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Digital Photo Basics


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An overview of digital photography- middle school class. Using Nikon D3100 DSLR

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Digital Photo Basics

  1. 1. Camera Basics
  2. 2. 6 Things to KNOW 1. KNOW your camera settings 2. HOLD the camera still 3. No DISTRACTIONS 4. Take A LOT of photos 5. Tell a STORY 6. Capture a MOOD
  3. 3. World’s 1st Selfie • Robert Cornelius, October 1839 • 3 to 15 minute exposure
  4. 4. Camera SAFETY • CAMERA STRAP! • NEVER face lens down • Don’t leave it on the ground! • Secure to tripod • No running • Water + electronics= BAD • DON’T FORCE ANYTHING!
  5. 5. Camera SAFETY • Proper way to hold a DSLR The photographer on the left has no support for the elbows with the camera in the vertical position, but the photographer on the right has supported the camera properly.
  6. 6. Camera SAFETY • Proper way to hold a DSLR The photographer on the left has no support for the elbows with the camera in the vertical position, but the photographer on the right has supported the camera properly.
  7. 7. Camera SAFETY • Cleaning the Sensor
  8. 8. Camera Set-Up 1. Auto Off Timer Setting
  9. 9. Camera Set-Up 2.. Image Setting 3. Image Size
  10. 10. TYPES of Cameras SLR (Single- Lens Reflex) and DSLR (digital Single-Lens Reflex) Uses a series of mirrors that reflect off the lens, allowing the viewer to see the image right-side up . Traditional SLR cameras used film, now that has been replaced with a digital image sendor (DSLR).
  11. 11. TYPES of Cameras Point & Shoot/Compact Camera Camera designed for simple operation, mostly automatic settings so easy for everyone to use. Requires minimal knowledge of camera settings, and is portable. Do not have mirrors like an SLR, rather a lens
  12. 12. TYPES of Cameras Camera Phone Camera phones have become extremely popular and an easyand convienient way to capture photos and share them instantly. Depending on the type of phone, some phone cameras can be 8mp and take professional-looking images.
  13. 13. Comparison: Point & Shoot and DSLR DLSR Compact/Point & Shoot Much more expensive ($400+) Lower priced and more accessible More settings/functions= more variety of pictures, more creativity Easy to use/portable, but takes control out of the photographer’s hands Ability to take pictures in difficult lighting with increased ISO/shutter speed modes Automated, ISO and shutter speed control is limited Ability to change out lenses/optical zoom Only digital zoom Ability to change aperture Aperture is automated More serious photography More casual photography
  14. 14. PART ONE: Basic Settings
  15. 15. Pre-set “SCENE” modes Automatically changes settings to fit the particular scene. DOWNSIDE: Your camera is not a brain- it may not do what you want it to do just by selecting a scene. Use Scenes as a tool, but don’t rely on it!
  16. 16. Flash • The flash adds artificial light to the setting. Most of the pictures you take with the point and shoot camera will be flash-off photos… you will use it sparingly! Using the flash makes pictures dull, overexposed, and does not show fine shadows and details. Natural light is a much better option!
  17. 17. Flash • You will want to make sure the flash is off most of the time, and use other camera settings to make up for dim lighting. There is a way to ‘dull’ the flash with the DSLR diffuser for challenging indoor lighting.
  18. 18. Mini Assignment: Scavenger Hunt With a group of 2 or 3, you will be completing a scavenger hunt that will help you discover how to use camera settings. You will be using both the point & shoot and the DSLR camera for this assignment, so you do not need to go in order of the questions.
  19. 19. Tripods • A tripod is ESSENTIAL for a clear photograph, particularly in challenging lighting situations or slower shutter speeds (DSLR). Become familiar with how to use a tripod and bring at least one with your group each day.
  20. 20. Manual Focus Mode • There are two ways to focus: manual and auto. Most of the time you will be in auto, but we are going to practice using manual focus.
  21. 21. White Balance Color “temperature” of a photo. The white balance setting corrects unrealistic colors by balancing it, based on the type of lighting. Keep white balance on A (Auto) unless you notice an off color in your photos.
  22. 22. White Balance
  23. 23. White Balance
  24. 24. “Incorrect” White Balance • You can also set white balance to change the mood of your photo or make it look like a different time of day.
  25. 25. Single-Point Auto Focus • To focus on a certain part of the scene. • Camera has 11 separate focus points to choose from • Start in the middle, move to other points.
  26. 26. Single-Point Auto Focus
  27. 27. Single-Point Auto Focus In Class Assignment: Using a single object (either inside or outside), practice taking pictures using at least 5 different focus points. REMEMBER, no distracting background!
  28. 28. Single-Point Auto Focus CAMERA SETTINGS: • PROGRAM Mode • ISO 200-400 • Flash OK • Check EXPOSURE COMPENSATION
  29. 29. ISO • Stands for “International Standards Organization” • The ISO setting measures how sensitive the camera is to light. • Measured in numbers from 64, 100, 200, 400, 800, etc. • Changing the ISO can affect the quality of the picture.
  30. 30. LOW ISO • ISO 50-100 • Good for CLOSE UPS • Need BRIGHT OUTDOOR light • USE a tripod!
  31. 31. LOW ISO • SITUATIONS TO USE: – OUTDOORS- in good lighting – Close ups with detail ISO 100
  32. 32. HIGH ISO • ISO 400-800: Used for dim light but not night • 1600+ Indoor or night shots. Increases the camera’s sensitivity to light, so its good for pictures without ideal lighting. BUT- the catch is that it creates “Noise” ISO 800
  33. 33. HIGH ISO • SITUATIONS TO USE: – INDOORS-esp with flash – Action – Low lighting/even ing San Francisco @ ISO 6400
  34. 34. Noise Reduction
  35. 35. Noise Reduction In very high ISO situations (over 800) make sure to set the NOISE REDUCTION feature
  36. 36. ISO • Low ISO: 50-100- outdoor sunny lighting, close ups, MUST use a TRIPOD. • Middle ISO: 200-400- Good for cloudy/overcast days, medium lighting. • High ISO- 800+ - Dim lighting, action shots, increasing the ISO will lead to more ‘noise’
  37. 37. ISO- Student Examples
  38. 38. ISO- Student Examples
  39. 39. ISO- Student Examples
  40. 40. ISO- Student Examples Setting the ISO on the DSLR:
  41. 41. ISO- Student Examples In Class assignment: Practice using the ISO settings. Take some indoor photos with high and low ISO, some outdoor photos and see what changes
  42. 42. Single Point Auto-Focus and ISO Assignment • You are going to combine your knowledge of ISO, white balance and single-point auto focus
  43. 43. Single Point Auto- Focus and ISO we shouldn’t be able to tell what the object is, but it is still interesting. how can you make an ordinary object seem amazing from three angles? • You will take 3 photos of each object: Each using a different focal point • You will use appropriate ISO for the photos (and you must be able to explain WHY you used that # ISO) • You will use the appropriate white balance for the lighting (and be able to explain) • You will NOT have a distracting background! • NO BLURRY PHOTOS! • One of your series must be INSIDE
  44. 44. PART TWO: Advanced Settings
  45. 45. Optical ZOOM vs Digital Digital Zoom: the camera enlarges the image area at the center of the frame and trims away the outside edges of the picture. Not a true zoom-just enlarges the image. Optical Zoom:. An optical zoom is a true zoom- it enlarges a picture while keeping the resolution and sharpness of the picture high. They produce much better-quality images.
  46. 46. Types of Lenses Digital Zoom: the camera enlarges the image area at the center of the frame and trims away the outside edges of the picture. Not a true zoom-just enlarges the image. Optical Zoom:. An optical zoom is a true zoom- it enlarges a picture while keeping the resolution and sharpness of the picture high. They produce much better-quality images.
  47. 47. Optical ZOOM vs Digital
  48. 48. Program Mode
  49. 49. Auto Modes
  50. 50. Rule of Thirds • COMPOSITION- professional photographers think about the composition of their photograph! • Divide the photo into 3 sections • The subject should be in 2 of the ‘intersections’
  51. 51. Rule of Thirds
  52. 52. Rule of Thirds
  53. 53. Rule of Thirds
  54. 54. • When editing on the Rule of Thirds computer, Check your rule of thirds in iPhoto! • Use the grid! With one eye closed to frame the subject correctly • CLEAR SUBJECT (no distractions)
  55. 55. Rule of Thirds On the sticky notes, write: 1. If it follows rule of thirds 2. Whether or not it’s a good photo 3. Is it balanced? 4. ALSO- choose the best and worst photo and write why.
  56. 56. Rule of Thirds- Student Example Mini Assignment: On either camera, use your grid and knowledge of rule of thirds to take: 1. close up(inside or outside) 2. Landscape (anything without buildings or people) 3. action photo REMEMBER! It MUST have a clear subject, no DISTRACTIONS, and FOLLOW rule of thirds!
  57. 57. Aperture (F Stop) • The size of the opening in the lens when a picture is taken • The larger the opening, the MORE light gets in, the smaller the opening, the LESS light gets in. • Aperture is measured in “F Stops”
  58. 58. Aperture (F Stop) • Moving from one F-Stop to the next either doubles or halves the size of the opening in your lens… • LARGE OPENING= Smaller f stop, smaller depth of field. • SMALL OPENING= Larger f stop, greater depth of field
  59. 59. Aperture Example
  60. 60. Why Change the F Stop? • Changes the DEPTH OF FIELD of your picture… • Depth of Field is how much of your picture is in FOCUS LARGE DOF (larger f stop) SMALL DOF (smaller f stop)
  61. 61. Shallow Depth of Field • Only part of the image will be in focus, and the rest will be blurry • This is LARGER aperture because more light is coming in =smaller f/stop (like f/2)
  62. 62. Shallow Depth of Field
  63. 63. Wide Depth of Field • Most of the image will be in focus • Smaller aperture because less light is coming in= larger F/stop (like f/22)
  64. 64. Wide Depth of Field
  66. 66. When to change Aperture • Landscape photos (so the horizon is in focus) • Building shots • Anytime you want to see ALL detail in a photo LARGER APERTURE (low f stop, like 2.8) SMALLER APERTURE (high f stop, like f11) • Portraits • Close-up photos • Anytime you have a focal point and don’t want the background to be distracting When changing Aperture, you should be in APERTURE PRIORITY mode!
  67. 67. Student Examples: Larger Aperture (smaller F Stop)
  68. 68. Student Examples: Larger Aperture (smaller F Stop)
  69. 69. Student Examples: Larger Aperture (smaller F Stop)
  70. 70. Student Examples: Larger Aperture (smaller F Stop)
  71. 71. Student Examples: Larger Aperture (smaller F Stop) MINI ASSIGNMENT: Using a DSLR, find an object that would be appropriate for Small and large aperture. Take the photos, and review to see if they turned out well, and if you need to alter the F stop. WRITE in your sketchbook what F Stop you used for each photo and WHY.
  72. 72. APERTURE QUIZ- #6 Picture A Picture B
  73. 73. APERTURE QUIZ- #7
  74. 74. APERTURE QUIZ- #8
  75. 75. Rule of Thirds/Aperture Project You are turning in 3 PHOTOS TOTAL. • 1 Close up photo of nature (using large aperture/ LOW F stop) • One landscape (using small aperture/HIGH F stop) without buildings or people • One photo of your choice that shows DESTRUCTION. Requirements: • One photo MUST be in black and white - All 3 photos MUST use Rule of Thirds - Large aperture photo MUST be done using DLSR
  76. 76. Shutter Speed (DSLR) • The amount of time the shutter is ‘open’ • Measured in seconds (1/1000 is much faster than 1/30) • Most photos 1/60 or faster • SLOWER than 1/60- need a tripod
  77. 77. Shutter Speed • When to change shutter speed (DSLR only): – Is the subject moving? – Do you want to freeze the image or add some ‘blur’? – SHARPNESS.
  78. 78. Shutter Speed
  79. 79. Shutter Speed The FASTER the shutter speed, the DARKER the photo.
  80. 80. Shutter Speed (DSLR only) Shutter Speed Vs. Aperture Aperture
  81. 81. Shutter Speed • D3100 Range: 1/4000 of a second to 30 seconds. • Camera controls aperture! • “Semiautomatic” TROUBLESHOOTING: - Low lighting: “Lo” will appear if you are trying a long shutter speed: not enough light!! - Outdoors: “Hi”will appear-too much light and image will be overexposed. - ISO: always check setting if your picture isn’t turning out correctly
  83. 83. SLOW shutter speed: BLUR • PANNING: To Create a ‘blur’ effect where the subject is clear but the background is moving, pan across with your camera slowly while pressing down the shutter. This will make your subject look like it is moving faster.... • USE Shutter speed 1/30 or 1/60
  84. 84. Action & Movement- BLUR
  85. 85. Action/Movement Examples of BLUR
  86. 86. Action/Movement Examples of BLUR (SLOW SS)
  87. 87. Action/Movement: BLUR DLSR: • S Mode • You need to DECREASE the shutter speed when panning. • Try 1/30 or 1/60. Should not be higher than 1/1000 • Use the TRIPOD • Have enough light Point and Shoot: • POINT AND SHOOT: • ISO 100, use LANDSCAPE mode for panning. Follow subject with your body
  88. 88. FAST Shutter speed: Action/Movement • Moment frozen in time • Should be clear! • TIMING IS EVERYTHING!
  89. 89. Action/Movement: Moment Frozen in Time • Precise MOMENT • What is happening before and after? • FAST shutter speed (over 1/125)
  90. 90. Action/Movement
  91. 91. Action/Movement Do these pictures tell a STORY?
  92. 92. Action/Movement Sports, Animals, and Water are
  93. 93. Action/Movement
  94. 94. Action & Movement- Student Examples
  95. 95. Action & Movement- Student Examples
  96. 96. Action & Movement- Student Examples
  97. 97. Action & Movement- Student Examples
  98. 98. Action & Movement- Student Examples
  99. 99. Action & Movement- Student Examples
  100. 100. FAST SS: Moment in time DLSR: • S Mode • You need to INCREASE shutter speed (over 1/125) • Use the TRIPOD-especially for close ups like water • Have enough light • Press shutter down halfway Point and Shoot: • Use Burst Mode • Try action/sport mode • USE A TRIPOD! • Objects AND People • Press shutter down halfway
  101. 101. Tips for Action Photos 1. Offset subject: don’t place in middle of frame. 2. Get in front of the action! Coming toward you, not going away from you 3. Tell a story. Make us interesting. Look for interesting angle.
  102. 102. Mini Assignment: Partners OK 1. Practice 2 photos using MOMENT IN TIME and FAST shutter speed. 2. Practice PANNING with DSLR for 2 different subjects to get blur (Slow shutter speed). 3. Write: short description of your photos and any challenges/success you had in sketchbook. (4 photos total)
  103. 103. Burst Mode Photo Montage
  104. 104. Burst Mode Photo Montage Can also do this by ‘stitching’ panoramic photos (Point and shoot ONLY)
  105. 105. Burst Mode Photo Montage Examples
  106. 106. Burst Settings On DSLR: - Continuous shutter button-will keep taking pictures as long as you hold it down - Flash disabled - About 3 frames per second On POINT and SHOOT - Program: Burst Mode - 2 photos
  107. 107. PANO: Iphone - IOS 7 or newer - Panoramic: For water or lights only! - People can be difficult to shoot
  108. 108. PANO: Iphone
  109. 109. PANO: Iphone • This is what can happen if you take action shots of people:
  110. 110. Iphone Action App:
  111. 111. Iphone Action App:
  112. 112. Action Assignment: 1. Freeze the Action (moment in time): ONE photo that freezes the action. (THIS MAY NOT BE SOMEONE RUNNING OR JUMPING) 2. Blur (DLSR) : 1 Photo with BLUR where the subject is clear and background is blurred completely 3. Burst mode: take 3-6 photos in succession that TELL A STORY SPECIFICS: - Background should NOT be a distraction (photo focused on subject) - At least one Photo should be an object (not a person) - Subject should not be centered - MAKE IT UNEXPECTED AND INTERESTING. YOU WILL TURN IN AT LEAST 5 PHOTOS