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• Textile industry effluent is one of the major contributor to
water pollution (Verma et al., 2012)
• Dyeing and finishing processes is the main aforementioned
contributor (Khandegar & Saroha, 2013).
• treating effluent from textile industry is a challenging task
due to the various type of pollutant content, inter alia;
organic and inorganic dye, heavy metal, surfactant, grease,
wax and suspended solid (Kurade et al., 2012)
• The discharging industrial effluent properly is lies on the
shoulder of industrial corporates.
• It is important to the specific industry to treat their effluent
onsite before discharge it into aqueous ecosystem.
Textile industry process
(Batikprocessing)
Preparation of the cloth
Dyeing of the cloth
Application of the wax
Removing the wax
Source: JadiBatek.com.
POLUTION SOURCES
Process Compounds
Preparation of cloth Used oil (castor or coconut oil),
Starch
Dyeing of the cloth Organic and Inorganic dyes,
ludigol, potassium aluminum
sulfate, sodium alginate
Application of the wax Wax, dyes
Removing the wax Grease, surfactant, suspended
solids, colors
Source: JadiBatek.com.
Conventional technique
• Dye pollutions been a general focus in wastewater
treatment since the colour change in water body easily
detected even by bare eye (Vargas et al., 2011)
• There are a couple of common ways to discharge dyes
have such as physical-chemical technique destroying the
colour group, chemical oxidation and biological process
mineralizing the colourless organic intermediate etc.
(Khandegar and Saroha, 2013 and Kurade et al., 2012)
• Conventional techniques have limited ability to remove
pollutant completely, non-practical, produces toxic sludge,
sometimes required another disposal technique, and add to
unnecessary cost projection.
Conventional method Advantages Disadvantages
Activated carbon  Excellent removal for
wide variety of dyes
 Decrease the
concentration of
dissolved organic solid
 Very
expensive
 Involves the
loss of
adsorbent
Biological treatment
 Anaerobic process
 Activated sludge
process
 Oxidation ponding
 Capable to degrade
certain type of dye
(non-toxic dyes)
 Large area
requirement
 Long
treatment time
Catalytic wet oxidation  Capable to remove the
low concentration of
organic contaminant
 Do not produce by-
product
 Produce
carbon dioxide
Source : Khandegar and Saroha, (2013) and Kurade et al., (2012)
Conventional
method
Advantages Disadvantages
Chemical
oxidizing agent
 Effective to
remove textile
industry effluent
 Formation of
absorbable
organohalides (toxic
substance)
Coagulation  Effective for
sulphur and
dispersive dyes
removal
 Not effective for acid,
basic, direct, vat and
reactive dyes.
 Produce large amount
of sludge
 Increase Total
Suspended Solid
(TSS) content
Cucurbituril  Good sorption
capacity for
various dyes
 High cost
Conventional
method
Advantages Disadvantages
Electrochemical
destruction
 Breakdown non-
hazardous compound
 High cost of
electricity
Fentons reagent  Effective to decolour
soluble and insoluble
dyes.
 Produce
sludge
Ion exchange  Regeneration : no
adsorbent loss
 Only effective
for specific
dyes
Irradiation  Oxidation only
effective at lab scale
 A lot of
dissolved
oxygen
required
Source : Khandegar and Saroha, (2013) and Kurade et al., (2012)
Conventional
method
Advantages Disadvantages
Membrane
filtration
 Capable to remove all
types of dyes
 Less space requirement
 Do not produce sludge
 Minimize the used of
fresh water during
treatment (recycle and
reuse)
 High cost
NaOCl  Accelerates and initiates
azo-bond cleavage
 Release
aromatic
amine
Source : Khandegar and Saroha, (2013) and Kurade et al., (2012)
Conventional
method
Advantages Disadvantages
Ozonation  Applied in
gaseous state: no
volume change
 Short half-life (20
min)
 Hazardous
substances (
require ozone
destruction unit)
Peat  Good adsorbent
due to cellular
structure
 Lower specific
surface area for
adsorption are
compared to
activated carbon
Photochemical  Do not generate
sludge
 Produce by-
product
Conventional
method
Advantages Disadvantages
Silica gel  Only effective to
remove basic dye
 Side reaction
prevent
commercial
application
Wet air
oxidation
 Effective for
removal high
organic matter or
toxic contaminants
content
 High installation
and operating cost
Wood chips  only effective to
remove acid dyes
 Long retention
times requirement
Source : Khandegar and Saroha, (2013) and Kurade et al., (2012)
ADVANCE TECHNOLOGY
(Electrocoagulation + other method)
• electrocoagulation remove 97% of colour from water
body while coagulation (Alum) method remove 94 % of
dye content in the textile effluent.
• combination of electrocoagulation (EC) technique with
other method shows high effectiveness for removing
BOD, COD, color and turbidity from textile industry
wastewater (Khandegar and Saroha, 2013).
Combination technology Results (%)
EC + Electroflotation BOD (88.9), Color (93), COD
(79.7 ), Turbidity (76.2), SS
(85.5)
EC + Sedimentation COD (70), Turbidity (90)
EC + Nanofiltration Color(>99)
1)Bioflotation, 2)FBBR, 3)flow jet and 4)a standard activated sludge
system. (Souce : Papadia et al., 2011)
ADVANCE TECHNOLOGY
(Fixed Bed Biomass Reactor)
• FBBR is an effective advance technology used in treating
textile industry wastewater due to their high capability
holding high loads of very active biomass over time and
for their ability to handle high and variable organic loads.
• The segregated zones in FBBR system enhance the
sludge mineralization by decrease the washout of
biomass (Papadia et al., 2011)
ADVANCE TECHNOLOGY
(Bioflotation Reactor)
• Bioflotation is an effective advance technology used in
treating in treating dyeing and finishing effluent form textile
industry.
• Bioflotation technologies are less affected by organic loads
(the organic load rate up to 0.40 kgCOD /m3/day)
• The high pressure ejector air supply system in bioreactor
provides largest air wastewater contact surface, thus produce
high oxygen dissolution (Papadia et al., 2011).
CONCLUSION
• The findings of recent study related to textile industry
wastewater management is still not clear to determine the
most appropriate technique and technology to be used.
• More studies should be conducted and latest technologies
should be developed to answer to the earth’s urgency in
managing wastewater cycles effectively, for marine lives to
be saved and global water streams to be preserved.
CITED REFERENCES
Corcoran, E., Nellemann, C., Baker, E., Bos, R., Osborn, D., Savelli, H. Sick Water? The central role of
wastewater management in sustainable development. A rapid response assessment, United Nations
Environment Programme. UN-HABITAT, GRID; Arendal: 2010.
Khandegar, V., & Saroha, Anil K. (2013). Electrocoagulation for the treatment of textile industry effluent –
A review. Journal of Environmental Management, 128(0), 949-963. doi:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.06.043
Kurade, Mayur B., Waghmode, Tatoba R., Kagalkar, Anuradha N., & Govindwar, Sanjay P. (2012).
Decolorization of textile industry effluent containing disperse dye Scarlet RR by a newly developed
bacterial-yeast consortium BL-GG. Chemical Engineering Journal, 184(0), 33-41. doi:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2011.12.058
Papadia, Simone, Rovero, Giorgio, Fava, Fabio, & Di Gioia, Diana. (2011). Comparison of different pilot
scale bioreactors for the treatment of a real wastewater from the textile industry. International
Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 65(3), 396-403. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2011.01.002
Steiner, A. and Tibaijuka, A.K., (2010). Join statement. In Corcoran, E., Nellemann, C., Baker, E., Bos, R.,
Osborn, D.,Savelli, H. Sick Water? The central role of wastewater management in sustainable development.
A rapid response assessment, United Nations Environment Programme. UN-HABITAT, GRID; Arendal:
2010.
Verma, Akshaya Kumar, Dash, Rajesh Roshan, & Bhunia, Puspendu. (2012). A review on chemical
coagulation/flocculation technologies for removal of colour from textile wastewaters. Journal of
Environmental Management, 93(1), 154-168. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.09.012

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Textile industry

  • 1.
  • 2. • Textile industry effluent is one of the major contributor to water pollution (Verma et al., 2012) • Dyeing and finishing processes is the main aforementioned contributor (Khandegar & Saroha, 2013). • treating effluent from textile industry is a challenging task due to the various type of pollutant content, inter alia; organic and inorganic dye, heavy metal, surfactant, grease, wax and suspended solid (Kurade et al., 2012) • The discharging industrial effluent properly is lies on the shoulder of industrial corporates. • It is important to the specific industry to treat their effluent onsite before discharge it into aqueous ecosystem.
  • 3. Textile industry process (Batikprocessing) Preparation of the cloth Dyeing of the cloth Application of the wax Removing the wax Source: JadiBatek.com.
  • 4. POLUTION SOURCES Process Compounds Preparation of cloth Used oil (castor or coconut oil), Starch Dyeing of the cloth Organic and Inorganic dyes, ludigol, potassium aluminum sulfate, sodium alginate Application of the wax Wax, dyes Removing the wax Grease, surfactant, suspended solids, colors Source: JadiBatek.com.
  • 5. Conventional technique • Dye pollutions been a general focus in wastewater treatment since the colour change in water body easily detected even by bare eye (Vargas et al., 2011) • There are a couple of common ways to discharge dyes have such as physical-chemical technique destroying the colour group, chemical oxidation and biological process mineralizing the colourless organic intermediate etc. (Khandegar and Saroha, 2013 and Kurade et al., 2012) • Conventional techniques have limited ability to remove pollutant completely, non-practical, produces toxic sludge, sometimes required another disposal technique, and add to unnecessary cost projection.
  • 6. Conventional method Advantages Disadvantages Activated carbon  Excellent removal for wide variety of dyes  Decrease the concentration of dissolved organic solid  Very expensive  Involves the loss of adsorbent Biological treatment  Anaerobic process  Activated sludge process  Oxidation ponding  Capable to degrade certain type of dye (non-toxic dyes)  Large area requirement  Long treatment time Catalytic wet oxidation  Capable to remove the low concentration of organic contaminant  Do not produce by- product  Produce carbon dioxide Source : Khandegar and Saroha, (2013) and Kurade et al., (2012)
  • 7. Conventional method Advantages Disadvantages Chemical oxidizing agent  Effective to remove textile industry effluent  Formation of absorbable organohalides (toxic substance) Coagulation  Effective for sulphur and dispersive dyes removal  Not effective for acid, basic, direct, vat and reactive dyes.  Produce large amount of sludge  Increase Total Suspended Solid (TSS) content Cucurbituril  Good sorption capacity for various dyes  High cost
  • 8. Conventional method Advantages Disadvantages Electrochemical destruction  Breakdown non- hazardous compound  High cost of electricity Fentons reagent  Effective to decolour soluble and insoluble dyes.  Produce sludge Ion exchange  Regeneration : no adsorbent loss  Only effective for specific dyes Irradiation  Oxidation only effective at lab scale  A lot of dissolved oxygen required Source : Khandegar and Saroha, (2013) and Kurade et al., (2012)
  • 9. Conventional method Advantages Disadvantages Membrane filtration  Capable to remove all types of dyes  Less space requirement  Do not produce sludge  Minimize the used of fresh water during treatment (recycle and reuse)  High cost NaOCl  Accelerates and initiates azo-bond cleavage  Release aromatic amine Source : Khandegar and Saroha, (2013) and Kurade et al., (2012)
  • 10. Conventional method Advantages Disadvantages Ozonation  Applied in gaseous state: no volume change  Short half-life (20 min)  Hazardous substances ( require ozone destruction unit) Peat  Good adsorbent due to cellular structure  Lower specific surface area for adsorption are compared to activated carbon Photochemical  Do not generate sludge  Produce by- product
  • 11. Conventional method Advantages Disadvantages Silica gel  Only effective to remove basic dye  Side reaction prevent commercial application Wet air oxidation  Effective for removal high organic matter or toxic contaminants content  High installation and operating cost Wood chips  only effective to remove acid dyes  Long retention times requirement Source : Khandegar and Saroha, (2013) and Kurade et al., (2012)
  • 12. ADVANCE TECHNOLOGY (Electrocoagulation + other method) • electrocoagulation remove 97% of colour from water body while coagulation (Alum) method remove 94 % of dye content in the textile effluent. • combination of electrocoagulation (EC) technique with other method shows high effectiveness for removing BOD, COD, color and turbidity from textile industry wastewater (Khandegar and Saroha, 2013). Combination technology Results (%) EC + Electroflotation BOD (88.9), Color (93), COD (79.7 ), Turbidity (76.2), SS (85.5) EC + Sedimentation COD (70), Turbidity (90) EC + Nanofiltration Color(>99)
  • 13. 1)Bioflotation, 2)FBBR, 3)flow jet and 4)a standard activated sludge system. (Souce : Papadia et al., 2011)
  • 14. ADVANCE TECHNOLOGY (Fixed Bed Biomass Reactor) • FBBR is an effective advance technology used in treating textile industry wastewater due to their high capability holding high loads of very active biomass over time and for their ability to handle high and variable organic loads. • The segregated zones in FBBR system enhance the sludge mineralization by decrease the washout of biomass (Papadia et al., 2011)
  • 15. ADVANCE TECHNOLOGY (Bioflotation Reactor) • Bioflotation is an effective advance technology used in treating in treating dyeing and finishing effluent form textile industry. • Bioflotation technologies are less affected by organic loads (the organic load rate up to 0.40 kgCOD /m3/day) • The high pressure ejector air supply system in bioreactor provides largest air wastewater contact surface, thus produce high oxygen dissolution (Papadia et al., 2011).
  • 16. CONCLUSION • The findings of recent study related to textile industry wastewater management is still not clear to determine the most appropriate technique and technology to be used. • More studies should be conducted and latest technologies should be developed to answer to the earth’s urgency in managing wastewater cycles effectively, for marine lives to be saved and global water streams to be preserved.
  • 17. CITED REFERENCES Corcoran, E., Nellemann, C., Baker, E., Bos, R., Osborn, D., Savelli, H. Sick Water? The central role of wastewater management in sustainable development. A rapid response assessment, United Nations Environment Programme. UN-HABITAT, GRID; Arendal: 2010. Khandegar, V., & Saroha, Anil K. (2013). Electrocoagulation for the treatment of textile industry effluent – A review. Journal of Environmental Management, 128(0), 949-963. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.06.043 Kurade, Mayur B., Waghmode, Tatoba R., Kagalkar, Anuradha N., & Govindwar, Sanjay P. (2012). Decolorization of textile industry effluent containing disperse dye Scarlet RR by a newly developed bacterial-yeast consortium BL-GG. Chemical Engineering Journal, 184(0), 33-41. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2011.12.058 Papadia, Simone, Rovero, Giorgio, Fava, Fabio, & Di Gioia, Diana. (2011). Comparison of different pilot scale bioreactors for the treatment of a real wastewater from the textile industry. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 65(3), 396-403. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2011.01.002 Steiner, A. and Tibaijuka, A.K., (2010). Join statement. In Corcoran, E., Nellemann, C., Baker, E., Bos, R., Osborn, D.,Savelli, H. Sick Water? The central role of wastewater management in sustainable development. A rapid response assessment, United Nations Environment Programme. UN-HABITAT, GRID; Arendal: 2010. Verma, Akshaya Kumar, Dash, Rajesh Roshan, & Bhunia, Puspendu. (2012). A review on chemical coagulation/flocculation technologies for removal of colour from textile wastewaters. Journal of Environmental Management, 93(1), 154-168. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.09.012