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Bio17 The History of Life


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Chapter 17 lecture

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Bio17 The History of Life

  1. 2. 17-1 The Fossil Record
  2. 3. <ul><li>Fossils and Ancient Life </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paleontologists are scientists who collect and study fossils. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All information about past life is called the fossil record . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The fossil record includes information about the structure of organisms, what they ate, what ate them, in what environment they lived, and the order in which they lived. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><ul><li>The fossil record provides evidence about the history of life on Earth. It also shows how different groups of organisms, including species, have changed over time. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><ul><ul><li>The fossil record provides incomplete information about the history of life. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Over 99% of all species that have lived on Earth have become extinct , which means that the species has died out. </li></ul></ul></ul>Movie
  5. 6. <ul><li>Fossils can be as large as a complete, preserved animals, or as small as a fragment. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fossils include footprints, skeletons, eggs, and plant parts. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>How Fossils Form </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most fossils are in sedimentary rock. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sedimentary rock forms when the wind and rain breaks rock into small particles of sand, silt, and clay that pile up into layers of rock. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 8. How Fossils Form Water carries small rock particles to lakes and seas. Active art
  8. 9. How Fossils Form Dead organisms are buried by layers of sediment, which forms new rock.
  9. 10. How Fossils Form The preserved remains may be later discovered and studied.
  10. 11. <ul><li>Interpreting Fossil Evidence </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paleontologists determine the age of fossils using relative dating or radioactive dating. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><ul><li>Relative Dating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In relative dating , the age of a fossil is determined by its placement in layers of rock. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rock layers form in order by age—the oldest on the bottom, with more recent layers on top. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Relative Dating </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><ul><ul><li>Index fossils are used to compare the relative ages of fossils. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An index fossil is a recognizable species which existed for a short time but had a wide geographic range. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 16. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relative dating allows paleontologists to estimate a fossil's age compared with that of other fossils. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 17. <ul><ul><li>Radioactive Dating  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scientists use radioactive decay to assign an absolute age to rocks. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some elements are radioactive and steadily break down into nonradioactive elements. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><ul><ul><li>Radioactive dating is the use of half-lives to determine the age of a sample. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A half-life is the length of time required for half of the radioactive atoms in a sample to decay. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 19. Interpreting Fossil Evidence
  18. 20. <ul><ul><li>In radioactive dating, scientists calculate the age of a sample based on the amount of remaining radioactive isotopes it contains. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 21. <ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon-14 begins to decay when an organism dies. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon-12 is not radioactive and does not decay. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By comparing the amounts of carbon-14 and carbon-12 in a fossil, researchers can determine when the organism lived. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 22. <ul><ul><ul><li>Paleontologists use a scale called the geologic time scale to represent evolutionary time. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scientists first developed the geologic time scale by studying rock layers and index fossils worldwide. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 23. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The geologic time scale is divided into eras, which are divided into periods. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Periods are divided into epochs. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 24. <ul><ul><ul><li>Geologic time begins with Precambrian Time, which covers about 88% of Earth’s history. </li></ul></ul></ul>Vendian 650–544
  23. 25. <ul><ul><li>Eras  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Geologists divide the time between Precambrian time and the present into three eras : </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paleozoic Era- mass extinction at the end (90% of species gone). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mesozoic Era- Age of dinosaurs (reptiles) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cenozoic Era- most recent era </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 26. <ul><ul><ul><li>The Paleozoic began about 544 million years ago. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many vertebrates and invertebrates lived during this time. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 27. Permian Carboniferous Devonian Silurian Ordovician Cambrian 290–245 360–290 410–360 440–410 505–440 544–505
  26. 28. <ul><ul><ul><li>The Mesozoic began about 245 million years ago. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dinosaurs lived during this time. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mammals began to evolve during this era. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 29. Cretaceous Jurassic Triassic 145–65 208–145 245–208
  28. 30. <ul><ul><ul><li>The Cenozoic began about 65 million years ago and continues to the present. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mammals became common during the Cenozoic. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 32. <ul><ul><li>Periods  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eras are subdivided into periods, which range in length from tens of millions of years to less than two million years. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many periods are named for places around the world where geologists first discovered the rocks and fossils of that period. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 33. <ul><li>Clock Model of Earth’s History </li></ul>First humans First prokaryotes First land plants First multicellular organisms First eukaryotes Radiation of mammals Accumulation of atmospheric oxygen Movie Cenozoic Era Mesozoic Era Paleozoic Era Precambrian Time
  31. 34. 17-2 Earth's Early History
  32. 35. <ul><li>Formation of Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Hypotheses about Earth’s early history are based on a relatively small amount of evidence. </li></ul><ul><li>Gaps and uncertainties make it likely that scientific ideas about the origin of life will change. </li></ul>
  33. 36. <ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence shows that Earth was not “born” in a single event. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pieces of cosmic debris were probably attracted to one another over the course of 100 million years. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>While Earth was young, it was struck by one or more objects, producing enough heat to melt the entire globe. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 37. <ul><li>Once Earth melted, its elements rearranged themselves according to density. </li></ul><ul><li>The most dense elements formed the planet’s core. </li></ul><ul><li>Moderately dense elements floated to the surface, cooled, and formed a solid crust. </li></ul><ul><li>The least dense elements formed the first atmosphere. </li></ul>
  35. 38. Formation of Earth <ul><ul><li>Earth's early atmosphere probably contained hydrogen cyanide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, and water. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth's early atmosphere probably contained poisonous gases! </li></ul></ul>
  36. 39. <ul><li>Scientists infer that about four billion years ago, Earth cooled and solid rocks formed on its surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Millions of years later, volcanic activity shook early Earth’s crust. </li></ul><ul><li>About 3.8 billion years ago, Earth’s surface cooled enough for water to remain a liquid, and oceans covered much of the surface. </li></ul>
  37. 40. <ul><li>The First Organic Molecules </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Could organic molecules have evolved under conditions on early Earth? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In the 1950s, Stanley Miller and Harold Urey simulated the conditions of the Earth’s early atmosphere in a laboratory setting. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 41. The First Organic Molecules <ul><li>Miller and Urey’s Experiment </li></ul>Mixture of gases simulating atmosphere of early Earth Condensation chamber Spark simulating lightning storms Water vapor Liquid containing amino acids and other organic compounds Cold water cools chamber, causing droplets to form.
  39. 42. <ul><ul><li>Miller and Urey's experiments suggested how mixtures of the organic compounds necessary for life could have arisen from simpler compounds present on a primitive Earth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Although their simulations of early Earth were not accurate, experiments with current knowledge yielded similar results. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This could not happen in today’s atmosphere because oxygen would react with these molecules. </li></ul></ul>
  40. 43. <ul><li>The Puzzle of Life's Origin </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence suggests that 200–300 million years after Earth had liquid water, cells similar to modern bacteria were common . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 44. <ul><ul><li>Formation of Microspheres  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In certain conditions, large organic molecules form tiny bubbles called proteinoid microspheres. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proteinoid microspheres are not cells, but they have selectively permeable membranes and can store and release energy. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 45. <ul><ul><ul><li>Hypotheses suggest that structures similar to microspheres might have acquired more characteristics of living cells. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 46. <ul><ul><li>Evolution of RNA and DNA  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How could DNA and RNA have evolved? Several hypotheses suggest: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some RNA sequences can help DNA replicate under the right conditions. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some RNA molecules can even grow and duplicate themselves suggesting RNA might have existed before DNA. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 47. <ul><li>RNA and the Origin of Life </li></ul>Abiotic “stew” of inorganic matter Simple organic molecules RNA nucleotides RNA able to replicate itself, synthesize proteins, and function in information storage DNA functions in information storage and retrieval RNA helps in protein synthesis Proteins build cell structures and catalyze chemical reactions
  45. 48. <ul><li>Free Oxygen </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microscopic fossils, or microfossils, of unicellular prokaryotic organisms resembling modern bacteria have been found in rocks over 3.5 billion years old. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These first life-forms evolved without oxygen. They were unicellular and prokaryotic. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  46. 49. <ul><ul><ul><li>About 2.2 billion years ago, photosynthetic bacteria began to pump oxygen into the oceans. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Next, oxygen gas accumulated in the atmosphere. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  47. 50. Free Oxygen <ul><ul><li>The rise of oxygen in the atmosphere drove some life forms to extinction, while other life forms evolved new, more efficient metabolic pathways that used oxygen for respiration. </li></ul></ul>
  48. 51. <ul><li>The Endosymbiotic Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The endosymbiotic theory proposes that eukaryotic cells arose from living communities formed by prokaryotic organisms. </li></ul></ul>
  49. 52. Origin of Eukaryotic Cells <ul><ul><ul><li>Endosymbiotic Theory </li></ul></ul></ul>Mitochondrion Aerobic bacteria Nuclear envelope evolving Ancient Prokaryotes Plants and plantlike protists Primitive Photosynthetic Eukaryote Primitive Aerobic Eukaryote Ancient Anaerobic Prokaryote Chloroplast Animals, fungi, and non-plantlike protists Photosynthetic bacteria
  50. 53. <ul><ul><li>About 2 billion years ago, prokaryotic cells began evolving internal cell membranes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The result was the ancestor of all eukaryotic cells. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>According to the endosymbiotic theory, eukaryotic cells formed from a symbiosis among several different prokaryotes. </li></ul></ul>
  51. 54. Origin of Eukaryotic Cells Ancient Anaerobic Prokaryote Nuclear envelope evolving Aerobic bacteria Ancient Prokaryotes
  52. 55. <ul><ul><ul><li>Prokaryotes that use oxygen to generate energy-rich molecules of ATP evolved into mitochondria. </li></ul></ul></ul>Mitochondrion Primitive Aerobic Eukaryote
  53. 56. Primitive Photosynthetic Eukaryote Chloroplast Photosynthetic bacteria Prokaryotes that carried out photosynthesis evolved into chloroplasts.
  54. 57. <ul><li>Sexual Reproduction and Multicellularity </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most prokaryotes reproduce asexually. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Asexual reproduction: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>yields daughter cells that are exact copies of the parent cell. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>restricts genetic variation to mutations in DNA. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  55. 58. <ul><li>Sexual reproduction shuffles genes in each generation. In sexual reproduction: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>offspring never resemble parents exactly </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>there is an increased probability that favorable combinations will be produced </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>there is an increased chance of evolutionary change due to natural selection </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  56. 59. 17-3 Evolution of Multicellular Life
  57. 60. <ul><li>Precambrian Time </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Few fossils exist from Precambrian time because the animals were all soft-bodied. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Life existed only in the sea. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  58. 61. <ul><ul><li>Rich fossil evidence shows that early in the Paleozoic Era, there was a diversity of marine life. </li></ul></ul>
  59. 62. <ul><li>The Paleozoic Era is divided into the following periods: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cambrian </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ordovician </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Silurian </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Devonian </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carboniferous </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Permian </li></ul></ul></ul>
  60. 63. Paleozoic Era <ul><ul><li>Cambrian Period  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The diversification of life at this time is called the “Cambrian Explosion.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The first known representatives of most animal phyla evolved. These included: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>invertebrates </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>brachiopods </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>trilobites </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  61. 64. Paleozoic Era <ul><ul><li>Ordovician and Silurian Periods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some arthropods became the first land animals. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The first vertebrates appeared. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The first land plants evolved from aquatic ancestors. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  62. 65. <ul><ul><li>Devonian Period  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some plants adapted to drier areas and invaded more habitats. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insects appeared on land. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Devonian is often called the Age of Fishes because many groups of fishes were present in the oceans. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most fishes had jaws, bony skeletons, and scales. </li></ul></ul></ul>Paleozoic Era
  63. 66. <ul><ul><li>During the Devonian, vertebrates began to invade the land. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some of these early four-legged vertebrates evolved into the first amphibians. </li></ul></ul>Paleozoic Era
  64. 67. Paleozoic Era <ul><ul><li>Carboniferous and Permian Periods  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reptiles evolved from certain amphibians. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Winged insects evolved into many forms. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Giant ferns and other plants formed vast swampy forests. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remains of ancient plants formed thick deposits of sediment that changed into coal over millions of years. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  65. 68. Paleozoic Era <ul><ul><li>At the end of the Permian Period, there was a mass extinction in which many living things became extinct at the same time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The mass extinction at the end of the Paleozoic affected both plants and animals on land and in the seas. As much as 95% of the complex life in the oceans disappeared. </li></ul></ul>
  66. 69. Mesozoic Era <ul><ul><li>During the Mesozoic Era, dinosaurs became dominant. The Mesozoic is also marked by the appearance of flowering plants. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Mesozoic Era is often called the Age of Reptiles. </li></ul></ul>
  67. 70. Mesozoic Era <ul><ul><li>Triassic Period  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organisms that survived the Permian mass extinction became the main life forms early in the Triassic. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These organisms included fishes, insects, reptiles, and cone-bearing plants. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  68. 71. Mesozoic Era <ul><ul><li>Jurassic Period  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dinosaurs became the dominant animals on land. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One of the first birds, Archaeopteryx, appeared. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many paleontologists think that birds are close relatives of dinosaurs. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  69. 72. Mesozoic Era <ul><ul><li>Cretaceous Period   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dominant animals during this period included: reptiles, birds, turtles, crocodiles, fishes, and marine invertebrates. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New forms of plant life included leafy trees, shrubs, and small flowering plants. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  70. 73. Mesozoic Era <ul><li>The Cretaceous Period ended with a mass extinction. </li></ul><ul><li>More than half of all plant and animal groups were wiped out, including all of the dinosaurs. </li></ul>
  71. 74. <ul><ul><li>During the Cenozoic, mammals evolved adaptations that allowed them to live in various environments—on land, in water, and even in the air. </li></ul></ul>Cenozoic Era
  72. 75. <ul><ul><li>The Cenozoic often is called the Age of Mammals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Cenozoic is divided into the Tertiary Period and the Quaternary Period. </li></ul></ul>Cenozoic Era
  73. 76. Cenozoic Era <ul><ul><li>Tertiary Period   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The climate was generally warm and mild. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marine mammals such as whales and dolphins evolved. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grasses evolved, providing food for grazing mammals. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some mammals became very large, as did some birds. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  74. 77. Cenozoic Era <ul><ul><li>Quaternary Period    </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Earth’s climate cooled, causing a series of ice ages. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>About 20,000 years ago, Earth’s climate began to warm and sea levels began to rise. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In the oceans, algae, coral, mollusks, fishes, and mammals thrived. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insects, birds, and land mammals were common. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  75. 78. Cenozoic Era <ul><li>The fossil record suggests that the early ancestors of our species appeared about 4.5 million years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>The first fossils of Homo sapiens may have appeared as early as 200,000 years ago in Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>According to one hypothesis, members of our species migrated from Africa and ultimately colonized the world. </li></ul>
  76. 79. 17-4 Patterns of Evolution
  77. 80. <ul><li>Macroevolution refers to large-scale evolutionary patterns and processes that occur over long periods of time. </li></ul>
  78. 81. <ul><ul><li>Six important topics in macroevolution are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>extinction </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>adaptive radiation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>convergent evolution </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>coevolution </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>punctuated equilibrium </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>changes in developmental genes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  79. 82. <ul><li>Extinction </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More than 99% of all species that have ever lived are now extinct. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In the past, most researchers looked for a single, major cause for each mass extinction. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many paleontologists now think that mass extinctions were caused by several factors. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  80. 83. Extinction <ul><ul><li>What effects have mass extinctions had on the history of life? Mass extinctions have: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>provided ecological opportunities for organisms that survived </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>resulted in bursts of evolution that produced many new species </li></ul></ul></ul>
  81. 84. <ul><li>Adaptive Radiation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptive radiation is the process by which a single species or a small group of species evolves into several different forms that live in different ways. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For example, in the adaptive radiation of Darwin's finches, more than a dozen species evolved from a single species. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  82. 85. <ul><ul><li>Adaptive radiations can occur on a much larger scale. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The disappearance of dinosaurs then resulted in the adaptive radiation of mammals. </li></ul></ul>
  83. 86. <ul><ul><li>Adaptive Radiation of Mammals </li></ul></ul>Artiodactyls Cetaceans Perissodactyls Tubulidentates Hyracoids Sirenians Proboscideans Ancestral Mammals
  84. 87. <ul><li>Convergent Evolution </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Different organisms undergo adaptive radiation in different places or at different times but in similar environments. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The process by which unrelated organisms come to resemble one another is called convergent evolution. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Convergent evolution has resulted in sharks, dolphins, seals, and penguins. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  85. 88. <ul><ul><li>Structures that look and function similarly but are made up of parts that do not share a common evolutionary history are called analogous structures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A dolphin’s fluke and a fish’s tail fin are analogous structures. </li></ul></ul>
  86. 89. <ul><li>Coevolution </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes organisms that are closely connected to one another by ecological interactions evolve together. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The process by which two species evolve in response to changes in each other over time is called coevolution . Watch vid </li></ul></ul></ul>
  87. 90. <ul><li>Punctuated Equilibrium </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Darwin felt that biological change was slow and steady, an idea known as gradualism. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  88. 91. Punctuated equilibrium is a pattern of evolution in which long stable periods are interrupted by brief periods of more rapid change.
  89. 92. <ul><li>The concept of punctuated equilibrium has generated debate and is still controversial among some biologists today. </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution has often proceeded at different rates for different organisms at different times during the history of life on Earth. </li></ul>
  90. 93. <ul><li>Developmental Genes and Body Plans </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is suspected that changes in genes for growth and differentiation during embryological development could produce changes in body shape and size. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small changes in the activity of control genes can affect many other genes to produce large changes in adult animals. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  91. 94. <ul><ul><ul><li>Evolution of Wings in Insects </li></ul></ul></ul>Ancient Insect Two Types of Modern Insects
  92. 95. <ul><li>Small changes in the timing of cell differentiation and gene expression can make the difference between long legs and short ones. </li></ul>
  93. 96. <ul><ul><li>Which of the following statements about fossils is NOT true? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most fossils form in sedimentary rock. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fossils occur in a particular order. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only a small portion of fossils are from extinct organisms. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fossils can be used in relative dating of rock formations. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  94. 97. 17-1 <ul><ul><li>The fossil record consistently shows evidence that </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>all forms of life have existed in all geologic eras. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>living organisms have only been on Earth for a short time. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>living things have changed over time. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ancient life-forms are much the same as forms found living today. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  95. 98. <ul><ul><li>Index fossils assist paleontologists in dating rocks because they represent species that </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>were widely distributed and existed for a very long time. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>existed in a single location for a short period of time. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>were widely distributed and existed for a short time. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>existed in a single location for a very long time. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  96. 99. 17-1 <ul><ul><li>Determining the age of a fossil by comparing its placement with fossils in other layers of rock is called </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>carbon-14 dating. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fossil-indexing. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>relative dating. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>absolute dating. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  97. 100. 17-1 <ul><ul><li>According to the geologic time scale, geologic time begins with </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Precambrian Time. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the Paleozoic Era. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the Quaternary Period. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the Cambrian Era. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  98. 101. 17- 2 <ul><ul><li>Which of the following gases was probably NOT present in the early Earth’s atmosphere? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hydrogen cyanide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>oxygen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>nitrogen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>carbon monoxide </li></ul></ul></ul>
  99. 102. 17- 2 <ul><ul><li>Miller and Urey's experiment was a simulation of Earth's early </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>volcanic activity. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>formation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>atmosphere. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>life. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  100. 103. <ul><ul><li>Proteinoid microspheres are different from cells because microspheres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>have selectively permeable membranes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>do not have DNA or RNA. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>have a simple means of storing and releasing energy. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>separate their internal environment from the external environment. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  101. 104. <ul><ul><li>The hypothesis that RNA sequences appeared before DNA sequences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>has some evidence in its favor but is still being tested. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>has been rejected since DNA is required to make RNA. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>has been proven since RNA has been made in laboratories. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>has been rejected because it is illogical. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  102. 105. <ul><ul><li>As concentrations of oxygen rose in the ancient atmosphere of Earth, organisms began to evolve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>anaerobic pathways. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>plasma membranes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>metabolic pathways that used oxygen. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>photosynthesis. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  103. 106. <ul><ul><li>The fossil record indicates that mammals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>were large meat-eaters that caused the extinction of the dinosaurs. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>appeared in the Triassic Period but did not flourish until the dinosaurs became extinct. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>successfully competed with the dinosaurs because they protected their young. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>are the ancestors of modern birds. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  104. 107. 17- 4 <ul><ul><li>Darwin's species of finches were very similar but different in beak size and feeding habits. This is an example of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>convergent evolution. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>coevolution. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>adaptive radiation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>stabilizing selection. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  105. 108. 17- 4 <ul><ul><li>A slow steady change in a particular line of descent is called </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>coevolution. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>gradualism. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>punctuated equilibrium. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>convergent evolution. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  106. 109. 17- 4 <ul><ul><li>Master control genes are called </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hox genes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>developmental genes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>embryonic genes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>regulatory genes. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  107. 110. <ul><ul><li>Some evidence suggests that species do not change much over long periods of time and then undergo relatively short periods of rapid speciation. This kind of change is called </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>coevolution. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>genetic equilibrium. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>adaptive radiation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>punctuated equilibrium. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  108. 111. <ul><ul><li>Fossil evidence shows that mass extinctions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ended the existence of many species in a short period of time. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>occurred mainly when the dinosaurs disappeared. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>require an asteroid strike to occur. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>caused convergent evolution among animals. </li></ul></ul></ul>