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Research Proposal
Motivational Factors and Learning Strategies among IKM Jasin
Students in Learning English as a Second La...
2
Contents
CHAPTER ONE.......................................................................................................
3
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction
Generally, every semester 1 and 2 student in all Institut Kemahiran MARA
(IKM)...
4
large percent of IKM Jasin students have a low achievement of English language.
The final examination results confirmed ...
5
As a result of lack of English language proficiency, most IKM Jasin students are
not able to acquire second language eff...
6
1.5 Operational Definition
These terms are defined according to their use in the study:
1. Good language learners : the ...
7
1.7 Significance of the Study
As most students who enrol in IKM Jasin are among low-proficiency English
learners, it is ...
8
CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
This chapter provides a critical review and analysis of the literature re...
9
v) Is not inhabited
vi) Concentrates on meaning
According to Oxford (1990), direct strategies refer to the language lear...
10
Thompson and Rubin (1993) conducted a research on how to improve second
language (L2) students’ learning strategies. In...
11
Learning strategies are important for the students as they can affect the
students’ motivation, as well as in which the...
12
becomes part of the family, whereby it makes children succeed in learning
their mother tongue.
2.5 Motivation and Langu...
13
CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction
This chapter will explain on the methodology, which covers research
approach...
14
In order to answer the both research questions, survey research design will
be implemented. In survey research design, ...
15
The target population for this study is all semester 1 and 2 students of IKM
Jasin. The samples for the study would be ...
16
Bibliography :
1. Bahagian Kemahiran & Teknikal, MARA
2. Bernaus, M., & Gardner, R. C. (2008). Teachers’ motivation str...
17
8. Larsen-Freeman, D. (1991, Summer). Acquisition research: Staking out the
territory.TESOL Quarterly, 25, 2, 315-350.
...
18
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Research proposal

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A research proposal on students' motivational factors and learning strategies

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Research proposal

  1. 1. Research Proposal Motivational Factors and Learning Strategies among IKM Jasin Students in Learning English as a Second Language Prepared by : Noramizah binti Zainon Student ID : 2013747185
  2. 2. 2 Contents CHAPTER ONE....................................................................................................................................3 1.1 Introduction................................................................................................................................3 1.2 Statement of the Problem .......................................................................................................4 1.3 Research Objectives................................................................................................................5 1.4 Research Questions ................................................................................................................5 1.5 Operational Definition ..............................................................................................................6 1.6 Limitation of the Study.............................................................................................................6 1.7 Significance of the Study.........................................................................................................7 CHAPTER TWO...................................................................................................................................8 2.1 Introduction.....................................................................................................................................8 2.2 Good Language Learners ............................................................................................................8 2.3 Language Learning Strategies ....................................................................................................9 2.4 Acquisition and Second Language Learning...........................................................................11 2.5 Motivation and Language Learning Strategies .......................................................................12 CHAPTER THREE.............................................................................................................................13 3.1 Introduction...................................................................................................................................13 3.2 Research Approach.....................................................................................................................13 3.3 Research Design .........................................................................................................................13 3.4 Research Instrument...................................................................................................................14 3.5 Research Sample........................................................................................................................14 3.6 Data Analysis ...............................................................................................................................15 Bibliography : ......................................................................................................................................16
  3. 3. 3 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction Generally, every semester 1 and 2 student in all Institut Kemahiran MARA (IKM) is compulsory to take English courses. In IKM, the broad aims of English courses are to enable the students to communicate in English in various social contexts using appropriate expressions. Basically, the syllabus provided by Bahagian Kemahiran & Teknikal, MARA to be implemented in IKM is emphasizing on equipping these students with communication skills, particularly in spoken English. This is seen as an important factor for the students to prepare themselves for working environment upon their graduations. IKM is one of higher learning institutions that provide technical education for the students, who are focusing on improving their hands-on skills. Mostly, students who enrol in IKM are low achiever students based on their SPM examination results as a whole, and particularly in English language subject. Evidently, the minimum academic qualification for the students to further studies in IKM is they only have to pass SPM examination, with passing grade in Malay language subject (Bahagian Kemahiran & Teknikal, MARA). Hence, most students who study in IKM are among low English proficiency students. Despite the fact that these students are weak in English language, they still have to study and pass the course, for the matter of fact that being comprehensible in English is important for them to have a good and secured job in the future. However, based on the English final examination results for July – December 2013 session, a
  4. 4. 4 large percent of IKM Jasin students have a low achievement of English language. The final examination results confirmed that 43% of Semester 1 and 2 students who took English courses were in low level of English language, 41% were in intermediate level, meanwhile another 16% were in proficient level (Unit Peperiksaan & Persijilan IKM Jasin, 2013). 1.2 Statement of the Problem Based on the final examination results, these questions were aroused, which led to the intention of conducting this study. The questions would be; what actually happen during the English lesson? Why is that some students are successful, while a large percent of them are not? Which language learning strategies have been used in conducting the lesson? ESL teachers, particularly who teach in IKM Jasin will be benefited from the answers for this question, in order for them to encourage the students in acquiring ESL, thus improving the results of English courses. English teachers in IKM Jasin have always been seeking ways to help the students become more successful in learning and communicating in second language. The application of second language learning strategies is seen as a way to promote a better success among these low-achievers. According to Oxford (1990), second language learning and use strategies comprises of improving the learning of second language, as well as the use of second language by the learners. In second language learning, there are factors that must be taken into consideration. The first factors contend with cognitive style, age, personality, attitude and motivation, as well as aptitude (Gardner, 1985). As stated by Larsen-Freeman (1991), the strategies in which the students use during the acquisition process is considered as another possible factor in learning ESL.
  5. 5. 5 As a result of lack of English language proficiency, most IKM Jasin students are not able to acquire second language effectively. In order to improve the learning process, apart from knowing the most important factors that influence the acquisition process, the teacher could also start making the students aware of the language learning strategies that they can choose and use during the learning process. Therefore, the teachers’ role is vital in helping the students succeed in language learning process; not only by motivating them, also by allowing the students develop their own approaches to learning. 1.3 Research Objectives The research objectives for this study are: i. To determine the motivational factors of IKM Jasin students to learn English as a second language (ESL). ii. To identify the learning strategies used by proficient IKM Jasin students in learning ESL. 1.4 Research Questions The research questions for this study are: i. What are the motivational factors of IKM Jasin students in learning ESL? ii. What are the learning strategies used by proficient IKM Jasin students in learning ESL?
  6. 6. 6 1.5 Operational Definition These terms are defined according to their use in the study: 1. Good language learners : the students who perform efficiently in second language by retaining more language strategies (Stern, 1992). 2. Language acquisition : any language that has been picking up in a subconscious process (Krashen, 2002). 3. Language learning strategies : the aware of thoughts and actions that learners take in order to reach a learning goal. 4. Motivational factors : any internal influence that leads a person to start, hence to persist in any activity in order to achieve a goal (Pintrich, 2003). 5. Proficient : students who obtained A- and A grades in English courses final examination (Unit Peperiksaan & Persijilan IKM Jasin, 2013). 1.6 Limitation of the Study This study was limited to Semester 1 and 2 students in IKM Jasin for the current session only. Thus, the results cannot be generalized for all IKM students in Malaysia.
  7. 7. 7 1.7 Significance of the Study As most students who enrol in IKM Jasin are among low-proficiency English learners, it is important for the English language teachers to be aware of these students’ motivational factors in learning ESL. Besides, teachers also need to identify which language learning strategies are suitable to be implemented in order to get the students engaged in the English lesson at all times. Thus, this study is significance for both teachers and students in IKM Jasin with the aim of improving the English communication skills among the students.
  8. 8. 8 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction This chapter provides a critical review and analysis of the literature related to the study. Generally, the state of problems and solutions in acquiring English language are based on some variables, which include the following aspects : i) Language learning strategies ii) Students’ motivational factors in learning ESL. Hence, the related literature regarding language learning strategies as well as the motivational factors are scrutinized in this chapter to provide the grounding related to the research questions of this study. 2.2 Good Language Learners Good language learners who use appropriate learning strategies have been identified as the core of awareness in achieving the significance of teaching-learning practices. Oxford (1990) states that learning strategies require actions that are taken by the learner to make learning more effective, more enjoyable, easier, faster, more transferable to new situations and more self-directed. According to Stern (1975); Reis (1985), the good language learner comprises of these criteria: i) Has a strong drive to communicate ii) A prepared guesser iii) Examines speech iv) Applies and practices
  9. 9. 9 v) Is not inhabited vi) Concentrates on meaning According to Oxford (1990), direct strategies refer to the language learning strategies that involve directly the target language. All these direct strategies require mental processing of the language. Apart from the direct strategies, Oxford (1990, 2003) also describes other strategies that support the production of language learning, namely the indirect strategies. Indirect strategies include metacognitive strategies which allow students to control their own cognition; affective strategies, which help to regulate emotions, motivations and attitudes; and social strategies that assist the students to learn through interactions with each other. 2.3 Language Learning Strategies Learning strategy is generally defined as “the special thoughts or behaviors that individuals use to help learners comprehend, learn, or retain new information” (O’Malley & Chamot, 1990, p. 1). Furthermore, the ways that the students use to acquire English as second language on their own are called strategies. Strategies are also known as behaviours and thoughts that help the students to engage in learning, thus influence the students’ encoding process (Perez, 2013). Chamot and Kupper (1989) defined learning strategies as “techniques which students use to comprehend, store, and remember new information and skills”. The non-observable and observable aspects of learning strategies contribute to the actions, as well as the thoughts of the students in order to learn the language.
  10. 10. 10 Thompson and Rubin (1993) conducted a research on how to improve second language (L2) students’ learning strategies. In this investigation they found out that attempts to teach students to use learning strategies have produced good results. The researchers emphasizes that students could acquire language effectively with the influence of the successful strategies such as metacognitive, cognitive and social strategies. Shoebottom (2007) stated that good language learners reflect about how they are learning. They will always try to understand the purpose of one particular task given to them. Besides, good language learners are also prepared to do the try-out and take risks. In addition, they are also realistic, in which they understand that there is some time needed for them to be proficient in English language. Furthermore, good language learners usually do not rely on the teachers to totally direct their learning. They are more independent, where they will not just sitting in the classroom and waiting for the teacher to teach. Lastly, they are organized and always looking for chances to develop their language skills, both inside and outside the classroom. The research above revealed the importance of understanding students’ learning strategies and personal characteristics when attempting to acquire a second language. There is no available research that indicates this relationship for IKM students generally and IKM Jasin specifically. Therefore, this study is particularly interested in finding out which strategies are used by semester 1 and 2 English language learners in IKM Jasin and to try to establish a relationship between these and successful language acquisition.
  11. 11. 11 Learning strategies are important for the students as they can affect the students’ motivation, as well as in which the students select, organize and interact with new knowledge (Weinstein & Mayer, 1986). Oxford (2003) considers that language learning styles and strategies are among the most important factors that help determine how – and how well the students learn second language. Furthermore, language learning strategies and motivation should be recognized as significant factors in contributing to the academic success. It is apparent that one of the ways the students do to understand information effectively for their academic achievement is by using appropriate learning strategies. That is why the teachers should understand the significance of language learning strategies in order to help the students in teaching and learning process. 2.4 Acquisition and Second Language Learning Learning a language and acquire it are two different processes (Krashen, 2002). Learning is considered as gaining formal knowledge, in which it is to understand about a language. On the other hand, acquisition is the unconscious process that takes place during the real conversation (Krashen, 2002). According to Chomsky (1959) as cited in Medano and Cano (2009), all of us are born with an innate capacity to learn our mother tongue. Based on Larsen-Freeman, and Long (1994), motivation to communicate
  12. 12. 12 becomes part of the family, whereby it makes children succeed in learning their mother tongue. 2.5 Motivation and Language Learning Strategies In ESL research, motivation has been showing consistent significance impact on learning outcomes. The researcher concluded that motivated learners play a significant role in language learning because they seem to help them avoid failures (He, 2004 as cited in Cho Stoffa, 2009). Dornyei and Clement (2001) as cited in Bernaus and Gardner (2008) proposed that the motivational strategies could be divided into four categories. The first category deals with classroom condition, which includes appropriate teacher behaviours, good relationship with other classmates and a pleasant classroom atmosphere in learning a language. The second category focuses on engendering students’ motivation by enhancing their language-related attitudes, increasing their goal and creating realistic beliefs of the language learners. The third category involves maintaining motivation by setting sub-goals, improving the quality of learning experience as well as promoting self-motivating learner strategies. Meanwhile, the forth category deals with encouraging positive self-evaluation of the students, providing motivational feedback and increasing students’ satisfaction. On top of that, Gardner and Lambert (1972) claimed that motivation to learn a language depends on the positive attitudes towards the language area and the desire to communicate in the target language.
  13. 13. 13 CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction This chapter will explain on the methodology, which covers research approach, research design, research instrument, sample of the research as well as the data analysis. 3.2 Research Approach This study will be conducted based on qualitative approach, where the researcher will try to establish as much as information collected from the sample. The researcher also will be more concerned with understanding situations from the participants’ viewpoint. Besides, this study is not intended to make any generalization which is beyond the studied situation. The readers are given accessibility to assess the applicability of this study to any similar occurrences. 3.3 Research Design
  14. 14. 14 In order to answer the both research questions, survey research design will be implemented. In survey research design, the main way in which the information will be collected is through asking questions. The answers to these questions by the members of the group (samples) will constitute the data of the study. A cross- sectional survey is appropriate to be used for collecting the data. A cross-sectional survey collects information from a sample and the information is collected at just one point in time (Frankel, J.R., Wallen, N.E. and Hyun, H.H., 2012, p. 394). This survey research design is somehow appropriate to be used in this study as the objectives of this study are to determine the motivational factors and identify the learning strategies among IKM Jasin students. 3.4 Research Instrument In order to answer the first research question (RQ1), structured interview will be used to collect the data. Structured interview consists of a sets of questions designed to elicit specific answers from the respondents, hence the data can later be compared and contrasted in order to shape responses to the researcher’s perceptions. The respondents will be asked fifteen questions that will lead to answering of RQ1. As for the second research question (RQ2), a set of questionnaire will be used for the purpose of collecting the data. The questionnaire will be using the frequency to measure the students’ use of language learning strategy. 3.5 Research Sample
  15. 15. 15 The target population for this study is all semester 1 and 2 students of IKM Jasin. The samples for the study would be all semester 1 and 2 students who obtained A- and A grades in English final examination paper for July – December 2013 session. In order to get the samples, purposive sampling will be used, where the samples will be selected based on the specific purpose of the research. It is appropriate as this study is aimed to identify the motivational factors of the students, which encourage them to have good achievement in English course and to determine the language learning strategies employed by these proficient students. 3.6 Data Analysis The data collected for this RQ1 will be analysed using content analysis, which is a technique that requires observation of the samples from the researcher through human behaviour. This observation will somehow help the researcher to analyse the samples’ communications from their responses. The interview will be recorded and transcribed for the data analysis. The responses will be analysed, in which the results and discussions will be used to make a generalization which represents the whole population. Meanwhile the data for RQ2 will be analysed by using descriptive statistics, in which to identify the scoring items in the questionnaire, frequency, mean and standard deviation will be calculated. All the data will be analysed using a statistical hardware, based on descriptive statistics.
  16. 16. 16 Bibliography : 1. Bahagian Kemahiran & Teknikal, MARA 2. Bernaus, M., & Gardner, R. C. (2008). Teachers’ motivation strategies, students’ perception, student motivation, and English achievement. The Modern Language Journal, 92, iii, 0026-7902/08/387–401/0C_The Modern Language Journal. 3. Chamot, A. U., & Kupper, L. (1989). Learning strategies in foreign language instruction. Foreign Language Annals, 22, 13-24. 4. Cho Stoffa, R. (2009). An examination of the factors underlying the motivation and learning strategies of Generation 1.5 Korean American Students. ProQuest LLC: UMI Number: 3379031 5. Frankel, J.R., Wallen, N.E. & Hyun, H.H. (2012) “How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education”. New York, McGraw-Hill. 6. Gardner, R. C. (1985). Social psychology and second language learning: The role of attitudes and motivation. London: Edward Arnold Publishers. 7. Krashen, S. (2002). Second language acquisition and second language. London:Longman.
  17. 17. 17 8. Larsen-Freeman, D. (1991, Summer). Acquisition research: Staking out the territory.TESOL Quarterly, 25, 2, 315-350. 9. Medano, C. A., & Cano, R. (2009). Motivation and language learning: the case of 5 successful independent students. Memorias del V Foro de Estudios en Lenguas Internacional. ISBN 978-607-9015-05-3. 10. O’Malley, J., & Chamot, A. (1990). Learning strategies in second language acquisition.New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. 11. Oxford, R. L. (1990). Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. New York: Newbury House Publishers. 12. Pintrich, P. (2003). Motivation and classroom learning. In W. Reynolds & G. Miller(Eds.). Handbook of Psychology: Educational Psychology (Vol. 7, pp. 103-122).New York, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. 13. Reiss, M. A. (1985). The good language learner: Another look. The Canadian Modern Language Review. 41 (3). 511-523. 14.Shoebottom, P. (2007). The good language learner. Frankfurt International School.Retrieved on November 3, 2010 at http://esl.fis.edu/parents/advice/good.htm 15.Stern, H. (1992). Issues and options in language teaching. Oxford: OUP. 16.Unit Peperiksaan dan Persijilan IKM Jasin, 2013. 17.Weinstein, C.E., & Mayer, R.E. (1986). The teaching of learning strategies. Handbook of research on teaching, (pp. 3 15-327). New York, NY: Macmillan,
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