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1.8

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1.8

  1. AIM: Where did life originate from?
  2. “…sparked by just the right combination of physical events & chemical processes…” AIM: Where did life originate from?
  3. Bacteria Archae- Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia 0 Cenozoic bacteria Mesozoic Colonization of land Paleozoic by animals 500 Appearance of animals and land plants 1000 First multicellular PROTEROZOIC organisms 1500 Oldest definite fossils Millions of years ago of eukaryotes PRECAMBRIAN 2000 Appearance of oxygen in atmosphere 2500 Oldest definite fossils of prokaryotes ARCHEAN 3000 3500 Molten-hot surface of 4000 earth becomes cooler 4500 Formation of earth
  4. Bacteria Archae- Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia 0 Cenozoic bacteria Mesozoic Colonization of land Paleozoic by animals 500 Appearance of animals and land plants 1000 First multicellular PROTEROZOIC organisms 1500 Oldest definite fossils Millions of years ago of eukaryotes PRECAMBRIAN 2000 Appearance of oxygen in atmosphere 2500 Oldest definite fossils of prokaryotes ARCHEAN 3000 The evolutionary tree of 3500 life can be documented Molten-hot surface of earth becomes cooler with evidence. 4000 The Origin of Life on 4500 Formation of earth Earth is another story…
  5. What is Life?
  6. What is Life? § First we have to define LIFE…
  7. What is Life? § First we have to define LIFE… u organized as cells
  8. What is Life? § First we have to define LIFE… u organized as cells u respond to stimuli
  9. What is Life? § First we have to define LIFE… u organized as cells u respond to stimuli u regulate internal processes
  10. What is Life? § First we have to define LIFE… u organized as cells u respond to stimuli u regulate internal processes § homeostasis
  11. What is Life? § First we have to define LIFE… u organized as cells u respond to stimuli u regulate internal processes § homeostasis u use energy to grow
  12. What is Life? § First we have to define LIFE… u organized as cells u respond to stimuli u regulate internal processes § homeostasis u use energy to grow § metabolism
  13. What is Life? § First we have to define LIFE… u organized as cells u respond to stimuli u regulate internal processes § homeostasis u use energy to grow § metabolism u develop
  14. What is Life? § First we have to define LIFE… u organized as cells u respond to stimuli u regulate internal processes § homeostasis u use energy to grow § metabolism u develop § change & mature within lifetime
  15. What is Life? § First we have to define LIFE… u organized as cells u respond to stimuli u regulate internal processes § homeostasis u use energy to grow § metabolism u develop § change & mature within lifetime u reproduce
  16. What is Life? § First we have to define LIFE… u organized as cells u respond to stimuli u regulate internal processes § homeostasis u use energy to grow § metabolism u develop § change & mature within lifetime u reproduce § heredity
  17. What is Life? § First we have to define LIFE… u organized as cells u respond to stimuli u regulate internal processes § homeostasis u use energy to grow § metabolism u develop § change & mature within lifetime u reproduce § heredity w DNA / RNA
  18. What is Life? § First we have to define LIFE… u organized as cells u respond to stimuli u regulate internal processes § homeostasis u use energy to grow § metabolism u develop § change & mature within lifetime u reproduce § heredity w DNA / RNA § adaptation & evolution
  19. The Origin of Life is Hypothesis
  20. The Origin of Life is Hypothesis
  21. The Origin of Life is Hypothesis § Special Creation
  22. The Origin of Life is Hypothesis § Special Creation u Was life created by a supernatural or divine force?
  23. The Origin of Life is Hypothesis § Special Creation u Was life created by a supernatural or divine force? u not testable
  24. The Origin of Life is Hypothesis § Special Creation u Was life created by a supernatural or divine force? u not testable § Extraterrestrial Origin
  25. The Origin of Life is Hypothesis § Special Creation u Was life created by a supernatural or divine force? u not testable § Extraterrestrial Origin u Was the original source of organic (carbon) materials comets & meteorites striking early Earth?
  26. The Origin of Life is Hypothesis § Special Creation u Was life created by a supernatural or divine force? u not testable § Extraterrestrial Origin u Was the original source of organic (carbon) materials comets & meteorites striking early Earth? u Heavy bombardment 4bya may have delivered organic compound and water to Earth
  27. The Origin of Life is Hypothesis § Special Creation u Was life created by a supernatural or divine force? u not testable § Extraterrestrial Origin u Was the original source of organic (carbon) materials comets & meteorites striking early Earth? u Heavy bombardment 4bya may have delivered organic compound and water to Earth u testable
  28. The Origin of Life is Hypothesis § Special Creation u Was life created by a supernatural or divine force? u not testable § Extraterrestrial Origin u Was the original source of organic (carbon) materials comets & meteorites striking early Earth? u Heavy bombardment 4bya may have delivered organic compound and water to Earth u testable § Spontaneous Abiotic Origin
  29. The Origin of Life is Hypothesis § Special Creation u Was life created by a supernatural or divine force? u not testable § Extraterrestrial Origin u Was the original source of organic (carbon) materials comets & meteorites striking early Earth? u Heavy bombardment 4bya may have delivered organic compound and water to Earth u testable § Spontaneous Abiotic Origin u Did life evolve spontaneously from inorganic molecules?
  30. The Origin of Life is Hypothesis § Special Creation u Was life created by a supernatural or divine force? u not testable § Extraterrestrial Origin u Was the original source of organic (carbon) materials comets & meteorites striking early Earth? u Heavy bombardment 4bya may have delivered organic compound and water to Earth u testable § Spontaneous Abiotic Origin u Did life evolve spontaneously from inorganic molecules? u testable
  31. Origin of Organic Compounds
  32. Origin of Organic Compounds Possible locations that would have allowed the synthesis of organic compounds:
  33. Origin of Organic Compounds Possible locations that would have allowed the synthesis of organic compounds: § Hydrothermal vents deep in the ocean release chemicals, creating unusual chemical conditions
  34. Origin of Organic Compounds Possible locations that would have allowed the synthesis of organic compounds: § Hydrothermal vents deep in the ocean release chemicals, creating unusual chemical conditions § Extraterrestrial origin: Scientists have shown that organic compounds could have formed in cold interstellar space and then delivered to Earth by meteors or comets
  35. Origin of Organic Compounds Possible locations that would have allowed the synthesis of organic compounds: § Hydrothermal vents deep in the ocean release chemicals, creating unusual chemical conditions § Extraterrestrial origin: Scientists have shown that organic compounds could have formed in cold interstellar space and then delivered to Earth by meteors or comets § Chemical reactions in the atmosphere and in water, on the surface of the Earth
  36. Spontaneous Origin of Life
  37. Spontaneous Origin of Life Pasteur disproved “spontaneous generation”
  38. Spontaneous Origin of Life Pasteur disproved “spontaneous generation”
  39. Spontaneous Origin of Life Pasteur disproved “spontaneous generation” Oldest bacterial fossil date back to 1.9 bya
  40. Spontaneous Origin of Life Pasteur disproved “spontaneous generation” Oldest bacterial fossil date back to 1.9 bya
  41. Spontaneous Origin of Life Pasteur disproved “spontaneous generation” Oldest bacterial fossil date back to 1.9 bya Processes that would have been needed for
  42. Spontaneous Origin of Life Pasteur disproved “spontaneous generation” Oldest bacterial fossil date back to 1.9 bya Processes that would have been needed for the first cells to form include:
  43. Spontaneous Origin of Life Pasteur disproved “spontaneous generation” Oldest bacterial fossil date back to 1.9 bya Processes that would have been needed for the first cells to form include: 1. Chemical reactions to produce simple organic molecules (ex. amino acids) from inorganic molecules (ex. water, carbon dioxide)
  44. Spontaneous Origin of Life Pasteur disproved “spontaneous generation” Oldest bacterial fossil date back to 1.9 bya Processes that would have been needed for the first cells to form include: 1. Chemical reactions to produce simple organic molecules (ex. amino acids) from inorganic molecules (ex. water, carbon dioxide)
  45. Spontaneous Origin of Life Pasteur disproved “spontaneous generation” Oldest bacterial fossil date back to 1.9 bya Processes that would have been needed for the first cells to form include: 1. Chemical reactions to produce simple organic molecules (ex. amino acids) from inorganic molecules (ex. water, carbon dioxide) 2. Assembly of these organic molecules into polymers (ex. polypeptides)
  46. Spontaneous Origin of Life Pasteur disproved “spontaneous generation” Oldest bacterial fossil date back to 1.9 bya Processes that would have been needed for the first cells to form include: 1. Chemical reactions to produce simple organic molecules (ex. amino acids) from inorganic molecules (ex. water, carbon dioxide) 2. Assembly of these organic molecules into polymers (ex. polypeptides)
  47. Spontaneous Origin of Life Pasteur disproved “spontaneous generation” Oldest bacterial fossil date back to 1.9 bya Processes that would have been needed for the first cells to form include: 1. Chemical reactions to produce simple organic molecules (ex. amino acids) from inorganic molecules (ex. water, carbon dioxide) 2. Assembly of these organic molecules into polymers (ex. polypeptides) 3. Formation of polymers that can self replicate to allow for the inheritance of characteristics
  48. Spontaneous Origin of Life Pasteur disproved “spontaneous generation” Oldest bacterial fossil date back to 1.9 bya Processes that would have been needed for the first cells to form include: 1. Chemical reactions to produce simple organic molecules (ex. amino acids) from inorganic molecules (ex. water, carbon dioxide) 2. Assembly of these organic molecules into polymers (ex. polypeptides) 3. Formation of polymers that can self replicate to allow for the inheritance of characteristics
  49. Spontaneous Origin of Life Pasteur disproved “spontaneous generation” Oldest bacterial fossil date back to 1.9 bya Processes that would have been needed for the first cells to form include: 1. Chemical reactions to produce simple organic molecules (ex. amino acids) from inorganic molecules (ex. water, carbon dioxide) 2. Assembly of these organic molecules into polymers (ex. polypeptides) 3. Formation of polymers that can self replicate to allow for the inheritance of characteristics 4. Packaging of these molecules into membranes with an internal chemistry different from the
  50. Conditions on early Earth
  51. Conditions on early Earth § Reducing atmosphere
  52. Conditions on early Earth § Reducing atmosphere u water vapor (H2O), CO2, N2, NOx, H2, NH3, CH4, H2S
  53. Conditions on early Earth § Reducing atmosphere u water vapor (H2O), CO2, N2, NOx, H2, NH3, CH4, H2S What’s missing from that atmosphere?
  54. Conditions on early Earth § Reducing atmosphere u water vapor (H2O), CO2, N2, NOx, H2, NH3, CH4, H2S u lots of available H & its electron What’s missing from that atmosphere?
  55. Conditions on early Earth § Reducing atmosphere u water vapor (H2O), CO2, N2, NOx, H2, NH3, CH4, H2S u lots of available H & its electron low O2 = organic molecules do not breakdown as quickly What’s missing from that atmosphere?
  56. Conditions on early Earth § Reducing atmosphere u water vapor (H2O), CO2, N2, NOx, H2, NH3, CH4, H2S u lots of available H & its electron u no free oxygen low O2 = organic molecules do not breakdown as quickly What’s missing from that atmosphere?
  57. Conditions on early Earth § Reducing atmosphere u water vapor (H2O), CO2, N2, NOx, H2, NH3, CH4, H2S u lots of available H & its electron u no free oxygen low O2 = organic molecules § Energy source do not breakdown as quickly What’s missing from that atmosphere?
  58. Conditions on early Earth § Reducing atmosphere u water vapor (H2O), CO2, N2, NOx, H2, NH3, CH4, H2S u lots of available H & its electron u no free oxygen low O2 = organic molecules § Energy source do not breakdown u lightning, UV radiation, as quickly volcanic What’s missing from that atmosphere?
  59. Electrodes discharge sparks Origin of Organic Molecules (lightning simulation) CH4 Water vapor H2 NH3 Mixture of gases (quot;primitive Condenser atmospherequot;) Water Condensed liquid with complex, organic Heated water molecules (quot;oceanquot;)
  60. Electrodes discharge sparks Origin of Organic Molecules (lightning simulation) § Abiotic synthesis CH4 Water vapor H2 NH3 Mixture of gases (quot;primitive Condenser atmospherequot;) Water Condensed liquid with complex, organic Heated water molecules (quot;oceanquot;)
  61. Electrodes discharge sparks Origin of Organic Molecules (lightning simulation) § Abiotic synthesis u 1920 Water vapor CH4 Oparin & Haldane H2 propose reducing NH3 Mixture of gases atmosphere (quot;primitive Condenser hypothesis atmospherequot;) Water Condensed liquid with complex, organic Heated water molecules (quot;oceanquot;)
  62. Electrodes discharge sparks Origin of Organic Molecules (lightning simulation) § Abiotic synthesis u 1920 Water vapor CH4 Oparin & Haldane H2 propose reducing NH3 Mixture of gases atmosphere (quot;primitive Condenser hypothesis atmospherequot;) u 1953 Water Miller & Urey test hypothesis Condensed liquid with complex, organic Heated water molecules (quot;oceanquot;)
  63. Electrodes discharge sparks Origin of Organic Molecules (lightning simulation) § Abiotic synthesis u 1920 Water vapor CH4 Oparin & Haldane H2 propose reducing NH3 Mixture of gases atmosphere (quot;primitive Condenser hypothesis atmospherequot;) u 1953 Water Miller & Urey test hypothesis § formed organic compounds Condensed liquid with complex, organic Heated water molecules (quot;oceanquot;)
  64. Electrodes discharge sparks Origin of Organic Molecules (lightning simulation) § Abiotic synthesis u 1920 Water vapor CH4 Oparin & Haldane H2 propose reducing NH3 Mixture of gases atmosphere (quot;primitive Condenser hypothesis atmospherequot;) u 1953 Water Miller & Urey test hypothesis § formed organic compounds Condensed w amino acids liquid with complex, organic Heated water molecules (quot;oceanquot;)
  65. Electrodes discharge sparks Origin of Organic Molecules (lightning simulation) § Abiotic synthesis u 1920 Water vapor CH4 Oparin & Haldane H2 propose reducing NH3 Mixture of gases atmosphere (quot;primitive Condenser hypothesis atmospherequot;) u 1953 Water Miller & Urey test hypothesis § formed organic compounds Condensed w amino acids liquid with complex, w adenine Heated water organic molecules (quot;oceanquot;)
  66. Stanley Miller University of Chicago produced -amino acids -hydrocarbons -nitrogen bases -other organics It’s ALIVE!
  67. Phospholipids
  68. Phospholipids § Hydrophobic or hydrophilic? u fatty acid tails = hydrophobic u PO4 = hydrophilic head u dual “personality”
  69. Phospholipids § Hydrophobic or hydrophilic? u fatty acid tails = hydrophobic u PO4 = hydrophilic head u dual “personality” interaction with H2O is complex & very important!
  70. Phospholipids § Hydrophobic or hydrophilic? u fatty acid tails = hydrophobic u PO4 = hydrophilic head u dual “personality” It likes water & also pushes it away! interaction with H2O is complex & very important!
  71. Phospholipids in water
  72. Phospholipids in water § Hydrophilic heads attracted to H2O
  73. Phospholipids in water § Hydrophilic heads attracted to H2O § Hydrophobic tails “hide” from H2O
  74. Phospholipids in water § Hydrophilic heads attracted to H2O § Hydrophobic tails “hide” from H2O u can self-assemble into “bubbles”
  75. Phospholipids in water § Hydrophilic heads attracted to H2O § Hydrophobic tails “hide” from H2O u can self-assemble into “bubbles” § can also form bilayer
  76. Phospholipids in water § Hydrophilic heads attracted to H2O § Hydrophobic tails “hide” from H2O u can self-assemble into “bubbles” § can also form bilayer bilayer
  77. Phospholipids in water § Hydrophilic heads attracted to H2O § Hydrophobic tails “hide” from H2O u can self-assemble into “bubbles” § can also form bilayer § early evolutionary stage of cell? bilayer
  78. Origin of Cells (Protobionts) § Bubbles → separate inside from outside → metabolism & reproduction
  79. Origin of Cells (Protobionts) § Bubbles → separate inside from outside → metabolism & reproduction Bubbles… Tiny bubbles…
  80. Dawn of natural selection Origin of Genetics
  81. Dawn of natural selection Origin of Genetics § RNA is likely first genetic material
  82. Dawn of natural selection Origin of Genetics § RNA is likely first genetic material u multi-functional
  83. Dawn of natural selection Origin of Genetics § RNA is likely first genetic material u multi-functional u codes information
  84. Dawn of natural selection Origin of Genetics § RNA is likely first genetic material u multi-functional u codes information § self-replicating molecule
  85. Dawn of natural selection Origin of Genetics § RNA is likely first genetic material u multi-functional u codes information § self-replicating molecule § makes inheritance possible
  86. Dawn of natural selection Origin of Genetics § RNA is likely first genetic material u multi-functional u codes information § self-replicating molecule § makes inheritance possible § natural selection & evolution
  87. Dawn of natural selection Origin of Genetics § RNA is likely first genetic material u multi-functional u codes information § self-replicating molecule § makes inheritance possible § natural selection & evolution u enzyme functions
  88. Dawn of natural selection Origin of Genetics § RNA is likely first genetic material u multi-functional u codes information § self-replicating molecule § makes inheritance possible § natural selection & evolution u enzyme functions u transport molecule
  89. Dawn of natural selection Origin of Genetics § RNA is likely first genetic material u multi-functional u codes information § self-replicating molecule § makes inheritance possible § natural selection & evolution u enzyme functions u transport molecule § tRNA & mRNA
  90. Key Events in Origin of Life
  91. Key Events in Origin of Life § Key events in evolutionary history of life on Earth
  92. Key Events in Origin of Life § Key events in evolutionary history of life on Earth u life originated 3.5–4.0 bya
  93. Prokaryotes § Prokaryotes dominated life on Earth from 3.5–2.0 bya
  94. Prokaryotes § Prokaryotes dominated life on Earth from 3.5–2.0 bya
  95. Prokaryotes § Prokaryotes dominated life on Earth from 3.5–2.0 bya 3.5 billion year old fossil of bacteria
  96. Prokaryotes § Prokaryotes dominated life on Earth from 3.5–2.0 bya 3.5 billion year old fossil of bacteria modern bacteria chains of one-celled cyanobacteria
  97. Stromatolites Fossilized mats of prokaryotes resemble modern microbial colonies
  98. Stromatolites Fossilized mats of prokaryotes resemble modern microbial colonies
  99. Stromatolites Fossilized mats of prokaryotes resemble modern microbial colonies
  100. Stromatolites Fossilized mats of prokaryotes resemble modern microbial colonies
  101. Oxygen atmosphere
  102. Oxygen atmosphere
  103. Oxygen atmosphere § Oxygen begins to accumulate 2.7 bya
  104. Oxygen atmosphere § Oxygen begins to accumulate 2.7 bya u reducing → oxidizing atmosphere
  105. Oxygen atmosphere § Oxygen begins to accumulate 2.7 bya u reducing → oxidizing atmosphere § evidence in banded iron in rocks = rusting
  106. Oxygen atmosphere § Oxygen begins to accumulate 2.7 bya u reducing → oxidizing atmosphere § evidence in banded iron in rocks = rusting § makes aerobic respiration possible
  107. Oxygen atmosphere § Oxygen begins to accumulate 2.7 bya u reducing → oxidizing atmosphere § evidence in banded iron in rocks = rusting § makes aerobic respiration possible u photosynthetic
  108. Oxygen atmosphere § Oxygen begins to accumulate 2.7 bya u reducing → oxidizing atmosphere § evidence in banded iron in rocks = rusting § makes aerobic respiration possible u photosynthetic u algae)
  109. ~2 bya First Eukaryotes nuclear envelope plasma membrane DNA cell wall plasma membrane
  110. ~2 bya First Eukaryotes nuclear envelope plasma membrane DNA cell wall plasma membrane Prokaryotic cell
  111. ~2 bya First Eukaryotes nuclear envelope infolding of the plasma plasma membrane membrane DNA cell wall plasma membrane Prokaryotic cell
  112. ~2 bya First Eukaryotes nuclear envelope infolding of the plasma plasma membrane membrane DNA cell wall plasma Prokaryotic membrane Prokaryotic cell ancestor of eukaryotic cells
  113. ~2 bya First Eukaryotes nuclear envelope endoplasmic infolding of the plasma reticulum (ER) plasma membrane membrane DNA cell wall plasma Prokaryotic membrane Prokaryotic cell ancestor of eukaryotic cells
  114. ~2 bya First Eukaryotes nuclear envelope endoplasmic infolding of the plasma reticulum (ER) plasma membrane membrane nucleus DNA cell wall plasma Prokaryotic membrane Prokaryotic cell ancestor of eukaryotic cells
  115. ~2 bya First Eukaryotes nuclear envelope endoplasmic infolding of the plasma reticulum (ER) plasma membrane membrane nucleus DNA cell wall plasma Prokaryotic membrane Prokaryotic Eukaryotic cell ancestor of cell eukaryotic cells
  116. ~2 bya First Eukaryotes § Development of internal membranes nuclear envelope endoplasmic infolding of the plasma reticulum (ER) plasma membrane membrane nucleus DNA cell wall plasma Prokaryotic membrane Prokaryotic Eukaryotic cell ancestor of cell eukaryotic cells
  117. ~2 bya First Eukaryotes § Development of internal membranes u create internal micro-environments nuclear envelope endoplasmic infolding of the plasma reticulum (ER) plasma membrane membrane nucleus DNA cell wall plasma Prokaryotic membrane Prokaryotic Eukaryotic cell ancestor of cell eukaryotic cells
  118. ~2 bya First Eukaryotes § Development of internal membranes u create internal micro-environments u advantage: specialization = increase efficiency nuclear envelope endoplasmic infolding of the plasma reticulum (ER) plasma membrane membrane nucleus DNA cell wall plasma Prokaryotic membrane Prokaryotic Eukaryotic cell ancestor of cell eukaryotic cells
  119. Endosymbiosis internal membrane system Endosymbiosis
  120. Endosymbiosis internal membrane system Endosymbiosis
  121. Endosymbiosis § Evolution of eukaryotes internal membrane system Endosymbiosis
  122. Endosymbiosis § Evolution of eukaryotes internal membrane system Endosymbiosis Ancestral eukaryotic cell
  123. Endosymbiosis § Evolution of eukaryotes u origin of mitochondria internal membrane system Endosymbiosis Ancestral eukaryotic cell
  124. Endosymbiosis § Evolution of eukaryotes u origin of mitochondria internal membrane aerobic bacterium system Endosymbiosis Ancestral eukaryotic cell
  125. Endosymbiosis § Evolution of eukaryotes u origin of mitochondria u engulfed aerobic bacteria, but did not digest them internal membrane aerobic bacterium system Endosymbiosis Ancestral eukaryotic cell
  126. Endosymbiosis § Evolution of eukaryotes u origin of mitochondria u engulfed aerobic bacteria, but did not digest them u mutually beneficial relationship internal membrane aerobic bacterium system Endosymbiosis Ancestral eukaryotic cell
  127. Endosymbiosis § Evolution of eukaryotes u origin of mitochondria u engulfed aerobic bacteria, but did not digest them u mutually beneficial relationship internal membrane aerobic bacterium mitochondrion system Endosymbiosis Ancestral eukaryotic cell
  128. Endosymbiosis § Evolution of eukaryotes u origin of mitochondria u engulfed aerobic bacteria, but did not digest them u mutually beneficial relationship internal membrane aerobic bacterium mitochondrion system Endosymbiosis Ancestral Eukaryotic cell eukaryotic cell with mitochondrion
  129. Endosymbiosis Endosymbiosis mitochondrion
  130. Endosymbiosis § Evolution of eukaryotes Endosymbiosis mitochondrion
  131. Eukaryotic Endosymbiosis cell with mitochondrion § Evolution of eukaryotes Endosymbiosis mitochondrion
  132. Eukaryotic Endosymbiosis cell with mitochondrion § Evolution of eukaryotes u origin of chloroplasts Endosymbiosis mitochondrion
  133. Eukaryotic Endosymbiosis cell with mitochondrion § Evolution of eukaryotes u origin of chloroplasts photosynthetic bacterium Endosymbiosis mitochondrion
  134. Eukaryotic Endosymbiosis cell with mitochondrion § Evolution of eukaryotes u origin of chloroplasts u engulfed photosynthetic bacteria, but did not digest them photosynthetic bacterium Endosymbiosis mitochondrion
  135. Eukaryotic Endosymbiosis cell with mitochondrion § Evolution of eukaryotes u origin of chloroplasts u engulfed photosynthetic bacteria, but did not digest them u mutually beneficial relationship photosynthetic bacterium Endosymbiosis mitochondrion
  136. Eukaryotic Endosymbiosis cell with mitochondrion § Evolution of eukaryotes u origin of chloroplasts u engulfed photosynthetic bacteria, but did not digest them u mutually beneficial relationship photosynthetic bacterium chloroplast Endosymbiosis mitochondrion
  137. Eukaryotic Endosymbiosis cell with mitochondrion § Evolution of eukaryotes u origin of chloroplasts u engulfed photosynthetic bacteria, but did not digest them u mutually beneficial relationship photosynthetic bacterium chloroplast Endosymbiosis mitochondrion Eukaryotic cell with chloroplast & mitochondrion
  138. Theory of Endosymbiosis
  139. Theory of Endosymbiosis Lynn Margulis
  140. Theory of Endosymbiosis § Evidence Lynn Margulis
  141. Theory of Endosymbiosis § Evidence u structural Lynn Margulis
  142. Theory of Endosymbiosis § Evidence u structural § mitochondria & chloroplasts resemble bacterial structure Lynn Margulis
  143. Theory of Endosymbiosis § Evidence u structural § mitochondria & chloroplasts resemble bacterial structure u genetic Lynn Margulis
  144. Theory of Endosymbiosis § Evidence u structural § mitochondria & chloroplasts resemble bacterial structure u genetic Lynn Margulis § mitochondria & chloroplasts have their own circular DNA, like bacteria
  145. Theory of Endosymbiosis § Evidence u structural § mitochondria & chloroplasts resemble bacterial structure u genetic Lynn Margulis § mitochondria & chloroplasts have their own circular DNA, like bacteria u functional
  146. Theory of Endosymbiosis § Evidence u structural § mitochondria & chloroplasts resemble bacterial structure u genetic Lynn Margulis § mitochondria & chloroplasts have their own circular DNA, like bacteria u functional § mitochondria & chloroplasts move freely within the cell
  147. Theory of Endosymbiosis § Evidence u structural § mitochondria & chloroplasts resemble bacterial structure u genetic Lynn Margulis § mitochondria & chloroplasts have their own circular DNA, like bacteria u functional § mitochondria & chloroplasts move freely within the cell § mitochondria & chloroplasts reproduce independently from the cell

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