give us a structured & documented approach to solving problems,  To ELIMINATE the root cause of a detected non-conformity, in order to  STOP that non-conforming product or service from ever happening again, and in turn  PROTECT the customer from receiving that non-conforming product or service
  25. 25. ©LeanCor 2013  A problem can be defined as any deviation from the standard or an unfulfilled customer need.  Problems can be classified into one of three types: 1. Standard is not achieved • Example - We do not meet 100% on-time performance for delivery within 2 hours 2. Standard is achieved but has now changed, so we are no longer meeting it • Example – We were meeting 100% on-time performance for delivery within 2 hours minutes, but we must now meet delivery within 1 hour and cannot meet that new standard 3. Standard is not consistently achieved • Example – We deliver product within 2 hours, most of the time. D0: Recognize the Problem
  26. 26. ©LeanCor 2013  Understand that all people have different personal styles  Know people’s capabilities and willingness to work on the team  Understand an effective team is about choosing the people who best fit  Leverage people’s strengths and manage people’s weaknesses  Drive teams to be self managed and committed to work  Ensure all teams are responsible and accountable for results  Use teams to develop future leaders – clearly identify, separate, and mentor these people  Share success of teamwork across the organization as best practices  Celebrate and reflect upon team success and failure D1: Establish Team
  27. 27. ©LeanCor 2013 D2: Describe the Problem  Should be focused on the current situation and clearly identify the gap between the current and the ideal situation.  Should be measurable and clear. Do not use words like “a lot” or “not enough”.  Does not contain a cause, or a suspected cause.  Does not include a solution.  Uses factual data that are within scope.  Identifies the internal or external customer.  Is short and to the point.  Example - During [period of time], the [process being reviewed] with [the area of the business] is not meeting its goal of [x]. This poor performance is causing [resulting problems or issues] that are costing [estimated impact in dollars or other metrics].
  28. 28. ©LeanCor 2013 Agree on the Problem Statement
  29. 29. ©LeanCor 2013 D3: Determine & Implement Containment Actions  First priority should be to PROTECT THE CUSTOMER(S) from receiving a non- conforming product or service.  This is a short term action. These containment actions do not solve the problem, only add a band-aid (or raise the water level) in the process in order to not affect the customer.  Examples include: padding the process with extra inventory, overtime, implementing audit process.
  30. 30. ©LeanCor 2013 D4: Identify Root Cause(s)  We will review the following tools that can help you narrow possible causes and identify the root cause(s) of the problem:  Process / Swimlane Map  Fishbone Diagram  5 Why Analysis Identify Potential Causes Select Likely Causes Identify Possible Corrective Actions Root Cause? D4: No Yes
  31. 31. ©LeanCor 2013 The Process Map What is it?  Road Map  Critical element of a process’ documentation  Not just a documentation tool but an analysis tool  A visual representation of a process that transforms a set of inputs to outputs Benefits  Improves team communications  Provides an overview of the process  Serves as a reference document  Facilitates process changes  Helps in process planning  Identifies inter-relationships  Aids in troubleshooting  Help prevent scope creep in a project
  32. 32. ©LeanCor 2013 Three Versions of a Process… What you think it is What it actually is What you would like it to be Go to the gemba (where the work is being done) and see the process for yourself.
  33. 33. ©LeanCor 2013 The Hidden Factory No Determine which AGV stock is on using PF9 N: Hilo driver S: RF Stock location on AGV Find AGV N: Hilo driver N: Knowledge of spurs S: Hilo N: Work Volume Pallet available Pull skid from AGV N: Hilo driver N: Pallet S: Hilo Removes stock from AGV Drop at CAPS line N: Hilo driver S: Pallet S: Hilo Pallet now available to stock handler Scan pallet N: Hilo driver N: Pallet S: RF(PF12) Location changed from "D" rack Fill pick N: Stock handler S: RF(PF4) N: Work Volume Stock located in pick Stock handler records short slip (printout) Hilo driver receives short Look up in system Yes Order stock from high bay Pull skid Scan pallet to PD rack Check number of (PF9) orders for shorted stock No Yes N: Printout N: Puller Complete and accurate short slip N: Stock handler S: Short Slip N: Hilo driver Shorts information given to hilo driver S: RF (PF9) S: Short Slip Info N: Knowledge of warehouse locations N: Hilo driver Location determined S; RF(PF9) S: Short Slip N: Hilo driver S: RF (PF9) N: Knowledge of stock loc in highbay N: Hilo driver Message shows up for high bay driver S: RF (PF12) N: Turret truck driver in correct aisle Turret Truck N: Driver Work Volume S: RF N: Space available in PD rack Skid removed from warehouse location; time taken Location of skid moved in the system No No HIDDEN FACTORY Fill the pick N: Stock handler S:RF(PF4) DropScreen N: Stock handler N: Work Volume Prevents new shorts Scan pallet S: RF(PF9) N: Hilo driver Moves skid in system Pull skid N: Hilo N: Workload N: Pallet in correct location N: Hilo driver Remove from location; time taken Picked up by Hilo driver N: Hilo driver N: Stock in P&D rack N: Work Volume S: Hilo Enables stock to be sent; time taken Turret driver picks SKU N: Turret Truck Driver S: Message on PF12 N: Work Volume N: Turret Truck Stock available in PD rack; time taken Placed on AGV Stock is ready to be sent N: Hilo driver S: RF(PF12) Available S: AGV Pull skid from AGV N: Hilo driver N: Work Volume N: Hilo Removes stock from AGV; time taken Drop from CAPS line N: Hilo Driver S: RF(PF12) N: Available drop zone space N: Hilo Pallet available to Stock handler Scan pallet N: Hilo driver S: RF Location changed from AGV Fill pick N: Stock handler S: RF(PF4) N: Work Volume Stock available to pick N: Hilo driver knowledge of spurs (5&9) N: AGV loaded properly N: Empty slot vs. low Stock is on BO RF=S Short Slip=S Write BO on slip and send to Upline Moves order through process (minus BO stock) S: Short Slip N: Location of order on short slip Inform Puller Lets Puller know future orders are BO N: Puller Location S: Accurate information Deliver to caps line S: RF(PF9) S: Hilo N: Hilo driver N: Space in drop Zone C: Available N: Stock handler N: Driver N: Work volume Available for stock handler Is stock available? Is stock in high bay? S: RF (PF9) S: Short Slip Info S: Knowledge of warehouse locations N: Hilo driver Yes Yes Does replenish- ment think short is hot? Is stock sent to appropriate spur? No Check status on PF9 S: RF=S N: Hilo driver N: Warehouse knowledge N: Short Slip Location of stock Order skid on PF13 as a hot S: PF13(order screen) N: Hilo driver N: Short Slip Informs turret driver of short Turret truck driver pulls hot, places and scans in D rack S: RF(PF12) N: Turret Truck Driver N: Work Volume S: Turret Truck Shorts pallet available in D rack Hilo driver drives to appropriate "D" rack and picks up skid S: RF N: Hilo driver N: Stock Scanned to PD rack S: Hilo N: Work Volume Expedited pick up Drop and scan pallet in CAPS line S: RF(PF12) N: Hilo driver N: Space available in drop zone S: Hilo Pallet available to stock handler Fill pick S: Stock handler RF(PF4) N: Work Volume Stock available to pick AS IS REPLENISHMENT PROCESS MAP “Look” at the overall flow: = inspection/decision = process step Hidden Factory is undocumented work being completed to allow the work to be done
  34. 34. ©LeanCor 2013 Mapping Steps Identify the starting and ending boundaries – the bookends Identify all steps in the process Show the outputs at each step List and classify the input variables Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Hey, I can do that ! Now, let’s discuss each one in detail applied to the process of “Making Coffee.”
  35. 35. ©LeanCor 2013 Step 1: Identify the boundaries for your process map S I P O C Make coffee Start End Coffee in hand and ready to grind Coffee is finished brewing
  36. 36. ©LeanCor 2013 Step 2: Identify all Steps in the Process  Identify all steps in the process between the boundaries  Level of detail should be such that process is described in ~ 3-10 steps  Steps should include all inspection points, rework, etc. -- any step that can influence the outputs of the process Grind Coffee Beans Place ground coffee,filter, and water in coffee maker Brew Coffee Coffee in hand and ready to grind Coffee is finished brewing
  37. 37. ©LeanCor 2013 Step 3: Show the Outputs at each Step  Identify the “desired” outputs at each step  Some of these outputs become outputs of the entire process, some become inputs to following process steps Grind Coffee Beans Place ground coffee,filter, and water in coffee maker Brew Coffee Coffee in hand and ready to grind Coffee is finished brewing Beans ground to proper size Time taken grinding beans Coffee and filter properly placed in coffee maker Time taken putting coffee, filter & water in coffee maker Coffee maker with proper amount of water Brewed good tasting coffee Brewed hot coffee Time consumed brewing coffee Coffee Making Process
  38. 38. ©LeanCor 2013 Step 4: List the Input Variables Grind Coffee Beans Place ground coffee,filter, and water in coffee maker Brew Coffee Coffee in hand and ready to grind Coffee is finished brewing Beans ground to proper size Time taken grinding beans Coffee and filter properly placed in coffee maker Time taken putting coffee, filter & water in coffee maker Coffee maker with proper amount of water Brewed good tasting coffee Brewed hot coffee Time consumed brewing coffee Operator Coffee type Coffee quality Grind complete interpretation Amount of coffee beans Bean measuring technique Coffee measurement device Coffee grinder machine Operator Coffee Maker Pot Pot cleanliness Filter type Filter brand Amount of ground coffee Coffee measurement device Coffee "history" after grinding Coffee type Coffee quality Water amount Water Temperature Water quality Operator Coffee Maker Pot Pot cleanliness Machine drip rate Electricity Strength setting on maker Filter type Filter brand Coffee measurement device Coffee "history" after grinding Amount of ground coffee Coffee type Coffee grind size Coffee quality Water amount Water Temperature Water quality Coffee Making Process
  39. 39. ©LeanCor 2013 Input Variables - Categories 1. Material - defects, shortages, unleveled flow, batch sizes 2. Machine - breakdowns, defects, or unplanned stoppages 3. Man / Woman - attendance, skill sets, commitment 4. Method (Process) – non-standardized processes, no preventative maintenance, no PDCA 5. Measurements - Metrics and performance measures that drive instability 6. Mother Nature (Environment) - External forces not in our control, weather, geography, seasonality All these inputs can be causes to your problem!!
  40. 40. ©LeanCor 2013 Swimlane Process Map LFC OUTBOUND PROCESS – from generation of pick list to material arriving at ZF PickingVerifyingLoadingShuttleShipping Reservation Prints - Reservation - System or manual entry Clerk transfers reservation on MB11 - Reservation # - SAP - Pick list & T.O. Reservation & Pick List put on Pick Board - Ready to pick - Reservation - Pick List - Initialed Reservation Takes first pick order (HOT first, then FIFO) & Initials Reservation - Reservation - Pick List - Reservation Places reservation in “Being Picked Bin” - Visual that reservation is being picked - Pick list - 2 cones placed on first skid picked (red if hot) Pick items on pick list - 1 cone on first skid, 1 cone on last skid picked - Pick list - Skids picked Stage items on pick list Check each skid for correct PN, Qty, and SU - Discrepancies noted on pick list - Completed pick list with skids Discrepancy? Note discrepancy on pick list, change cones to black, & give pick list & reservation to shipping clerk - Black cone on 1st & last skid of pick list - Discrepancies noted on pick list - Discrepancies noted on pick list -Reservation -SAP - Corrected pick list Correction Process YES - Completed pick list & reservation - Visual that skids are ready to be loaded Completed Pick List & Reservation placed in “Verified, Being Loaded” bin NO Turn over cones on 1st and last skid to signify skids are ready to be loaded - Cones turned over - Visual – to be loaded - Completed pick list & reservation in bin Confirm T.O. - Completed pick list & reservation -SAP - T.O. is confirmed Load skids into trailer, with any hot parts at the tail end - Cones turned over on skids - Skids loaded on trailer Close trailer door and note the time of departure on shipping spreadsheet. - Trailer ready to be shipped - Shipping spreadsheet - Completed paperwork in bin & copier - 2 copies of pick list and reservation Take completed paperwork from “Verified, Being Loaded” bin and make 2 copies Place copies in bin by the driver door & original in the blue box under the appropriate time slot - Copies & bin - 2 copies of paperwork ready for shuttle driver - Copies in bin Grab both copies of the reservation & pick list - Ready for transport - Arrival of material to ZF - 2 Reservation copies - Shuttle Transit & Arrival at ZF Can the shipping clerk turn over the cones instead of the verifier? Too many handoff’s. Where is this spreadsheet? Can we make a visual of plan vs. actual? Why 2 copies? Is it 2 copies of both the reservation & pick list, or just the reservation? Should confirmation happen when truck leaves? Can the trigger for confirmation be the driver asking for the copies of the reservation? Need timestamp at ZF What happens with the copies? What is the average number of hot picks in queue?  The Swimlane Map separates the process steps into each role/person involved.  Helps identify where there are too many process hand-off’s, non-value add or repetitive tasks, & hidden factories.  These can again be possible causes to your problem.
  41. 41. ©LeanCor 2013 Problem Possible Cause Possible Cause Major Cause Major Cause Major Cause Major Cause Possible Cause Possible Cause Major Cause Major Cause Possible Cause Possible Cause Possible Cause Possible Cause Possible Cause Possible Cause Possible Cause Possible Cause Measurements Materials Man/Woman Mother Nature Methods Machines •The C&E Diagram is also known as the Fishbone Diagram or Ishikawa Diagram •Purpose is to identify all possible causes (x’s) of problems The Cause & Effect Diagram
  42. 42. ©LeanCor 2013 Fishbone Diagram Example Measurement Materials Method Manpower MachineEnvironment / Management Not closing LB10 - leads to parts not in location (2) Lack of SAP knowledge in shipping Resource allocation for equipment (forklift keys) Lack of trucks Holding truck for hot parts (2) Too much paperwork Not enough people know the correction process Not enough pickers Too many handoff's with paperwork (2) No shuttle available to load Driver late - shuttle delay (2) Pick lists / tickets thrown away Breaks - ZF and LFC leads to lack of manpower (2) Pick lists not printing Problem Statement Wrong quantity found for part Taking more than 120 minutes to ship material Too many hot picks in queue (3) Shipping process not standard (4) Lack of computers No visibility of when pick list items should depart (shipping schedule) Confirmation at different times in the process Off-loading returnables from trailer Correction process not standard (2) Shuttle departure time not recorded consistently in the process (4) Empty Locations / Can't find parts (4) Not transferring remaining qty out of location (2) Lack of process time for picking Large picklists (3)
  43. 43. ©LeanCor 2013 5 “Why’s” Analysis for Root Cause By repeatedly asking the question "Why?” five times on a problem, you can uncover layers and layers of symptoms which can lead to the ultimate root cause of a problem. 1. Write down the specific problem. Writing the issue helps you formalize the problem and describe it completely. It also helps a team focus on the same problem. 2. Ask why the problem happens and write down the possible answers to the problem. 3. If the answer you provided doesn't identify the root cause of the problem that you wrote down in step 1, ask why again and write that answer down. 4. Repeat step 3 until the team is in agreement that the problems root cause is identified. Again, this may take fewer or more times than 5 Whys.
  44. 44. ©LeanCor 2013 5 Why Analysis Example WHY? THEREFORE…
  45. 45. ©LeanCor 2013 5 Why and Therefore Problem: I woke up in a road side ditch 1. People wanted to see how tough I was 2. People think I’m tough because I have an eye-patch 3. I have an eye-patch because I had an accident 4. I had an accident because I blew off steam 5. I blew off steam because I was angry 6. I was angry because the cable company kept me on hold http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7udQSHWpL88&feature=relmfu WHY? THEREFORE…
  46. 46. ©LeanCor 2013 1. Brainstorm the critical variables to your project and weigh them on a scale of 100%. Agree on the definitions. 2. List all the potential solutions. 3. Rate each item on a scale that is agreed upon by everyone involved with the XY matrix. A suggested scale is 1–3–5. 4. Sort the items by the total score, the highest being the first priority. D5: Choose & Verify Corrective Actions
  47. 47. ©LeanCor 2013 XY Matrix Example XY - Prioritization Matrix > Critical Variables Ease to Implement 1 = IT, Sr Mgmt 2 = ENGR, Cap Req 3 = Maintenance 4 = Dept/Ops Mgr 5 = Dept Level Potential ROI 1 = $500 or less 2 = $500 - $5K 3 = $5K - $10K 4 = $10K - $100K 5 = over $100K Cost to Implement 1 = over $100K 2 = $50K - $100K 3 = $10K - $50K 4 = $500 - $10K 5 = $500 or less Network Potential 1 = Local Facility 2 = 25% of Facilities 3 = 50% of Facilities 4 = 75% of Facilities 5 = All Facilities LRP Impact 1 = 1 LRP Strategy 2 = 2 LRP Strategy 3 = 3 LRP Strategy 4 = 4 LRP Strategy 5 = 5 LRP Strategy Scale(1-5) Topic - Weighted Average 35 15 25 15 10 Total Develop a leader on the floor program to change the culture addressing issues immediately 5 4 5 5 1 445 Standardize all lanes - pallet position - supplies - visual management 5 4 5 5 1 445 Re-train the operator to reduce or increase incoming volume based on lane condition and goal 5 4 5 5 1 445 Create a network recirculation report to enhance visability and accountability. 4 5 5 5 1 425 Hold associates accountable for failing to keep their recircs under 3% 4 4 5 5 1 410 Develop a staffing tool to help Managers/Supervisors staff based on takt time and capability 4 4 5 5 1 410 Change pallet positions based on associate feedback - division/store sort 4 3 5 5 1 395 Change pallet positions to Engineer recommended division/store sort 4 3 5 5 1 395
  48. 48. ©LeanCor 2013 D6: Implement & Validate Corrective Action 1. What action will be performed? 2. How are the actions inter-related, or dependent? 3. When will they be completed? 4. What resources are required? 5. Who is responsible to make sure they get done? 6. How will we know if those actions worked?
  49. 49. ©LeanCor 2013 The Gantt Chart  Summarizes all project actions under Task Name, with duration of the task and owner  The dark blue tasks represent critical paths – the longest series of linked tasks that must be completed before the last task. Any delay in the critical path will impact timing of the final task.
  50. 50. ©LeanCor 2013 Gantt Chart List all action items for improvement and check/adjust. Assign a Champion (owner) to each action item Assign a start and end date to each action item. Focus on the distribution of work to prevent batching of action items. Also focus on interdependencies (critical path vs task)
  51. 51. ©LeanCor 2013 Make Countermeasures Visible  Check progress regularly  Anticipate obstacles and breakthrough  Thoroughly communicate by reporting, informing, and coaching
  52. 52. ©LeanCor 2013 D7: Prevent Recurrence
  53. 53. ©LeanCor 2013 Update or Create Standard Work  The safest, easiest and most effective way of doing the job that we currently know  Working document that is the basis for best practices, waste identification, and continuous improvement  Workers should design the standard work through PDCA “Without a standard there can be no kaizen.” --Taiichi Ohno
  54. 54. ©LeanCor 2013 Developing Standard Work  Engage employees in the development process  Encourage team members to collaborate and identify the current best practice (if one does not currently exist)  Must be realistic for current state of the process  Leaders can guide through the creation and provide final feedback / approval  Design with the intent to make problems visible  Capture critical elements of the standard work – inputs, procedures, timing (takt and cycle), measures, and outputs.  Cycle time should be challenging enough to ensure productivity yet allow for basic stability
  55. 55. ©LeanCor 2013 Takt Time: Cycle Time: Operation: 5min 5min Drawing a really cool cat Step # Cycle Time: Example / Guide: 1 60 sec Pictures of template and proper placement for shape placement are found on the right 2 45 sec Turn tangram 4 to shape of diamond and numbers for shapes 5 and 6 should be right side up (see picture) 3 30 sec Continuation of line created in step 1 4 30 sec Sides of tangram 4 should be flush with width of face (see picture) 5 45 sec Middle line should extend 1/4" above the roof of the mouth to create foundation for nose 6 15 sec Basically like an upside down half moon with no bottom edge - same size on right and left - should be as wide as outer teeth marks 7 10 sec Try to space equal distance apart 8 30 sec Space vertically directly between the nose and the base of the ears 9 5 sec See picture 10 30 sec See picture 11 12 13 14 15 IMPORTANT NOTES: REFER TO APPLICABLE TRAINING MANUAL FOR SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONS Kaizen Comments: Round out the nose by drawing crescents to the right and left of the extended middle tooth line Draw four small dots in the crescents on each side of the nose Draw oval for left eye in the middle left of the face. Repeat for the right eye using the right side of the left eye as the left side of the right eye (eyes should be touching) Shade the upper right portions of both eyes so it appears that the cat is looking at something to the upper right Draw 3 whiskers on each side - the top whiskers should go up and out from the nose at a 45 degree angle, the middle should be parallel to the top of the sheet and exit the face where the line turns perpendicular to the top of the sheet, and the lower whiskers should exit the face at the upper line of the mouth Description of Work Content Line up tangrams 1,2, & 3 with "dots" 1, 2, & 3 on template, hold them together with one hand and trace around the shapes with Wrriting hand Line up tangram number 4 with between dots 1& 4 on template, add tangrams 5 & 6, hold shapes together with one hand and trace with Writing hand Line up tangram number 7 on dot 3 to continue line from the base of tangram 3 and trace the shape to create tail Turn Tangram 4 to square shape and line it up to draw the upper mouth line Draw teeth in the cat's mouth using 3 perpendicular lines splitting the mouth in half then having the sides once again PART: PARTS / TOTE: 25 sets DESCRIPTION: TOTES / PALLET: TEMPLATE LOCATION: Desk Tools Required: Safety/ Hazard Controls: STORAGE LOCATION: Tangram Supply Closet Drawing Template Beware of getting permanent marker on finger tips Tangram set (7 pieces) Standard Work Instruction Issued by: Approval Date: Department: Roger Pearce 10/ 24/ 2009 Toys & Drawing Sample Standard Work
  56. 56. ©LeanCor 2013 1. People make mistakes! 2. People want to have quality in their work! 3. Errors turn into defects only if they are passed on! 4. Only 100% inspection will drive 100% error-free! 5. People cannot accomplish 100% inspection! 6. See Point 1…People make mistakes! Poka Yoke: A simple trigger that detects that an error has occurred or is about to occur, and notifies the process controller or stops the process from moving forward. Quality at the Source We want to detect mistakes and prevent defects… this is the Lean goal.
  57. 57. ©LeanCor 2013 Poka Yoke - Everyday Examples
  58. 58. ©LeanCor 2013 Preventing Defects 101 The rules for every individual, regarding defects: 1. Never take one 2. Never make one…but if you do… 3. Never pass one on
  59. 59. ©LeanCor 2013  Make the problem solving process visible by posting the A3 for all to see and communicating to all those involved. D8: Congratulate the Team  Reward the A3 team with something – a gift card, lunch, certificate…just make sure it focuses on the team.  Take pictures of the celebration and the team.
  60. 60. ©LeanCor 2013 Documenting the 8D’s on an A3
  61. 61. ©LeanCor 2013 Review Questions for Problem Solving A3
  62. 62. ©LeanCor 2013 A3 FOR PROPOSAL WRITING
  63. 63. ©LeanCor 2013 A3 for Capital Expenditure Requests  Carefully analyze the situation in a fact based manner.  Do we really need what we are requesting?  Why are we requesting it? How will it improve the current process?  Make the case.
  64. 64. ©LeanCor 2013 A3 Proposal Template Sample
  65. 65. ©LeanCor 2013 A3 Proposal Template Sample
  66. 66. ©LeanCor 2013 So What?  Less is more – challenge the amount of initiatives  Set a cadence that is realistic and will be adhered to with discipline  Don’t be dogmatic with the templates…use what works for you  Be careful not to tamper, but adjust when necessary…that is why we review  Structure zones in manner that makes sense  Just do it!!! Improve as you go…
  67. 67. ©LeanCor 2013 Work Out What are the current strategies we are embracing?  Do they support our guiding principles ?  Are they aligned with other strategies ?  Are we moving in the direction we want to move ?  What do we need to consider ? What are our guiding principles? What is our vision?

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