English Phonology


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Prefixes: re, pre, de, before unst vowel.

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English Phonology

  2. 2. CHAPTER 9 STRONG AND WEAK SYLLABLES Strong: stressed peak: long vowel, diphthongs, triphthongs short vowel + coda (1 or more C)
  3. 3. Weak: unstressed, lower intensity, dif. quality peak: end of words: ə, i, u, ə + coda, SC (l, m, n, ŋ, r) inside words: ə, i, u, ɪ next syllable begins with consonant 3
  4. 4. “Schwa” Vowel ə  The most occurring vowel in English  Weak: occurs with weak syllables Quality: mid half way between close open central half way betw front back lax art. without much energy 5
  5. 5. ə 5
  6. 6. weak form strong form  a ə æ  ar ə ɑ:  o ə ɒ - əʊ  or ə ɔ:  e ə e  er ə ɜ:  u ə ʌ  ough ə many  ou ə aʊ 6
  7. 7. Close front – Close back Vowels Area of producing: near i: i i: u: ɪ ɪ ʊ near u: u ʊ
  8. 8. Distribution: i  Word f p: “y”, “ey” after 1 or more C.  Morpheme f p: “y”, “ey” + suff beg with V  Prefixes: re, pre, de, before unst vowel.  Suffix: iate, ious 2 syllable words  he, she we, me, be (unstressed)  the preceding a vowel u  you, to, into do  before another vowel within a word
  9. 9. Syllabic consonants l, m, n, ŋ, r syllabic consonants Why? Stand as peak in weak syllables; novel, pencil, action How do you mark it? By placing a (ˌ) under l, m, n, ŋ, r novel nɒvl, pencil pensl, action ækʃn
  10. 10. Syllabic l Distribuition: After another consonant (alveolar) - w f p with 1 or more C + “le”  With alveolar C prec. little  With non-alveolar C. prec. Staple - w f p, words spelt with 1 or more C + “al” “el”`partial, panel 10
  11. 11. Syllabic n Distribuition: Doesn’t occur in IP except in some words. In M or F P: n becomes syllabic after plosive or fricative + ən cotton often open
  12. 12. yllabic m, ŋ Result from a process of assimilation or elision. Not so common an be transcribed as ən too 12
  13. 13. CHAPTER 10 STRESS IN SIMPLE WORDS trength used to pronounce a syllable in a word arked wit (ˈ) PRODUCTION PERCEPTION What ways of seen it: characteristics What speakers do to pronounce make a sound to strong syllables be heard as strong 13
  14. 14. roduction: use of energy to produce sound (muscles) subglottal pressure higher erception: stressed syllables are prominent ROMINENCE characteristic of stressed syllables (factors) 14
  15. 15. Levels of stress Stress is marked with (') high up before the stressed syllable (') primary stress (strong) (ˌ) secondary stress (weak) ( ) unstressed (no prominence) (∘) tertiary stress (very weak) 15
  16. 16. lacement of stress within the word 1-syllable words asically we take into account: ind of word:simple or complex 16
  17. 17. nly used with strong syllables wo-syllable words erbs: 2nd s, stress 2nd; 2 w, stress 1st; 2nd əʊ, 1st ouns: 2nd s short v, stress 1st
  18. 18. Three- syllable words verbs: f strong, s f f w, s preceding if s f w, preceding w, s 1st Nouns: f əʊ, prec s, s 2nd 2nd and f w, s 1st f s, 2nd weak, s 1st Adjectives: same rule as nouns 18
  19. 19. CHAPTER 11 COMPLEX WORD STRESS COMPLEX WORDS COMPLEX: COMPOUND: STEM + AFFIX TWO OR MORE INDEPENDENTS prefix suffix WORDS Affixes can:  Receive primary stress  Do not receive it  Influence on the shift of stress 19
  20. 20. Suffixes: at the end of the word. region + al = regional stem + suffix Productive suffixes: the most common and used. Some problems:  Some words seem to have a suffix. regional canal  number of suffixes a word can have interestingly 20
  21. 21. Suffixes carrying the stress themselves ee, er, ese, ette, esque portuguese pɔ:tʃə'gi:z Suffixes that do not affect st. plac able, age, al, en, ful, ing, ish, like, less, ly, ment, ness, ous, fy, wise,y national 'næʃnl Suffixes that influence stress in the stem eous, graphy, ial, ic, ion, ious, ty, ive proverb proverbial prəˈvɜ:biəl 21
  22. 22. Prefixes before the stem Do not work the same as suffixes Do not carry primary stress 22
  23. 23. Compound words Words formed by two ind. words hand-bag typewriter Most carry stress in the 2nd word 23
  24. 24. Exceptions: Adj. first element and ed at the end bad-'tempered First element is a number three-wheeler Comp. functioning as adverbs North-east Comp. functioning as verbs hand have an adv. As first element down-grade 24
  25. 25. Variable stress  Stress is shifted to another position because:  The influence of other words bad ˈtempered bad tempered ˈteacher  Speakers do not agree on stress placement. controversy 'kɒntəvɜsi kɒn'təvɜsi 25
  26. 26. Word class pairs Identical words with different grammatical function. adj, noun, verb Consist of a preffix + stem Are different because of stress 'æbstrækt (adj) æb'strækt (v) 'ekspɔ:t (n ) eks'pɔ:t (v) 26
  27. 27. CHAPTER 12 WEAK FORMS Strong and weak forms: same words pronounced in strong and weak form in certain contexts. that ðæt ð ət function words: auxiliaries, prepositions, conjunctions, pronouns, etc. 27
  28. 28. Weak forms are pronounced as strong in the following cases:  of at the end of a sentence  For contrasting information: Give it to him not to her  Coordinate use of prepositions The letter said from New York not to New York  For emphasis You have to do that 28
  29. 29. There are many forms pronounced only weak in ceratin contexts. the, a an, and, that, his, her, your, she, he, we, you, him, at, him, her, them, us, for, from, of, to, as, some, there, can, have, has, had, shall, should, must, do, does, am, are, was Recomedation: practice a lot. 29
  30. 30. CHAPTER 14 ASPECTS OF CONNECTED SPEECH Our speech is accompanied of some aspects. These aspects are: Rhythm Assimilation Elision Linking 30
  31. 31. Rhythm Involves noticeable event happening at regular intervals of time. English is stress-timed rhythm.- The times from one stressed syllable to the next will tend to be the same irrespectibly of the number of intervening unstressed syllables. syllable-timed rhythm: syllables (s or un)tend to occur at regular time- intervals, times shorter or longer depending on the number of ustressed syllables 31
  32. 32. Unit of rhythm: foot Rhythm can vary minimal value arhythmically maximum value very rhytmically 32
  33. 33. Assimilation Process by which a phoneme is realized in differently because of the influence of a neighbouring sound. F C becomes like I C regressive that person ðæt pɜ:sn ðæp pɜ:sn I C becomes like F C progressive Assimilation of voice 33
  34. 34. Differences in place of artic. Alveolar sounds become bilabial or dental plosives (regressive) Differences in manner of artic. Final plosive becomes fricative or nasal (regressive) Differences in voicing devoicing of voiced consonats (regressive) 34
  35. 35. Elision Sounds dissapear under certain circumstances, a phoneme may be realized zero or not realized. acts æks scripts skrɪps looked back lʊk bæk 35
  36. 36. INTONATION Closely related to pitch, helps to convey messages or show different states. Pitch is produced by the vibration of the vocal cords. 36
  37. 37. Levels of pitch  Level _  Falling `  Rising ´ 37
  38. 38. N 38