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  1. 1. Phonology Phonology is the study of the sound system of a particularlanguage, it is concerned withthe function of speech sounds of the language.
  2. 2. Phoneme vs allophone• Phoneme is an abstract linguistic unit, which includes sounds of different types.• Allophone refers to variant forms of the same phoneme. It either loses or gains an additional feature.• Allophone is ONE of several similar phones that belong to the same phoneme family.
  3. 3. Phonemic vs phonetic transcription• Phonemic transcription is an alphabetic system for showing the sounds of a language, which allots one symbol to each phoneme. It is placed between / /.• Phonetic transcription is a transcription which shows articulatory detail by means of representing the allophones of phonemes. It is placed between [ ].
  4. 4. Diacritics• Marks added to phonetic symbols to supply extra information. They are used in phonetic transcription NOT in phonemic transcription.
  5. 5. Minimal pairs• One of the discovery procedures used in phonology; it shows two words that are identical in form except for a contrast in one phoneme in the same position in each word.• They are used to reveal the distinctive features of the phoneme.• Examples: bad~sad ; bid~bed ; cab~cap
  6. 6. Complementary distribution• The situation where two sounds never occur in the same environment. In mathematical terms, X never occurs in Y’s environment.• Example : light ~ full ; high ~ strong
  7. 7. Free variation• The situation where two sounds can occur in the same environment without causing any change of meaning. It may arise due to sociolinguistic or geographical factors.• Example: top , bad ; excuse me
  8. 8. Neutralisation• A case where phoneme opposition is lost in a particular environment, i.e., only one phoneme is accepted.• Example: still *sdill skill *sgill spill *sbill