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Table of Content
1.0 Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..1
1.1 Backgroundof Research………………………………………...
1.0 Introduction
In today’s national education system the ministry of education had proposed various ways to
enhance the l...
1.1 Backgroundof the Research
The rapid development of the country and the extensive spread of electronic media the
need f...
1.2 Statement of the Problem
There are many major changes that have been conducted by the ministry of education
regarding ...
1.4 ResearchQuestions
The research questions of this study are as follows:
i. How to develop learners’ autonomy through st...
1.6 Limitation of the Study
This study is based on one ESL classroom in a secondary school in an urban setting in
Shah Ala...
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Draft Chapter 1 take 2

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Draft Chapter 1 take 2

  1. 1. qwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyui opasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfgh jklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvb nmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwer tyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopas dfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzx cvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmq wertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuio pasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghj klzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbn mqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwerty uiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdf ghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxc vbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmrty uiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdf ghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxc Developing Learner Autonomy through Strategy Training in ESL Classroom By Nurul Nadiah Huda Bt Abd Halim M.ed TESL 2014913581 ED7701A1
  2. 2. Table of Content 1.0 Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..1 1.1 Backgroundof Research…………………………………………………………………………………………2 1.2 Statementof the Problem………………………………………………………………………………………3 1.3 ResearchObjectives……………………………………………………………………………………………….3 1.4 ResearchQuestions………………………………………………………………………………………………..4 1.5 Operational Definitions…………………………………………………………………………………………..4 1.6 Limitationof the Study……………………………………………………………………………………………5 1.7 Significantof the Study……………………………………………………………………………………………5
  3. 3. 1.0 Introduction In today’s national education system the ministry of education had proposed various ways to enhance the learning of students to produce students with great quality and be at the same level as students from other countries. In order to achieve this goal the implementation on the use of the English language is needed to be exposed at an early age. However, many language educators have accepted that the ability to learn a language is more significant than absorbing the language (Benson, 2001). A significant amount of researches have been conducted to highlight the importance of learners learning environment to scaffold and optimize the learners’ knowledge, for instance on the study conducted by J.E Brindley, C.Walti and O. Zawacki-Richter entitled Learner Support in open, Distance and Online Learning Environment. However, the learners learning environment is not the only factor that plays a major role in students’ education, Gremmo (1995) had stated that there has been a change in focus from the teacher to the learner in the field of second and foreign language education. Gremmo (1995) also adds that an exclusive focus was on how to develop teaching methods and approaches to an inclusive concern for how a learner goes through their learning. To diminish the gap of teacher centered in the classroom and the development of today’s generation of ICT, educators need to grasp the importance of self-directed learning among learners so that they can distance themselves from teacher-oriented teaching and become autonomous learners. Furthermore, to begin establishing learner autonomy in the classroom it involves a gradual shift from the teacher-centered to learner-centered (Dam, 1995). To promote learner autonomy, the need of the teachers’ effort, time, patience and skills is essential (Chan, xxx). However, this is a great challenge for teachers in Malaysia working in exam-oriented contexts where the classroom is in a formal and structured manner. Autonomous learners implies life-long learning which is an importance in today’s world of globalization as a formal or the current methods of teaching cannot keep up with the continuous changes and learners need to be able to learn to process some information on their own (Ikonen, 2013)
  4. 4. 1.1 Backgroundof the Research The rapid development of the country and the extensive spread of electronic media the need for Malaysians to be competent in English have become very significant. According to Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad, the fourth prime minister of Malaysia, Malaysia is to become a full- fledge industrial country whereby the citizens of the country need to not only be proficient on the national language but also the English language. Asmah (1994) stated that Malaysia needs to be assisted with the English language if it wants to strive for excellence as it cannot be accomplished by solely depending on the National language. Asmah (1994) also added that to assist Malaysia to shift rapidly into the science and technology fields it is essential that Malaysian are proficient in the English language as the knowledge of science and technology can only be acquired through reading books which are always written in English. Norlida Ahmad (2004) stressed that many complaints were made by teachers regarding the students’ low proficiency level even though they were introduced to the English language as early as 7 years of age. The result of this, many of these students’ cannot apply the language outside the classroom setting thus they are unable to use the skill in the real world. Hence, students are needed to be train and become autonomous learners to be proficient in the language and not be dependent on the teachers. In contemplation of making Malaysia a developed nation by 2020 the role of Malaysian teachers has become vital as teachers are required to provide students with knowledge and related skills to avoid students from being lag behind (Norlida Ahmad, 2004) In Malaysia, there has been numerous amount of research to study learner autonomy coming from different perspective and as a result of this there are many definitions of learner autonomy and efforts to utilize learner autonomy in a particular context. Thang (2001, 2005) had conducted a study on undergraduates of University Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) based on their autonomy and identified that these undergraduates were lacking of autonomous quality. In addition, a follow up study was also conducted on three universities in Malaysia and the results of the findings were also similar. According to Thang and Azarina (2007), even though the learners were mostly teacher-oriented they did acquire the characteristic to learn English autonomously.
  5. 5. 1.2 Statement of the Problem There are many major changes that have been conducted by the ministry of education regarding the importance of the English language in Malaysia as it continues to attempt and dominant at an international level. According to Utusan Malaysia Online (2013), the implementation of English as a compulsory subject to pass in the Certificate of Education (SPM) will begin in 2016. It is design to produce quality students in various fields, thus assist in developing the country towards a more developed countries. Hanim (2005), had conducted a study in Malaysia schools and her findings showed that students are not prepared to work in any language learning situation without the help of others. Students are too dependable on teachers and directly follow their lead directly. Due to this, students need to incorporate self-directed learning so that they can slowly move away from teacher-oriented teaching and learning method and become autonomous learners. Nevertheless, to ensure this it requires a change in the classroom organizations and intensive training, added Hanim (2005). The current trends of today society are through computers, gadgets and other electronic devices which have contributed a great deal of presence in the second language pedagogy and in time assist on promoting learner autonomy. This is beneficial for the students as incorporating different learning strategies into the teaching and learning process will help guide students to move away from the typical relationship with their teachers. 1.3 ResearchObjectives The research objectives of this study are as follows: i. To develop learners’ autonomy through strategy training in an ESL classroom ii. To investigate the effects of strategy training on a learners’ autonomy iii. To illustrates how strategy training helps ESL learners to gain learners’ autonomy
  6. 6. 1.4 ResearchQuestions The research questions of this study are as follows: i. How to develop learners’ autonomy through strategy training in an ESL classroom? ii. What are the effects of strategy training on learners’ autonomy? iii. How does strategy training help ESL learners to gain learners’ autonomy? 1.5 OperationalDefinitions Learners Autonomy- According to Holec (1979), learners’ autonomy is the ability to take charge of one's own learning. The state in which the learner is fully responsible for all the choices concerning with his or her learning (Dickinson, 1993). Strategy Training- lessons where learners are explicitly taught language learning strategies and explanations are given as to when, how and why these strategies can be used (Oxford, 1990). Learning How to Learn (LHTL) - To effectively learn in any learning situation the learner must possess and acquire both knowledge and skills (Smith, 1990) Learning Strategies- According to ku-crl.org website (2015), it is a person’s approach to learning on acquiring new knowledge. Learner Contracts- According to educ.ualberta.ca website (2011), learning contract is an agreement between a teacher and a student. The contract states objectives that need to be achieved by the students with the agreement of both parties. Learner Journal- It is a vehicle for reflection focusing on ongoing matter and learners will be able to learn from the process of doing it or from the results (Moon, 2010). Learners record their reactions after experiencing some form of strategy training (Farrel, 1998)
  7. 7. 1.6 Limitation of the Study This study is based on one ESL classroom in a secondary school in an urban setting in Shah Alam, Selangor. The selected sample sizes of participants are a total of 30 students and involving one English teacher. The sampling technique used for this study is purposive sampling The school chosen to take part in this study is a school in Shah Alam situated in a small. It is situated near factories where most households are from a low socioeconomic background thus the proficiency of the English language is low. The means of communication that is used between the teacher and the students is the learning journals. This is used to identify the effectiveness of training on developing learner autonomy on regard of their training. Students are encouraged to record and react to the learning strategies introduced in the classroom. In addition, students were not corrected on incorrect grammar and language proficiency this is because linguistic competence is not the main aim of the study. 1.7 Significance ofthe Study The importance of this study is that it investigates the use of strategy training to develop learners’ autonomy in an ESL classroom. It is hoped that this research might initiates educators to foster learner autonomy in the classroom as it is beneficent for second language learners to be exposed to approaches they feel is suitable to built their autonomy and not rely on ‘spoonfeed’ materials by their teachers. This research would also be able to help students to take charge of their learning outside the classroom which would indirectly help improve their learning process as well as prepare them for the real life world. In addition, teachers would be able to use these learning strategies and adapt it appropriately according to the students needs in the classroom so that they would benefit most in a learner centered curricular. By doing so, teachers would be able to promote and foster learner autonomy in the classroom thus resulting in self-directed learning. In a research conducted by Kassim et al (2004), it is emphasized that self-directed learning is an effective methods to gain knowledge.

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