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Fibres for the next generation


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a presentation that includes some very imporatant high performance/ futuristic fibres

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Fibres for the next generation

  1. 1. FIBRES FOR THE NEXT GENERATION  Rajkumar R Shinkar (D.K.T.E’s textile and engineering institute)  Rajesh S Sahu (D.K.T.E’s textile and engineering institute)  First year B.text (T.T)
  2. 2. Next generation of textile fibres •Biodegradable fibres 1. Lyocell fibres 2. Sea cell 3. Smartcel 4. Poly lactic acid (PLA) 5. Bacterial cellulose 6. Bacterial polyester 7. Biosteel 8. Soya protein fibre (SPF) •High performance fibres 1. Dyneema 2. Hygra 3. Goretex
  3. 3. Biodegradable fibres  Cry of the time  Improved properties.  Research and development across the globe
  4. 4. 2.1 LYOCELL (1st biodegradable manmade fibre) • First in a new generation of cellulosic fibres. • Lyocell Utilises renewable resources as raw materials. • High physical performance makes it a universally applicable fibre. Even ideal for nonwovens • It is also comfortable next to the skin. • PRODUCTION PROCESS  Solvent spinning method it is made with out the formation of intermediate compound. • RAW MATERIAL:  Principally Oak & eucalyptus trees from sustainably managed forests. Oak trees
  5. 5. • APPLICATIONS: 1. Fabrics of all kinds 2. Non woven 3. Technical textiles 4. Battery separators 5. Membranes 6. Paper Lyocell applications
  6. 6. 2.2 SEACELL • Seaweed available in abundant with lot of good properties. • The fabrics produced by seaweed have antimycotic and antibacterial properties. • Sea Cell is a lyocell-like cellulosic fibre. • It will use the natural attributes of seaweed and silver to add benefits, as silver is naturally anti-microbial. • RAW MATERIAL:  Seaweed extract combined with silver ions incorporated together. Seacell composition
  7. 7. • PRODUCTION PROCESS:  modified lyocell process • APPLICATIONS: 1. Improvement of blood supply of the skin, activate the meta-bolism. 2. Sportswear, undergarments, socks, work clothes and household fabrics. 3. Fabrics for allergy sufferers and hygiene articles. 4. Anti-inflammatory Anti microbial fabric
  8. 8. 2.3 SMARTCELL • Smartcel fibre is a PCM (Phase Change Material) micro composite of the latest manufacturing generation with thermo regulating features. • Temperature regulation is assured, providing extraordinary wearing comfort and excellent climate management. • Manufactured from renewable sources , thus is 100% biodegradable. • RAW MATERIAL:  combination of cellulose with zinc.
  9. 9. • PRODUCTION PROCESS:  This is also manufactured by lyocell process. • APPLICATION: 1. Sports wear 2. Bed textiles 3. protection against heat or cold in a human body 4. Anti inflammatory apparels. Smart cell fabric
  10. 10. 2.4 Polylactic acid (PLA) • (PLA) is linear aliphatic thermoplastic polyester derived from 100% renewable sources such as corn, sugarcane. • The polymer is 100% compostable. • Its life cycle potentially reduces the Earth’s carbon dioxide level. • The product is more sustainable than comparable polymers on the market today. • PRODUCTION PROCESS 1. Direct condensation of lactic acid 2. Via the cyclic intermediate dimer (lactide), through a ring opening process. 3. Produced by melt spinning.
  11. 11. • APPLICATION: 1. Apparels 2. Home ware 3. Nonwovens: Filtration and separation, Hygiene, Industrial/household wipes 4. Medical applications 5. PLA as a plastic Use of PLA in medical
  12. 12. 2.5 BACTERIAL CELLULOSE • Bacterial cellulose is an organic compound with the formula ((C6H10O5)n) produced from certain types of bacteria. • produced by bacteria, principally of the genera Acetobacter, Sarcinaventriculi and Agro bacterium. Bacterial. • microbial cellulose can be tailored to have specific desirable properties. • Bacterial cellulose is a versatile structural material, allowing it to be shaped in a variety of ways to satisfy different uses. • RAW MATERIAL:  Cellulose can be found in many microorganisms like fungi, bacteria, and algae. • PRODUCTION PROCESS:  cellulose can be obtained by: 1. Reactor based production 2. Fermentation production.
  13. 13. • APPLICATION: 1. ultra-strength paper 2. filter membrane in hi-fidelity loudspeakers and headphones 3. Cosmetic industry. 4. Wound dressing, especially in burn cases. 5. Treat wounds from venous ulcers. 6. for internal treatments, such as bone grafts and other tissue engineering • LIMITATIONS:  Due to the inefficient production process, It is not commercially attractive. Microbial cellulose pellicle
  14. 14. 2.6 BACTERIAL POLYESTERS • Polyhydroxyalkanoates, or PHAs, are linear polyesters produced in nature by bacterial fermentation of sugar or lipids. • They are produced by the bacteria to store carbon and energy. • Polyesters are deposited in the form of highly refractive granules in the cells. • PRODUCTION PROCESS  To produce PHA,PHB a culture of a micro-organism such as Alcaligenes, eutrophus is placed in a suitable medium and fed appropriate nutrients so that it multiplies rapidly. • RAW MATERIAL  Polyester produced by micro organisms.
  15. 15. • APPLICATIONS 1. Sutures and suture fasteners 2. Rivets, tacks, staples, and screws 3. Bone plates and bone plating systems 4. Surgical mesh, repair patches, and cardiovascular patches 5. Vein valves, bone marrow scaffolds 6. Skin substitutes, bone graft substitutes, and wound dressings Bacterial polyester sutures
  16. 16. 2.7 BIOSTEEL (manmade spider silk) • Biosteel was a trademark name for a high-strength based fibre material made of the recombinant spider silk-like protein extracted from the milk of transgenic goats, made by Nexia Biotechnologies • 7-10 times as strong as steel if compared for the same weight, and can stretch up to 20 times its unaltered size without losing its strength properties.
  17. 17. • PRODUCTION PROCESS  With pronuclear microinjection and nuclear transfer technology in the goat’s system. The milk produced by the transgenic goats contains spider silk proteins. • APPLICATIONS 1. Artificial ligaments 2. Bulletproof vests 3. Improved car airbags 4. More reliable parachutes
  18. 18. 2.8 SOYA BEAN PROTEIN FIBRE • Soya bean fibre(SPF) has comeback again. • This is a rapidly developing area with research being undertaken in several countries, primarily America and China. • PRODUCTION PROCESS:  Biochemistry is being used in the production process to modify the structure of soya bean protein while strength is added to the fibre by incorporating polyvinyl alcohol PVA offers the benefits of higher strength and modulus.  The fibre is wet spun  The protein is extracted from the soya meal from which oil has already been extracted. • APPLICATIONS 1. Apparels 2. Domestic textiles 3. Winter wear 4. Undergarments SOYA BEAN FIBER
  19. 19. HIGH PERFORMANCE FIBRES SUPER END APPLICATIONS  The limitations of nature.  Demand of the time.  Improved properties.
  20. 20. 3.1 DYNEEMA (UHMW-PE) • Dyneema has been invented by Albert Penning in 1963 but made commercially available by DSM in 1990 by Dr.Piet lemstra. • DYNEEMA is ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE, UHMW) a subset of the thermoplastic polyethylene. • It has extremely long chains, with a molecular mass usually between 2 and 6 million units. • PRODUCTION PROCESS 1. UHMWPE is synthesized from monomer of ethylene. 2. The gel spinning process is used for yarn required for special applications.
  21. 21. • APPLICATIONS 1. Armour, personal armour, car armour 2. Cut-resistant gloves, 3. Climbing equipment, 4. Suspension lines on sport parachutes and Para gliders, 5. Dyneema was used for the 30-kilometre space tether in the ESA/Russian Young Engineers' Satellite 2 of September, 2007. Dyneema fibre rope
  22. 22. 3.2 HYGRA (porous water absorptive polyester fibre) • Recently, highly moisture absorptive & highly moisture releasing nylon was developed by Unitika. • When nylon was used for cloths the lack of moisture absorbency caused stuffiness, stickiness & was uncomfortable. Unitika succeeded in making fibre from a highly water absorptive polymer, which can absorb water 35 times the polymer weight, & developed an epoch-making fibre HYGRA. • PRODUCTION PROCESS 1. It can be fibrilized by the melt spinning process. 2. The skin-core structure of HYGRA consists of nylon skin part & hydrophilic core part. Structure of hygra
  23. 23. • APPLICATIONS 1. Clothes: Sportswear, Socks, Undergarments 2. Non-clothes: Life materials, Civil engineering, Construction, Interiors, Industrial materials. HYGRA-highly water absorptive
  24. 24. 3.3 GORETEX (expanded-POLY TETRA FLUORO ETHYLENE) • Gore-Tex materials are typically based on thermo-mechanically expanded PTFE and other fluoropolymer products. • This membrane has about 9 billion pores per square inch (around 1.4 billion pores per square centimetre). Each pore is approximately 1/20,000 the size of a water droplet, making it impenetrable to liquid water. • This membrane has a self cleaning effect as the dirt molecules also cant penetrate or enter the pores due to their extremely small size. Magnified view of goretex
  25. 25. • PRODUCTION PROCESS  PTFE is made using an emulsion polymerization process that utilizes the fluoro surfactant PFOA. • APPLICATIONS 1. Conservation of illuminated manuscripts 2. Water repellent 3. Used internally in medical applications:- Sutures, Vascular grafts, Heart patches, Synthetic knee ligaments. Water repellent goretex
  26. 26. Conclusion  The present scenario of the textile fibres.  Changes taking place due to the need of improved properties in the new genration end applications.  Exponential growth of the textile industry, which primarily runs on textile fibres.  Textile fibres and polymers will bring about a revolution as they have started replacing the metals.  Bright future due to the various R & D activities worldwide
  27. 27. BIBILOGRAPHY 1. Biodegradable and sustainable fibres (Edited by R. S. Blackburn) 2. Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research(march 2005) 3. New Millennium Fibres(Tatsuya Hongu, Glyn O. Phillips and Machiko Takigami) 4. "W. L. Gore Associates v. Garlock, Inc., 721 F.2d 1540, 220 USPQ 303 (Fed. Cir. 1983), cert. denied', 469 U.S. 851, 105 S.Ct. 172, 83 L.Ed.2d 107 (1984).". 5. Tsuji, H. and Ikada, Y., J. Appl. Polymer. Sci., 1998, 67, 405. 6. Drumright, R.E., Gruber, P.R. and Henton, D.E., Adv. Mater., 2000, 12 (23), 1841. 7. Anon. (1996), 50th Anniversary Edition of the Soya Blue Book, soya industry/research.htm, accessed 28 August 2004.
  28. 28. The end Thank you