AIM: What are the overall factors
       causing evolution?


                Warm-up:
Briefly describe 2 mechanisms that ...
5 Agents of evolutionary change
5 Agents of evolutionary change
    Mutation
5 Agents of evolutionary change
    Mutation   Gene Flow
5 Agents of evolutionary change
    Mutation   Gene Flow   Non-random mating
5 Agents of evolutionary change
    Mutation                   Gene Flow   Non-random mating




               Genetic Drift
5 Agents of evolutionary change
    Mutation                   Gene Flow        Non-random mating




               Genet...
1. Mutation & Variation
1. Mutation & Variation
1. Mutation & Variation
 § Mutation creates variation
1. Mutation & Variation
 § Mutation creates variation
   u   new mutations are constantly appearing
1. Mutation & Variation
 § Mutation creates variation
   u   new mutations are constantly appearing
 § Mutation changes DN...
1. Mutation & Variation
 § Mutation creates variation
   u   new mutations are constantly appearing
 § Mutation changes DN...
1. Mutation & Variation
 § Mutation creates variation
   u   new mutations are constantly appearing
 § Mutation changes DN...
1. Mutation & Variation
 § Mutation creates variation
   u   new mutations are constantly appearing
 § Mutation changes DN...
2. Gene Flow
2. Gene Flow
2. Gene Flow
 § Movement of individuals &
  alleles in & out of populations
2. Gene Flow
 § Movement of individuals &
  alleles in & out of populations
   u   seed & pollen distribution by
       wi...
2. Gene Flow
 § Movement of individuals &
  alleles in & out of populations
   u   seed & pollen distribution by
       wi...
2. Gene Flow
 § Movement of individuals &
  alleles in & out of populations
   u   seed & pollen distribution by
       wi...
2. Gene Flow
 § Movement of individuals &
  alleles in & out of populations
   u   seed & pollen distribution by
       wi...
2. Gene Flow
 § Movement of individuals &
  alleles in & out of populations
   u   seed & pollen distribution by
       wi...
Human evolution today
§ Gene flow in human
  populations is
  increasing today
  u   transferring alleles
      between po...
Human evolution today
§ Gene flow in human
  populations is
  increasing today
  u   transferring alleles
      between po...
Human evolution today
§ Gene flow in human
  populations is
  increasing today
  u   transferring alleles
      between po...
3. Non-random mating
 § Sexual selection
3. Non-random mating
 § Sexual selection
4. Genetic drift
4. Genetic drift
4. Genetic drift
§ Effect of chance events
4. Genetic drift
§ Effect of chance events
  u   founder effect
4. Genetic drift
§ Effect of chance events
  u   founder effect
      § small group splinters off & starts a new colony
4. Genetic drift
§ Effect of chance events
  u   founder effect
      § small group splinters off & starts a new colony


...
4. Genetic drift
§ Effect of chance events
  u   founder effect
      § small group splinters off & starts a new colony
  ...
4. Genetic drift
§ Effect of chance events
  u   founder effect
      § small group splinters off & starts a new colony
  ...
4. Genetic drift
§ Effect of chance events
  u   founder effect
      § small group splinters off & starts a new colony
  ...
Founder effect
Founder effect
 § When a new population is started
   by only a few individuals
   u   some rare alleles may be at high
  ...
Distribution of blood types
 § Distribution of the O type blood allele in native
   populations of the world reflects orig...
Distribution of blood types
 § Distribution of the O type blood allele in native
   populations of the world reflects orig...
Distribution of blood types
 § Distribution of the O type blood allele in native
   populations of the world reflects orig...
Distribution of blood types
 § Distribution of the B type blood allele in native
   populations of the world reflects orig...
Distribution of blood types
 § Distribution of the B type blood allele in native
   populations of the world reflects orig...
Distribution of blood types
 § Distribution of the B type blood allele in native
   populations of the world reflects orig...
Distribution of blood types
 § Distribution of the B type blood allele in native
   populations of the world reflects orig...
Bottleneck effect
Bottleneck effect
§ When large population is drastically
 reduced by a disaster
Bottleneck effect
§ When large population is drastically
 reduced by a disaster
  u   famine, natural disaster, loss of ha...
Bottleneck effect
§ When large population is drastically
 reduced by a disaster
  u   famine, natural disaster, loss of ha...
Bottleneck effect
§ When large population is drastically
 reduced by a disaster
  u   famine, natural disaster, loss of ha...
Bottleneck effect
§ When large population is drastically
 reduced by a disaster
  u   famine, natural disaster, loss of ha...
Bottleneck effect
§ When large population is drastically
 reduced by a disaster
  u   famine, natural disaster, loss of ha...
Cheetahs
Cheetahs
§ All cheetahs share a small number of alleles
Cheetahs
§ All cheetahs share a small number of alleles
  u   less than 1% diversity
Cheetahs
§ All cheetahs share a small number of alleles
  u   less than 1% diversity
  u   as if all cheetahs are
      id...
Cheetahs
§ All cheetahs share a small number of alleles
  u   less than 1% diversity
  u   as if all cheetahs are
      id...
Cheetahs
§ All cheetahs share a small number of alleles
  u   less than 1% diversity
  u   as if all cheetahs are
      id...
Cheetahs
§ All cheetahs share a small number of alleles
  u   less than 1% diversity
  u   as if all cheetahs are
      id...
Cheetahs
§ All cheetahs share a small number of alleles
  u   less than 1% diversity
  u   as if all cheetahs are
      id...
Cheetahs
§ All cheetahs share a small number of alleles
  u   less than 1% diversity
  u   as if all cheetahs are
      id...
Peregrine Falcon
Conservation issues




                              Golden Lion
                                  Tamarin
Peregrine Falcon
Conservation issues
§ Bottlenecking is an important
  concept in conservation
  biology of endangered
  s...
Peregrine Falcon
Conservation issues
§ Bottlenecking is an important
  concept in conservation
  biology of endangered
  s...
Peregrine Falcon
Conservation issues
§ Bottlenecking is an important
  concept in conservation
  biology of endangered
  s...
Peregrine Falcon
  Conservation issues
  § Bottlenecking is an important
     concept in conservation
     biology of enda...
5. Natural selection
5. Natural selection
§ Differential survival & reproduction due
  to changing environmental conditions
5. Natural selection
§ Differential survival & reproduction due
  to changing environmental conditions
     § climate change
5. Natural selection
§ Differential survival & reproduction due
  to changing environmental conditions
     § climate chan...
5. Natural selection
§ Differential survival & reproduction due
  to changing environmental conditions
     § climate chan...
5. Natural selection
§ Differential survival & reproduction due
  to changing environmental conditions
     § climate chan...
5. Natural selection
§ Differential survival & reproduction due
  to changing environmental conditions
      § climate cha...
5. Natural selection
§ Differential survival & reproduction due
  to changing environmental conditions
      § climate cha...
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1.6

  1. 1. AIM: What are the overall factors causing evolution? Warm-up: Briefly describe 2 mechanisms that could account for speciation.
  2. 2. 5 Agents of evolutionary change
  3. 3. 5 Agents of evolutionary change Mutation
  4. 4. 5 Agents of evolutionary change Mutation Gene Flow
  5. 5. 5 Agents of evolutionary change Mutation Gene Flow Non-random mating
  6. 6. 5 Agents of evolutionary change Mutation Gene Flow Non-random mating Genetic Drift
  7. 7. 5 Agents of evolutionary change Mutation Gene Flow Non-random mating Genetic Drift Selection
  8. 8. 1. Mutation & Variation
  9. 9. 1. Mutation & Variation
  10. 10. 1. Mutation & Variation § Mutation creates variation
  11. 11. 1. Mutation & Variation § Mutation creates variation u new mutations are constantly appearing
  12. 12. 1. Mutation & Variation § Mutation creates variation u new mutations are constantly appearing § Mutation changes DNA sequence
  13. 13. 1. Mutation & Variation § Mutation creates variation u new mutations are constantly appearing § Mutation changes DNA sequence u changes amino acid sequence
  14. 14. 1. Mutation & Variation § Mutation creates variation u new mutations are constantly appearing § Mutation changes DNA sequence u changes amino acid sequence u changes protein
  15. 15. 1. Mutation & Variation § Mutation creates variation u new mutations are constantly appearing § Mutation changes DNA sequence u changes amino acid sequence u changes protein u changes in protein may change phenotype & therefore change fitness
  16. 16. 2. Gene Flow
  17. 17. 2. Gene Flow
  18. 18. 2. Gene Flow § Movement of individuals & alleles in & out of populations
  19. 19. 2. Gene Flow § Movement of individuals & alleles in & out of populations u seed & pollen distribution by wind & insect
  20. 20. 2. Gene Flow § Movement of individuals & alleles in & out of populations u seed & pollen distribution by wind & insect u migration of animals
  21. 21. 2. Gene Flow § Movement of individuals & alleles in & out of populations u seed & pollen distribution by wind & insect u migration of animals § sub-populations may have different allele frequencies
  22. 22. 2. Gene Flow § Movement of individuals & alleles in & out of populations u seed & pollen distribution by wind & insect u migration of animals § sub-populations may have different allele frequencies § causes genetic mixing across regions
  23. 23. 2. Gene Flow § Movement of individuals & alleles in & out of populations u seed & pollen distribution by wind & insect u migration of animals § sub-populations may have different allele frequencies § causes genetic mixing across regions § reduce differences between populations
  24. 24. Human evolution today § Gene flow in human populations is increasing today u transferring alleles between populations
  25. 25. Human evolution today § Gene flow in human populations is increasing today u transferring alleles between populations
  26. 26. Human evolution today § Gene flow in human populations is increasing today u transferring alleles between populations Are we moving towards a blended world?
  27. 27. 3. Non-random mating § Sexual selection
  28. 28. 3. Non-random mating § Sexual selection
  29. 29. 4. Genetic drift
  30. 30. 4. Genetic drift
  31. 31. 4. Genetic drift § Effect of chance events
  32. 32. 4. Genetic drift § Effect of chance events u founder effect
  33. 33. 4. Genetic drift § Effect of chance events u founder effect § small group splinters off & starts a new colony
  34. 34. 4. Genetic drift § Effect of chance events u founder effect § small group splinters off & starts a new colony er Warbl finc h Gr s he ou inc n d ef fin e ch Tr es
  35. 35. 4. Genetic drift § Effect of chance events u founder effect § small group splinters off & starts a new colony u bottleneck er Warbl finc h Gr s he ou inc n d ef fin e ch Tr es
  36. 36. 4. Genetic drift § Effect of chance events u founder effect § small group splinters off & starts a new colony u bottleneck § some factor (disaster) reduces population to small number & then population recovers & expands again er Warbl finc h Gr s he ou inc n d ef fin e ch Tr es
  37. 37. 4. Genetic drift § Effect of chance events u founder effect § small group splinters off & starts a new colony u bottleneck § some factor (disaster) reduces population to small number & then population recovers & expands again er Warbl finc h Gr s he ou inc n d ef fin e ch Tr es
  38. 38. Founder effect
  39. 39. Founder effect § When a new population is started by only a few individuals u some rare alleles may be at high frequency; others may be missing u skew the gene pool of new population § human populations that started from small group of colonists § example: colonization of New World
  40. 40. Distribution of blood types § Distribution of the O type blood allele in native populations of the world reflects original settlement
  41. 41. Distribution of blood types § Distribution of the O type blood allele in native populations of the world reflects original settlement
  42. 42. Distribution of blood types § Distribution of the O type blood allele in native populations of the world reflects original settlement
  43. 43. Distribution of blood types § Distribution of the B type blood allele in native populations of the world reflects original migration
  44. 44. Distribution of blood types § Distribution of the B type blood allele in native populations of the world reflects original migration
  45. 45. Distribution of blood types § Distribution of the B type blood allele in native populations of the world reflects original migration
  46. 46. Distribution of blood types § Distribution of the B type blood allele in native populations of the world reflects original migration
  47. 47. Bottleneck effect
  48. 48. Bottleneck effect § When large population is drastically reduced by a disaster
  49. 49. Bottleneck effect § When large population is drastically reduced by a disaster u famine, natural disaster, loss of habitat…
  50. 50. Bottleneck effect § When large population is drastically reduced by a disaster u famine, natural disaster, loss of habitat… u loss of variation by chance event
  51. 51. Bottleneck effect § When large population is drastically reduced by a disaster u famine, natural disaster, loss of habitat… u loss of variation by chance event § alleles lost from gene pool
  52. 52. Bottleneck effect § When large population is drastically reduced by a disaster u famine, natural disaster, loss of habitat… u loss of variation by chance event § alleles lost from gene pool w not due to fitness
  53. 53. Bottleneck effect § When large population is drastically reduced by a disaster u famine, natural disaster, loss of habitat… u loss of variation by chance event § alleles lost from gene pool w not due to fitness § narrows the gene pool
  54. 54. Cheetahs
  55. 55. Cheetahs § All cheetahs share a small number of alleles
  56. 56. Cheetahs § All cheetahs share a small number of alleles u less than 1% diversity
  57. 57. Cheetahs § All cheetahs share a small number of alleles u less than 1% diversity u as if all cheetahs are identical twins
  58. 58. Cheetahs § All cheetahs share a small number of alleles u less than 1% diversity u as if all cheetahs are identical twins § 2 bottlenecks
  59. 59. Cheetahs § All cheetahs share a small number of alleles u less than 1% diversity u as if all cheetahs are identical twins § 2 bottlenecks u 10,000 years ago
  60. 60. Cheetahs § All cheetahs share a small number of alleles u less than 1% diversity u as if all cheetahs are identical twins § 2 bottlenecks u 10,000 years ago § Ice Age
  61. 61. Cheetahs § All cheetahs share a small number of alleles u less than 1% diversity u as if all cheetahs are identical twins § 2 bottlenecks u 10,000 years ago § Ice Age u last 100 years
  62. 62. Cheetahs § All cheetahs share a small number of alleles u less than 1% diversity u as if all cheetahs are identical twins § 2 bottlenecks u 10,000 years ago § Ice Age u last 100 years § poaching & loss of habitat
  63. 63. Peregrine Falcon Conservation issues Golden Lion Tamarin
  64. 64. Peregrine Falcon Conservation issues § Bottlenecking is an important concept in conservation biology of endangered species Golden Lion Tamarin
  65. 65. Peregrine Falcon Conservation issues § Bottlenecking is an important concept in conservation biology of endangered species u loss of alleles from gene pool Golden Lion Tamarin
  66. 66. Peregrine Falcon Conservation issues § Bottlenecking is an important concept in conservation biology of endangered species u loss of alleles from gene pool u reduces variation Golden Lion Tamarin
  67. 67. Peregrine Falcon Conservation issues § Bottlenecking is an important concept in conservation biology of endangered species u loss of alleles from gene pool u reduces variation u reduces adaptability Breeding programs must consciously outcross Golden Lion Tamarin
  68. 68. 5. Natural selection
  69. 69. 5. Natural selection § Differential survival & reproduction due to changing environmental conditions
  70. 70. 5. Natural selection § Differential survival & reproduction due to changing environmental conditions § climate change
  71. 71. 5. Natural selection § Differential survival & reproduction due to changing environmental conditions § climate change § food source availability
  72. 72. 5. Natural selection § Differential survival & reproduction due to changing environmental conditions § climate change § food source availability § predators, parasites, diseases
  73. 73. 5. Natural selection § Differential survival & reproduction due to changing environmental conditions § climate change § food source availability § predators, parasites, diseases § toxins
  74. 74. 5. Natural selection § Differential survival & reproduction due to changing environmental conditions § climate change § food source availability § predators, parasites, diseases § toxins u combinations of alleles that provide “fitness” increase in the population
  75. 75. 5. Natural selection § Differential survival & reproduction due to changing environmental conditions § climate change § food source availability § predators, parasites, diseases § toxins u combinations of alleles that provide “fitness” increase in the population § adaptive evolutionary change

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