AIM: How can organisms be improved
 using the idea of natural selection?



               Warm – up:
    In evolutionary ...
Artificial selection
§ Artificial breeding can use variations in
  populations to create vastly different
  “breeds” & “va...
Artificial selection
§ Artificial breeding can use variations in
  populations to create vastly different
  “breeds” & “va...
Artificial selection
§ Artificial breeding can use variations in
  populations to create vastly different
  “breeds” & “va...
Artificial selection
§ Artificial breeding can use variations in
  populations to create vastly different
  “breeds” & “va...
Selective Breeding
Selective Breeding

Selective Breeding: Process in which
Selective Breeding

Selective Breeding: Process in which
particular individuals are chosen and allowed
Selective Breeding

Selective Breeding: Process in which
particular individuals are chosen and allowed
to breed, whereas o...
Selective Breeding

Selective Breeding: Process in which
particular individuals are chosen and allowed
to breed, whereas o...
Selective Breeding

Selective Breeding: Process in which
particular individuals are chosen and allowed
to breed, whereas o...
Selective Breeding

Selective Breeding: Process in which
particular individuals are chosen and allowed
to breed, whereas o...
Selective Breeding

Selective Breeding: Process in which
particular individuals are chosen and allowed
to breed, whereas o...
Selective Breeding

Selective Breeding: Process in which
particular individuals are chosen and allowed
to breed, whereas o...
Selective Breeding

Selective Breeding: Process in which
particular individuals are chosen and allowed
to breed, whereas o...
Selection

§ Artificial selection is similar to directional
  selection.

§ Similarities?


§ Differences?
Inbreeding

§ Involves breeding between closely related
  individuals with some desirable trait as the
  outcome
§ Loss of...
Yorkshire Terriers (Yorkies)
Yorkshire Terriers (Yorkies)
Yorkshire Terriers (Yorkies)
Bassett Hound
Bassett Hound
Bassett Hound
Example of Inbreeding in Plants

§ Wheat plants generally self pollinate
  Ø   High yield
  Ø   Short stems
  Ø   Pest res...
Outbreeding

§ Involves crossing individuals from genetically
  distinct strains to form hybrids.
§ Hybrids have character...
Liger
Mule
Mule
Mule
Mule
HOMEWORK


§ Complete Ques. 3 from Classwork H.O.
§ Read p. 450 – 453
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1.4

  1. 1. AIM: How can organisms be improved using the idea of natural selection? Warm – up: In evolutionary terms, why is one organism more likely to survive than another?
  2. 2. Artificial selection § Artificial breeding can use variations in populations to create vastly different “breeds” & “varieties”
  3. 3. Artificial selection § Artificial breeding can use variations in populations to create vastly different “breeds” & “varieties” “descendants” of the wolf
  4. 4. Artificial selection § Artificial breeding can use variations in populations to create vastly different “breeds” & “varieties” “descendants” of wild mustard “descendants” of the wolf
  5. 5. Artificial selection § Artificial breeding can use variations in populations to create vastly different “breeds” & “varieties” “descendants” of wild mustard “descendants” of the wolf
  6. 6. Selective Breeding
  7. 7. Selective Breeding Selective Breeding: Process in which
  8. 8. Selective Breeding Selective Breeding: Process in which particular individuals are chosen and allowed
  9. 9. Selective Breeding Selective Breeding: Process in which particular individuals are chosen and allowed to breed, whereas others are prevented from
  10. 10. Selective Breeding Selective Breeding: Process in which particular individuals are chosen and allowed to breed, whereas others are prevented from breeding.
  11. 11. Selective Breeding Selective Breeding: Process in which particular individuals are chosen and allowed to breed, whereas others are prevented from breeding. • Alleles that give characteristics favored by humans are retained, while undesirable characteristics are eliminated.
  12. 12. Selective Breeding Selective Breeding: Process in which particular individuals are chosen and allowed to breed, whereas others are prevented from breeding. • Alleles that give characteristics favored by humans are retained, while undesirable characteristics are eliminated. • Raw genetic material is hidden and often allows for hidden variations to show through
  13. 13. Selective Breeding Selective Breeding: Process in which particular individuals are chosen and allowed to breed, whereas others are prevented from breeding. • Alleles that give characteristics favored by humans are retained, while undesirable characteristics are eliminated. • Raw genetic material is hidden and often allows for hidden variations to show through
  14. 14. Selective Breeding Selective Breeding: Process in which particular individuals are chosen and allowed to breed, whereas others are prevented from breeding. • Alleles that give characteristics favored by humans are retained, while undesirable characteristics are eliminated. • Raw genetic material is hidden and often allows for hidden variations to show through
  15. 15. Selective Breeding Selective Breeding: Process in which particular individuals are chosen and allowed to breed, whereas others are prevented from breeding. • Alleles that give characteristics favored by humans are retained, while undesirable characteristics are eliminated. • Raw genetic material is hidden and often allows for hidden variations to show through
  16. 16. Selection § Artificial selection is similar to directional selection. § Similarities? § Differences?
  17. 17. Inbreeding § Involves breeding between closely related individuals with some desirable trait as the outcome § Loss of genetic diversity § If loss occurs to the extent at which every individual has identical alleles, that is referred to as complete homozygosity § Why is this a problem?
  18. 18. Yorkshire Terriers (Yorkies)
  19. 19. Yorkshire Terriers (Yorkies)
  20. 20. Yorkshire Terriers (Yorkies)
  21. 21. Bassett Hound
  22. 22. Bassett Hound
  23. 23. Bassett Hound
  24. 24. Example of Inbreeding in Plants § Wheat plants generally self pollinate Ø High yield Ø Short stems Ø Pest resistance Ø High protein content of grain
  25. 25. Outbreeding § Involves crossing individuals from genetically distinct strains to form hybrids. § Hybrids have characteristics which are superior to the characteristics in either parent. (Hybrid vigour / Heterosis)
  26. 26. Liger
  27. 27. Mule
  28. 28. Mule
  29. 29. Mule
  30. 30. Mule
  31. 31. HOMEWORK § Complete Ques. 3 from Classwork H.O. § Read p. 450 – 453

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