Pollution Abatement


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Pollution Abatement

  1. 1. A TPA Presentation How To Reduce The Pollution In Textile Processing.
  2. 2. Buddha Nala Who Is Polluting It ?
  3. 3. Buddha Nala
  4. 4. Sidhwan Canal Who Is Polluting It ?
  5. 5. Air in Ludhiana Who Is Polluting It ?
  6. 6. Recycle Please
  7. 7. Save the Earth? think about it, now
  8. 8. Air Pollution
  9. 9. Dyeing Pollution
  10. 10. Water Pollution Sources
  11. 11. Reducing Pollution (SIZING) <ul><li>Replacing starch based sizes with low BOD synthetic sizes. </li></ul><ul><li>Recovering sizes from desizing ,to reduce 90% BOD load. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiding damage of starch bags </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiding washing spilled sizing materials down the drains. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiding disposal of unused sizing baths in the drains </li></ul><ul><li>Collecting spillages for use in the process if possible </li></ul>
  12. 12. Pollution Abatement in desizing <ul><li>Replace starch based sizes with acrylates or PVA. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidative desizing instead of enzymes reduce BOD load. </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery of sizes by high pressure or vacuum technology. </li></ul><ul><li>For PVA, PES, PAC and CMC membrane filtration should be carried out, if reuse is possible </li></ul><ul><li>Wastewater from cleaning the machines should be purified by biological treatment or concentrated by ultrafilteration. </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymatic desizing . </li></ul>
  13. 13. Pollution Abatement in Weaving <ul><li>Cotton fluff and particulates in the weaving area cause pollution which needs extraction system to withdraw the polluted air to filters, and replace it by fresh clean air from the outside atmosphere. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Pollution Abatement in Knitting <ul><li>Mineral oils can be substituted with degradable synthetic oils or vegetable oils, which do not contain hazardous preservatives. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Pollution Abatement in Scouring 1 <ul><li>The optimum amounts of alkaline recipes should not be exceeded </li></ul><ul><li>Alkalis should be recycled and reused as much as possible; Rinsing water should be reused for preparing the scouring bath </li></ul><ul><li>Combining the desizing and scouring processes can save water and energy and reduce processing time. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of enzymes, bio scouring . </li></ul>
  16. 16. Pollution Abatement in Scouring 2 <ul><li>Recovering and reusing caustic wash liquors from mercreization. </li></ul><ul><li>A reduction of 25% in sodium hydroxide can be obtained by substitution with sodium carbonate. </li></ul><ul><li>The use of sodium acetate is recommended for neutralizing scoured goods so as to convert mineral acidity into volatile organic acidity. </li></ul><ul><li>Surfactants should have a high degree of ultimate biodegradability without producing metabolites that are toxic to aquatic species. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Pollution Abatement in Scouring 3 <ul><li>Alkylphenolethoxylates (APEO) in detergents and dispersants should be substituted by readily biodegradable surfactants </li></ul><ul><li>Solvents having environmental impact that is more damaging than available alternatives, should be avoided </li></ul><ul><li>Mineral acids (sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid) should only be used for neutralisation when no better options are available. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Pollution Abatement in Bleaching 1 <ul><li>Fabrics that need to be colored in deep shades should not be bleached extensively . </li></ul><ul><li>The use of continuous knit bleaching ranges, to replace batch preparation of knitted fabrics reduces the water and chemical consumption . </li></ul><ul><li>Peroxide bleaches should be used instead of reductive sculpture- containing bleaches which are more hazardous . hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2) should be used as the bleaching agent in preference to chlorine- containing compounds, such as hypochlorite. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Pollution Abatement in Bleaching 2 <ul><li>The wetting agents, emulsifiers, surfactants and all other organic chemicals should be readily biodegradable without producing metabolites, which are toxic to aquatic species. </li></ul><ul><li>The installation of holding tanks for bleach bath reuse . </li></ul><ul><li>Precursors (proteins and pectines) should be removed in order to prevent the formation of hazardous organohalogen substances in bleaching with chlorine . </li></ul>
  20. 20. Pollution Abatement in Mercerizing <ul><li>Dilute alkali from mercerizing should be reused in scouring, bleaching or dyeing operations . </li></ul><ul><li>Alkali should be recovered and recycled or reused after regenerative treatment . </li></ul><ul><li>The non-recoverable fraction of the mercerizing wastewater should be neutralized by mixing with acid effluents or by co 2 as an acid . </li></ul>
  21. 21. Pollution Abatement in Dyeing 1 <ul><li>The use of low-liquor ratio dyeing . </li></ul><ul><li>Salt management :- although salt is cheap, effective and has very low toxicity, it has to be used with optimum dosage for each individual for each dyeing. Use low salt and low alkali dyes. </li></ul><ul><li>·The dye bath temperature :- the temperature of dyebath should be optimized to avoid overheating, and excess consumption of dye which helps to reduce pollution. </li></ul><ul><li>Reuse of dyebaths :- collection and replenishment of the spent dye bath ,particularly in sulphur dyeing. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Pollution Abatement in Dyeing 2 <ul><li>Substitution of harmful dyestuffs and chemicals. </li></ul><ul><li>Such as sodium sulphide with glucose, stopping use of dichromate and chlorine bleaches. </li></ul><ul><li>A number of dyes should be banned from use due to their potentially toxic , mutagenic or carcinogenic properties. These dyes release amines during processing, that are hazardous and to be replaced by corresponding safer alternative dye which contributes to pollution abatement . </li></ul>
  23. 23. Pollution Abatement in Dyeing 3 <ul><li>Minimizing machine cleaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Dyes found to be containing PCBs (e.G. Certain sources of cu-phthalocyanine) should be substituted immediately. </li></ul><ul><li>Cadmium containing pigments should not be used. </li></ul><ul><li>Benzidine -based azo-dyes should not be used at all . </li></ul>
  24. 24. Pollution Abatement in Dyeing 3 <ul><li>Carriers containing chlorine should not be used . </li></ul><ul><li>-   Halogenated solvents and dispersants for dyes and chemicals. </li></ul><ul><li>Should be substituted where possible by water-based systems metal containing dyes (cu, Cr, Ni, co, etc.) Should be. </li></ul><ul><li>Substituted by other dyes . </li></ul>
  25. 25. Pollution Abatement in Dyeing 4 <ul><li>In order to minimize the discharges of BOD, COD, etc ,less polluted water from rinsing and washing must be collected and reused.Segregate high polluted water from less polluted water to reduce effluent volumes to be treated. </li></ul><ul><li>Recover hot condensate and reuse it. </li></ul><ul><li>Heat recovery from HT drains. </li></ul><ul><li>Recover cooling water for reuse in closed systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid over flow washings , use intermittent wash. </li></ul><ul><li>Wastewater generated from dyeing, should receive a dedicated treatment to remove the persistent pollutants. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Standardisation of Color-matching Procedures <ul><li>standardised working procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>Standard measuring instrument selection. </li></ul><ul><li>Training of the shade matching staff. </li></ul><ul><li>Standardisation of lab sampling machines. </li></ul><ul><li>Improving lab to bulk and bulk to lab reproducibility. </li></ul><ul><li>Better and efficient use of computer color matching system. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Pollution Abatement by Enzymatic Processing <ul><li>The use of enzymes is attractive because, </li></ul><ul><li>1. Enzymes are highly specific and efficient, non-toxic and eco-friendly. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Work under soft, mild conditions, </li></ul><ul><li>3. The use of enzymes results in reduced process time. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Energy and water savings, </li></ul><ul><li>5. Improved product quality, </li></ul><ul><li>6. Potential process integration. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Pollution Abatement by Enzymatic Processing
  29. 29. Pollution Abatement In Printing 1 <ul><li>The excess printing pastes can be recovered,recycled and reused to reduce the pollution in effluents. </li></ul><ul><li>The use of urea in printing with reactive dyes should be reduced . </li></ul><ul><li>Full or partial substitution of gum thickening by emulsion thickening in textile printing. </li></ul><ul><li>Replacement of the use of white spirit kerosene by water-based system. </li></ul><ul><li>The use of biodegradable natural thickening auxiliaries or highly degradable synthetic thickeners. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Pollution Abatement In Printing 2 <ul><li> The use of biodegradable natural thickening auxiliaries or highly degradable synthetic thickeners. </li></ul><ul><li> Minimizing the use of copper and chrome salts to the extent possible. </li></ul><ul><li> Avoiding use of solvent-based pastes in pigment printing. </li></ul><ul><li> Recovery of acetic acid, which is used to bond the two components of azoic dyes. </li></ul><ul><li>The use of pigments, which give improved absorption and lower effluents for reducing COD. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Pollution Abatement In Printing 3 <ul><li> When feasible, pigmentation is preferred over dyeing because this may reduce dyeing and printing operations, saving energy, water, and chemicals. </li></ul><ul><li> Biodegradable natural thickening auxiliaries or highly degradable synthetic thickeners should be chosen . </li></ul><ul><li> Printing screens should be replaced by non-contact techniques (eg. Ink-jet printing). </li></ul><ul><li> Automation may lead to less pollution . </li></ul>
  32. 32. Pollution Abatement In Finishing 1 <ul><li>Finishing chemicals should be reused whenever possible . </li></ul><ul><li>Formaldehyde should be replaced with polycarboxylic. </li></ul><ul><li>Alkylphenol should be replaced with fatty alcoholethoxylates . </li></ul><ul><li>Replacement of acetic acid (used for ph adjustment in resin finishing bath) with formic or mineral acids to reduce BOD load. </li></ul><ul><li>Using formaldehyde- free cross-linking agents for cellulose textiles and formaldehyde-free dye-fixing agents. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Pollution Abatement In Finishing 2 <ul><li>Using formaldehyde scavengers during application and storage of resin finished goods. </li></ul><ul><li>   Dimethylol or dihydroxythlene urea used in anti-wrinklefinishing should be substituted by polycarboxylic acids, mainly 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid or glyoxales. </li></ul><ul><li>MAC Complexing agents like DTDMAC, DSDMAC, DHTDMAC used in softening finishing should be replaced with cellulose enzymes . </li></ul>
  34. 34. Pollution Abatement In Finishing 3 <ul><li> Asbestos, halogenated compounds like bromated diphenylethers and heavy metal containing compounds used in flame retardant finishing should be replaced by inorganic salts and phosphonates. </li></ul><ul><li>Biocides such as chlorinated phenols, metallic salts (as, Zn, cu, or hg), DDE,DDT and benzothiazole used in preservation finishing should be substituted by UV treatment and, or mechanical processes or by enzymatic finishing. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Pollution Abatement In Finishing 4 <ul><li>In fire proofing techniques with less water requirement should be used. </li></ul><ul><li>The use of hazardous chemicals for the conservation of textiles should be minimized . </li></ul>
  36. 36. Pollution Abatement In Finishing 4 <ul><li>Limitation of the chlorination stage in wool shrink proofing by substitution of other techniques (e.G.peroxygen treatment) . </li></ul><ul><li>It is more recommended to build in the finishing chemicals into the fiber during production or during spinning than applying the finish at a later stage. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Pollution Abatement In Finishing 5 <ul><li>Concentrated residues from finishing should not be discharged. They should be reused or treated as waste. </li></ul><ul><li>In case of mothproofing agent-contaminated water, the volume of bath should be reduced . </li></ul><ul><li>In case of mothproofing finish, wastewater should be treated in such a way that excessive sludge is avoided . </li></ul>
  38. 38. General Procedures for Pollution Abatement in Dyeing <ul><li>Pollution abatement by optimizing process chemical and dyeing cycles. </li></ul><ul><li>It is possible to reduce chemical consumption by optimization in textile wet processing by 20-40%, resulting about 30% decrease in pollution load. </li></ul>
  39. 39. General Procedures for Pollution Abatement in Dyeing <ul><li>Adoption of worker training for pollution abatement , the training programs should include handling of chemicals, correct procedures for pasting, dissolving, and emulsifying of chemicals. </li></ul><ul><li>The workers should be informed of the environmental impacts of chemicals and the most harmful chemicals to the environment. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Noise Pollution Abatement 1 <ul><li>Stressing on the exact mounting and setting of the rotating part at high speed . </li></ul><ul><li>Following periodical maintenance programs, especially the parts rotating at high speed. </li></ul><ul><li>Properly lubricating the rotating and moving parts, as this helps to reduce the level of noise significantly. </li></ul><ul><li>The machine lay out in the factory in such a way to permit sufficient space to dissipate the noise. </li></ul><ul><li>The mechanisms causing high level of noise could be enclosed in a specially designed container . </li></ul>
  41. 41. Noise Pollution Abatement 2 <ul><li>The factory walls may be lined with a material that absorbs the noise and is considered as a damping down means for noise waves. </li></ul><ul><li>Replacing, whenever possible, the old machines by newly developed machines, if they are designed to release lower level of noise. </li></ul><ul><li>The arrangement of machines in a certain area should be in a way that the sources of noise are evenly distributed in the whole area. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Benefits of Pollution Prevention <ul><li>1. Loss reduction. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Reduction of chemical, water and energy consumption, thereby resulting in savings, sometimes even increased production. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Reduced liability for waste produced. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Improved compliance with regulations. </li></ul><ul><li>5.Cleaner and healthy working environment. </li></ul>
  43. 43. How to Reduce Pollution <ul><li>Implement environment awareness and include it in training programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Apply good practices for maintenance and cleaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Store each chemicals as per instructions in MSDS. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid spillages of chemicals and process liquors. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain good housekeeping. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify priority areas and options for improving environment performance. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Monitoring System <ul><li>Implement monitoring system for process input and outputs, </li></ul><ul><li>Inputs:-. </li></ul><ul><li>Raw material,heat,dyes and chemicals, power, water etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Outputs:-. </li></ul><ul><li>Products,waste water,air emissions,sludge, solid waste and by products. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Water and Energy Management1 <ul><li>Measure every unit of water,steam and power. </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor water and energy consumption in each process. </li></ul><ul><li>Install and maintain flow meters , flow control devices, and automatic stop valves . </li></ul><ul><li>Maximise automation. </li></ul><ul><li>Document production procedures and standardize work practices for uniform work practices. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Water and Energy Management 2 <ul><li>Better scheduling of production program for lesser cleaning and stoppages. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of ultra low or low liquor ratio in different processing steps. </li></ul><ul><li>Explore possibility of combining different process steps into single step. </li></ul><ul><li>Improve washing efficiency to reduce water consumption. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Water and Energy Management 3 <ul><li>Reuse cooling water as process water. </li></ul><ul><li>Explore the possibility of reuse of less polluted water without any treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>Fit hoods and covers ensuring full closure of m/cs that could give rise to vapor losses. </li></ul><ul><li>Insulate pipes ,valves, tanks, m/cs to reduce heat losses. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of condensate water in boilers as feed water. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Energy Saving <ul><li>Simple steps to follow </li></ul><ul><li>• replacing worn out pipes; </li></ul><ul><li>• installing steam piping insulation; </li></ul><ul><li>• enhancing boiler efficiency; and </li></ul><ul><li>• implementing simple good housekeeping </li></ul><ul><li>practices such as installing water meters, </li></ul><ul><li>level controllers, and flow control nozzles. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Boiler and Steam Trap Retrofit <ul><li>Periodically conducts an energy audit. </li></ul><ul><li>Benchmarking to monitor inefficiencies. </li></ul><ul><li>Improve energy efficiency in the steam generating. </li></ul><ul><li>Improve energy efficiency recovery system. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance and replacement of faulty steam traps. </li></ul><ul><li>Repair and replacement of leaking steam valves. </li></ul><ul><li>Recovering the condensate from traps. </li></ul>