Notes itl01


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Notes itl01

  1. 1. Notes on Introduction to Linguistics I These are the main materials for the mid-term test.1. Chapter 1 What is Language?  Language is the method of human communication, either spoken or written, consisting of the use of words in a structured and conventional way.  Linguistic Knowledge includes:  Knowledge of the Sound System: Knowing what sounds are in that language and what sounds are not.  Knowledge of Words: Knowing the sound units that are related to specific meanings.  Arbitrary relationship between form (sounds) and meaning (concept) of a word.  Onomatopoeic: Words whose pronunciations suggest their meanings.  Knowledge of Sentences: Knowing how to form sentences.  Linguistic Competence: What you know about a language.  Linguistic Performance: How you use this knowledge in actual speech production and comprehension.  Prescriptive Grammar:  1762; Bishop Robert Lowth; A Short Introduction to English Grammar with Critical Notes.  I don’t have none  I don’t have any  You was wrong  You were wrong  Mathilda is fatter than me  Mathilda is fatter than I  Many of those rules were based on Latin grammar. Latin was assumed as the respected scientific language in the 15th – 17th Centuries.  Descriptive Grammar:  1985; Randolph Quirk, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech, and Jan Svartvik; A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language.  Based on a corpus of actual spoken and written English.2. Chapter 3 Morphology: The Word of Language  The development of monolingual dictionaries:  1604; Robert Cawdrey; A Table Alphabetical; 2,500 entries.  1755; Dr. Samuel Johnson; Dictionary of the English Language; two volumes.  1828; Noah Webster; An American Dictionary of the English Language; two volumes; 70,000 entries.  Webster’s Third International Dictionary of English Language has over 450,000 entries.
  2. 2.  Content words: Nouns, Verbs, Adjectives, and Adverbs. Function words: Conjunctions, Prepositions, Articles, Pronouns, Morpheme: The minimal unit of meaning.  Free morpheme: a single morpheme that constitutes a word and can stand alone.  Bound morpheme: a morpheme that must be attached to another morpheme. Prefix: An affix that occurs before a morpheme.  Some examples of negative prefixes: Prefix Added to Example UN- adjectives unfair NON- various classes non-smoker, nonsense, non-drip DIS- adjectives, verbs, nouns disloyal, dislike, disfavour A- adjectives, nouns amoral, asymmetry  Degree and size prefixes: Prefix Meaning Added to Example Arch- highest, worst nouns archduke, arch-enemy Super- above, better nouns, adjectives superman, supernatural Over- too much verbs, adjectives overeat, overconfident Hyper- extremely adjectives hyperactive Sub- lower than adjectives substandard Mini- little nouns minibus Suffix: An affix that occurs after a morpheme.  Class preserving suffixation: Suffix Meaning Example -er occupation engineer -ian occupation musician -ist occupation violinist -let small piglet  Class changing suffixation:  Verbs  Nouns  Verbs  Adjectives  Adjectives  Nouns  Adjectives  Verbs  Nouns  Verbs  Nouns  Adjectives
  3. 3.  Derivational morpheme: deriving (creating) a new word with a new meaning.  Inflectional morpheme: changing the form of a word because of the rules of syntax.  English inflectional morphemes: Nouns –s plural –’s possessive Verbs –s third person singular present –ed past tense –en past participle –ing progressive Adjectives –er comparative –est superlative Word Coinage: Compounds, Acronyms, Back-formations, Abbreviations, Eponyms, and Blends. Compounds: Two or more words joined together to a form a new word. Home + work  homework Pick + pocket  pickpocket Note: The meaning of a compound is not always the sum of the meanings of its parts. Coconut oil  oil made from coconuts. Olive oil  oil made from olives. Baby oil  ......... cathouse  ......... blue-movies  ......... blue-chip  ......... Acronyms: Words derived from the initials of several words. National Aeronautics and Space Agency  ......... Self-contained underwater breathing apparatus  ......... .........  FYI .........  TGIF .........  a.k.a Back-formations: Creative reduction due to incorrect morphological analysis. Editor (1649)  edit (1791) Television (1907)  televise (1927)
  4. 4.  Abbreviations (Clipping): A word which is clipped. Facsimile  fax Hamburger  burger Gasoline  ......... Advertisement  ......... Omnibus  .........  Words from Names (Eponyms): Words derived from proper names or things. Sandwich Celsius  Blends: Similar to compounds, but parts of the words are deleted. Motor + hotel  Motel Breakfast + lunch  ......... modulator, demodulator  .........Deny Arnos KwaryLecturer of LinguisticsAirlangga University