The
SLR
Film
Digital
Cutaways
Film vs.
Sensor
• Kodak made a digital
back for a very popular
film Nikon N90s. It was
bigger than the camera.
Sensor Size
• The biggest differences between various
camera is the sensor size.
The iPhone
CAMERA
Advantage
Lots of companies make digital cameras,
many make DSLRs as well.
State of the Art Cameras
http://www.imaging-resource.com/MFR1.HTM
D4 and EOS-1D Mark IV is the current
high end camera.
Newest Cameras
http://www.imaging-resource.com/MFR1.HTM
World's fastest digital SLR: shooting up to 10 fps, with a burst rate up to 10 full-resolution JPEG images
or 30 RAW image...
Pentax K100d
Digital Single Lens Reflex (DSLR)
Front View
Comparable
to my first
DSLR…
a Nikon D100
for $2,000 in
2002
(bo...
Copyright Notice
• Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike CC BY-NC-SA
• This presentation is for educational purposes only. ...
• Pentax, similar to name brands Nikon and Canon, made it’s mark on the industry with the widely popular
K1000, produced f...
Not only was the same camera made
for 20+ years
just about every k-mount Pentax lens ever made will work on a current Pent...
Wide Variety
• Camera manufacturers
produce large variety of
lenses for a large variety of
reasons.
– wide angle,
– long t...
• Popup flash…
good for 10-15’
• Red window for
wireless remote
Front View w/o Lens
Front Left View
• Shooting mode
dial on top
• Focus switch –
manual or auto
• Lens
• 18-55
• Close focus
capability
down t...
Zoom Lens – a tactile zoom…easy to go from
one end to the other end of the focal range.
Zoom Lens – But the lens lets in a lot less light
at the long end.
Zoom Lens –
Is usually a compromise.
Cover lots of ranges, but
sacrifice quality.
Zoom Lens
If you don’t want to shoot commercially,
then the NEW Nikon 18-300 would be a fantastic lens.
Zoom vs Fixed Focal Length
18-300mm vs 50mm
Which sounds better?
Would knowing the price help?
18-300mm vs 50mm
$900 vs $1...
http://www.lightstalking.com/7-reasons-why-prime-lenses-are-better-than-zoom-lenses-to-improve-your-photography/
Left Side
with Lens
Left Side View
• Shooting mode dial on top
• Access ports (used to transfer images
with cord at the computer)
Right Side View
• Memory card slid
• Slide back then flip open.
Connecting camera to the computer
• NEW!! Keep camera around your neck until you are at the
computer, then place on the bl...
San Disk, Secure Data (SD)
Ultra II Plus
• There is a LOCK to the left side of
the memory card.
• The lock broke, so I rem...
San Disk, Secure Data (SD)
Ultra II Plus
Bottom View
You will probably have to change
batteries at some point.
Slide the door out then flip open.
Top View
Indicated shutter
speed and
aperture, as well
as focus and
drive mode and
shots remaining.
+/- Exposure Compensation
Keep an eye
on this incase
somebody else
turned it on.
+/- Exposure Compensation
Hold the +/- button
and rotate
the rear
command
wheel.
Back View
Omni Direction Cursor
Shake Reduction
View finder
Flash On
Delete
Play
Menu
View Finder SLR, TTL – You are looking
THROUGH THE LENS of a
Single Lens Reflex.
Most CURRENT DLSR have a LIVE
preview, wh...
Viewing through a Pentaprism
The
Prism
bends the
light.
Main Features
• AutoISO
• Shake Reduction
• Depth of Field Preview (with live preview)
• 16-segment multi-pattern metering...
2-stage shutter release is
a shutter release, that when pressed
halfway, it activates the autofocus and
the light meter of...
Main Features, Cont.
• Advanced 11-point autofocus mechanism…with 9 of those being
cross-type sensors (capable of detectin...
Camera Handling
Let gravity
work for
you…left hand
UNDER the
camera.
Camera Handling
Let gravity work
for you!
• It’s not just a matter of
LOOKING like you
know what you are
doing, there is a reason
the left...
Even a monkey knows how to hold a camera.
Camera Handling – WRONG WAY
• Placing your hand
around the TOP
of the lens is
about as stupid as
pointing your
flash
SIDEW...
BAD and GOOD
BAD – pinky in front, no good
GOOD
BAD
OK – because the camera
is on a Tripod
Camera # =
ROLL #
• Get your camera
– Hold on to the
lens, pull up by
strap
• Extra Batteries
• Memory card
Special & Unique Memory Cards
• Don’t force them to open, or be rough with
them. Most memory is EASILY replaced,
this is n...
Battery System
• Invert one battery in the
opposite direction
indicating a depleted set.
Good
Dead
• Cameras have different ISO ranges:
Model/Time Frame ISO Max Useful
– Film in 1985 25-3200 200
– Film in 2004 100-3200 80...
Film Speed (Fuji)
ISO: 200-3200 – Shoot at the lowest ISO possible to get sharp pictures
Auto ISO is the default setting for the auto and sc...
Film Grain
• Ironically, today, there are companies
designing software to ADD grain to pictures
to simulate the film of ye...
The FASTER the film, the more expensive.
What does an ISO of 12k mean?
Here is 12,800 on a my
D3 (the older model)
iPhone 4 @ ISO 640
• Ok, when viewed on an iPhone screen. But
when enlarged, not so good.
It is just a test.
Why shoot a
flower at
ISO 3200?
Noise Sample
Noise Sample 2: Long Exposure
ISO 200
ISO 400
ISO 800
ISO 1600
ISO 3200
• ISO200 and ISO400 both produce very
clean images, and even by ISO800 noise
levels are well controlled. Images t...
K100d vs. Other Cameras…ISO
• The K100D performs well for its price point. Noise levels are
acceptable, being better than ...
So, why shoot at HI ISO?
• Because it’s 4x as sensitive…giving you 4
stops faster shutter speed.
– Example: If your BEST s...
1/320 @ 6.3, ISO 2500, 270mm, 6:20pm
1/80 @ 6.3, ISO 5000, 500mm, 6:36pm
16 mins later, despite 2x ISO…too much blur.
• So, I decided to call it quits after this shot.
Shooting Modes
AUTO PICT = Pickle Mode
• When you are in a
stressful situation, and
your pictures aren’t
turning out, put it on
Pickle Mo...
Shake Reduction
• PENTAX original Shake Reduction mechanism
for sharp, blur-free images
• Using magnetic force, this SLR s...
Shake Reduction System
Shake Reduction
• PENTAX, Olympus and Sony (formally
Minolota) use camera based
– Advantage: ALL lenses used on the camera will benefit
fr...
Resolution
• Generally, shoot at the HIGHEST resolution possible.
• 4M,  (better) is more than enough for class photos
DSLR Advantage
2/3” 5mp vs. APS-Sized CCD
Menu Button
• Press Menu, then arrow selection buttons to navigate. Use
right arrow to select. Use OK only when prompted.
Process of reducing size of digital files by changing the way the data
is coded (It does not involve a physical change in ...
Compressed graphic format standardized by the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG).
This supports up to 24-bit color, w...
Jaggies are stair-like lines that appear where there should be smooth straight lines
or curves. For example, when a nomina...
Which is 6M   and which is 1.5M ?
Which is…
which?
See if
you
can
tell
now.
And you
would have
to be
making
some
REALLY
large prints
(or
cropping a
LOT to tell
this in a
print.
Left is 6M   and right is 1.5M ?
Function Button
Function Button
• Left… AWB = White Balance
• Up… Drive Mode = Single,
Continuous Shooting 3 fps, Self –
Timer, Remote, et...
Function Button
Info Button
• This screen is shown when you press the Info
button while taking pictures – Check the date!!!
• Click the play button…if you see pictures, –
You will need to Format!!!
Lens Performance
• 18mm
– Barrel Distortion with light fall off
Lenses are rated
in several categories
• Bokeh (how smooth are the out-of-focus
areas
• Color Rendition
• Distortion
• Fal...
Lens Quality
iPhone Awesome
Camera
• Free APP that allows
• Self timer
• Split FOCUS and EXPOSURE
points
• Etc.
Resources
• http://www.dcresource.com/reviews/pentax/k100d-review
• http://www.digitalcamerareview.com/default.asp?newsID
...
Pentax K100d
Pentax K100d
Pentax K100d
Pentax K100d
Pentax K100d
Pentax K100d
Pentax K100d
Pentax K100d
Pentax K100d
Pentax K100d
Pentax K100d
Pentax K100d
Pentax K100d
Pentax K100d
Pentax K100d
Pentax K100d
Pentax K100d
Pentax K100d
Pentax K100d
Pentax K100d
Pentax K100d
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Pentax K100d

  1. 1. The SLR Film Digital Cutaways
  2. 2. Film vs. Sensor • Kodak made a digital back for a very popular film Nikon N90s. It was bigger than the camera.
  3. 3. Sensor Size • The biggest differences between various camera is the sensor size.
  4. 4. The iPhone CAMERA Advantage
  5. 5. Lots of companies make digital cameras, many make DSLRs as well.
  6. 6. State of the Art Cameras http://www.imaging-resource.com/MFR1.HTM D4 and EOS-1D Mark IV is the current high end camera.
  7. 7. Newest Cameras http://www.imaging-resource.com/MFR1.HTM
  8. 8. World's fastest digital SLR: shooting up to 10 fps, with a burst rate up to 10 full-resolution JPEG images or 30 RAW images (until Nov. 21, 2007 when Nikon one upped them with a 11 fps). EOS-1D Mark III
  9. 9. Pentax K100d Digital Single Lens Reflex (DSLR) Front View Comparable to my first DSLR… a Nikon D100 for $2,000 in 2002 (body only)
  10. 10. Copyright Notice • Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike CC BY-NC-SA • This presentation is for educational purposes only. No money is being made and is provided with similar allowances for other educators to use for non-profit, educational purposes. • Images are from various sources, including many of my own. If you would like to high res images I have shot, please visit www.DrewLoker.com for various work online. • If you are the original author of any of the samples, pictures, text, etc. please let me know if you object to the usage and I will remove your material promptly. Photo by Drew Loker
  11. 11. • Pentax, similar to name brands Nikon and Canon, made it’s mark on the industry with the widely popular K1000, produced from 1976 to 1997. The K1000's extraordinary longevity makes it a historically significant camera, despite its very ordinary design. Although the K1000 was already obsolete when it was first released, its inexpensive simplicity was a great virtue and earned it an unrivaled popularity as a basic but sturdy workhorse, particularly suited to educating inexperienced photographers. The Pentax K1000 eventually sold over three million units, a milestone with in the industry.
  12. 12. Not only was the same camera made for 20+ years just about every k-mount Pentax lens ever made will work on a current Pentax digital body. The same is true of most Nikon DLSRs. Canon changed the lens mount when they introduced their Digital SRL.
  13. 13. Wide Variety • Camera manufacturers produce large variety of lenses for a large variety of reasons. – wide angle, – long telephoto – macro – Architecture – fast primes – all in one zooms – And a bunch of variation amount the above
  14. 14. • Popup flash… good for 10-15’ • Red window for wireless remote Front View w/o Lens
  15. 15. Front Left View • Shooting mode dial on top • Focus switch – manual or auto • Lens • 18-55 • Close focus capability down to 1’
  16. 16. Zoom Lens – a tactile zoom…easy to go from one end to the other end of the focal range.
  17. 17. Zoom Lens – But the lens lets in a lot less light at the long end.
  18. 18. Zoom Lens – Is usually a compromise. Cover lots of ranges, but sacrifice quality.
  19. 19. Zoom Lens If you don’t want to shoot commercially, then the NEW Nikon 18-300 would be a fantastic lens.
  20. 20. Zoom vs Fixed Focal Length 18-300mm vs 50mm Which sounds better? Would knowing the price help? 18-300mm vs 50mm $900 vs $125 http://www.lightstalking.com/7-reasons-why-prime-lenses-are-better-than-zoom-lenses-to-improve-your-photography/ https://flic.kr/p/a3UJ2H This is one time paying MORE is not necessarily better. Zooms frequently cost MORE and are NOT as sharp, but they are more convenient.
  21. 21. http://www.lightstalking.com/7-reasons-why-prime-lenses-are-better-than-zoom-lenses-to-improve-your-photography/
  22. 22. Left Side with Lens
  23. 23. Left Side View • Shooting mode dial on top • Access ports (used to transfer images with cord at the computer)
  24. 24. Right Side View • Memory card slid • Slide back then flip open.
  25. 25. Connecting camera to the computer • NEW!! Keep camera around your neck until you are at the computer, then place on the blue mouse pad. • Turn the camera on • Type a windows Key + E.
  26. 26. San Disk, Secure Data (SD) Ultra II Plus • There is a LOCK to the left side of the memory card. • The lock broke, so I removed it, and messed up the card. A piece of JBWeld is in it’s place. Please don’t pick at it. • If your camera comes up saying that it is locked, take the memory card back out, flatten the tape, trying not to lock the card upon insertion.
  27. 27. San Disk, Secure Data (SD) Ultra II Plus
  28. 28. Bottom View You will probably have to change batteries at some point. Slide the door out then flip open.
  29. 29. Top View Indicated shutter speed and aperture, as well as focus and drive mode and shots remaining.
  30. 30. +/- Exposure Compensation Keep an eye on this incase somebody else turned it on.
  31. 31. +/- Exposure Compensation Hold the +/- button and rotate the rear command wheel.
  32. 32. Back View Omni Direction Cursor Shake Reduction View finder Flash On Delete Play Menu
  33. 33. View Finder SLR, TTL – You are looking THROUGH THE LENS of a Single Lens Reflex. Most CURRENT DLSR have a LIVE preview, where you have to hold the camera out in front of you. The k100d CLASSROOM set does NOT have live preview. The home camera DOES have a live preview. It is useful, but not perfect, drains the battery and result in lost shots. USE THE VIEW FINDER…it is the MAIN advantage of the rapid fire DSLR.
  34. 34. Viewing through a Pentaprism
  35. 35. The Prism bends the light.
  36. 36. Main Features • AutoISO • Shake Reduction • Depth of Field Preview (with live preview) • 16-segment multi-pattern metering system • Picture and Scene Modes "Auto Pict“, six programmed picture modes for specific scenes: portrait, landscape, macro, action, night scene portrait, and flash off. 8 additional scenes modes available: night scene, surf and snow, text, sunset, kids, pet, candlelight, and museum.
  37. 37. 2-stage shutter release is a shutter release, that when pressed halfway, it activates the autofocus and the light meter of the camera, setting them to achieve correct focus and exposure. Holding the release at mid- course maintains the focusing point and allows for re- composition if desired. A further press on the shutter release takes the picture. *Think about when you’re focusing your camera. Whenever you press the shutter down half way, it will automatically focus on what you’re shooing (if auto focus is on). That’s exactly what it is.
  38. 38. Main Features, Cont. • Advanced 11-point autofocus mechanism…with 9 of those being cross-type sensors (capable of detecting both vertical and horizontal focus) the SAFOX VIII autofocus system on the K100D Super uses nine cross-type sensors … meaning greater autofocus accuracy • Focus and Recompose – Move camera to center subject, hold the shutter half way down to LOCK the Focus, keep holding shutter down…and move camera back to recompose, then push shutter the rest of the way. Even state of the art cameras with the BEST AF systems on the planet still need a little help getting the right thing in focus.
  39. 39. Camera Handling Let gravity work for you…left hand UNDER the camera.
  40. 40. Camera Handling
  41. 41. Let gravity work for you! • It’s not just a matter of LOOKING like you know what you are doing, there is a reason the left hand goes UNDER the camera.
  42. 42. Even a monkey knows how to hold a camera.
  43. 43. Camera Handling – WRONG WAY • Placing your hand around the TOP of the lens is about as stupid as pointing your flash SIDEWAYS! • The camera is MUCH more stable with your left hand UNDER the lens.
  44. 44. BAD and GOOD
  45. 45. BAD – pinky in front, no good
  46. 46. GOOD
  47. 47. BAD
  48. 48. OK – because the camera is on a Tripod
  49. 49. Camera # = ROLL # • Get your camera – Hold on to the lens, pull up by strap • Extra Batteries • Memory card
  50. 50. Special & Unique Memory Cards • Don’t force them to open, or be rough with them. Most memory is EASILY replaced, this is not.
  51. 51. Battery System • Invert one battery in the opposite direction indicating a depleted set. Good Dead
  52. 52. • Cameras have different ISO ranges: Model/Time Frame ISO Max Useful – Film in 1985 25-3200 200 – Film in 2004 100-3200 800 – Canon A85 (2004) 50-400 200 – Pentax *ist (2004) 100-1600 800 – Nikon D40 (2006) 200-1600 1600 – Pentax K100d (2006) 200-3200 1600 – Nikon D3 12/2007 100-25,000 6400 – Nikon D3s 12/2009 100-102,400 12,800 Camera manufactures will usually include a HIGH ISO that is not really useful except for really casual stuff. This means that you can use it…but the results will be pretty noisy.
  53. 53. Film Speed (Fuji)
  54. 54. ISO: 200-3200 – Shoot at the lowest ISO possible to get sharp pictures Auto ISO is the default setting for the auto and scene shooting modes and will set a sensitivity between 200 and 3200 as it deems appropriate. You can also limit the auto ISO range to whatever you choose, such as 200 to 800. ISO 200 is the default for the P, Tv, Av and M modes unless you have previously selected an ISO. ISO may also be manually set at 200, 400, 800, 1600 or 3200.
  55. 55. Film Grain • Ironically, today, there are companies designing software to ADD grain to pictures to simulate the film of yesterday. TriX TMax Old film Old film Kodak Kodak
  56. 56. The FASTER the film, the more expensive.
  57. 57. What does an ISO of 12k mean?
  58. 58. Here is 12,800 on a my D3 (the older model)
  59. 59. iPhone 4 @ ISO 640 • Ok, when viewed on an iPhone screen. But when enlarged, not so good.
  60. 60. It is just a test. Why shoot a flower at ISO 3200?
  61. 61. Noise Sample
  62. 62. Noise Sample 2: Long Exposure
  63. 63. ISO 200
  64. 64. ISO 400
  65. 65. ISO 800
  66. 66. ISO 1600
  67. 67. ISO 3200 • ISO200 and ISO400 both produce very clean images, and even by ISO800 noise levels are well controlled. Images taken at ISO1600 have more noise present, but not excessive amounts. Things start to get messy at ISO3200, this sensitivity should be reserved for when nothing else will do as the level of noise will be clearly noticeable, even in smaller 6x4inch prints.
  68. 68. K100d vs. Other Cameras…ISO • The K100D performs well for its price point. Noise levels are acceptable, being better than the Pentax-based Samsung GX-1S. The Canon EOS 5D outclasses the Pentax, but then it should do, it costs around three times the price of the Pentax.
  69. 69. So, why shoot at HI ISO? • Because it’s 4x as sensitive…giving you 4 stops faster shutter speed. – Example: If your BEST shutter speed in a dark place, like a concert, is 1/15 of a second @ ISO 200…you would get: • 1/30 at ISO 400 • 1/60 @ ISO 800 • 1/125 @ ISO 1600 • 1/250 @ ISO 3200…which is fast enough to stop somebody who is jumping around on stage…or flying through the air
  70. 70. 1/320 @ 6.3, ISO 2500, 270mm, 6:20pm
  71. 71. 1/80 @ 6.3, ISO 5000, 500mm, 6:36pm
  72. 72. 16 mins later, despite 2x ISO…too much blur. • So, I decided to call it quits after this shot.
  73. 73. Shooting Modes
  74. 74. AUTO PICT = Pickle Mode • When you are in a stressful situation, and your pictures aren’t turning out, put it on Pickle Mode. • All other times, use either Av or M.
  75. 75. Shake Reduction • PENTAX original Shake Reduction mechanism for sharp, blur-free images • Using magnetic force, this SLR system shifts the camera’s image sensor vertically and horizontally at the optimum speed to compensate for the amount of camera shake detected, assuring outstanding compensation effects (equivalent to approximately 2 to 3.5 shutter steps). Since this versatile system is compatible with all existing PENTAX interchangeable lenses*, it does not require special anti-shake lenses equipped with add-on optics or devices.
  76. 76. Shake Reduction System
  77. 77. Shake Reduction
  78. 78. • PENTAX, Olympus and Sony (formally Minolota) use camera based – Advantage: ALL lenses used on the camera will benefit from the reduction of camera movement – Disadvantage: movement is greatest at the end of a lens…so camera based is not as effective for long lens stabilization. • Nikon and Canon use lens based stabilization. – Advantage: Image movement is the the most significant at the end of the lens where stabilization is most benefited. – Disadvantage: Each lens has to have the costly components driving up the cost. Camera based vs. Lens based
  79. 79. Resolution • Generally, shoot at the HIGHEST resolution possible. • 4M,  (better) is more than enough for class photos
  80. 80. DSLR Advantage 2/3” 5mp vs. APS-Sized CCD
  81. 81. Menu Button • Press Menu, then arrow selection buttons to navigate. Use right arrow to select. Use OK only when prompted.
  82. 82. Process of reducing size of digital files by changing the way the data is coded (It does not involve a physical change in the way the data itself is stored; there is no physical squeezing or squashing). * Uncompressed data may be re-coded in a more space-efficient form without any loss of original information (the compression is 'lossless') or it may be coded to lose specific parts of the data which are considered less important than other parts (the compression is 'lossy'). *When you save a picture in Photoshop, a small box will pop up. Within that box, there is a section for your image’s quality. This is choosing the images compression. The lower the number, the worse the quality (the picture is more pixelated). This looks worse, but it a way to say space. The higher the number, the better the quality, but this could take up a lot of space.
  83. 83. Compressed graphic format standardized by the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG). This supports up to 24-bit color, which makes JPEG a good format for storing digital photos. JPEG images are commonly used for Web graphics and for storing photos taken with digital cameras. They are usually saved with a .JPG extension. The term actually stands for "Joint Photographic Experts Group," because that is the name of the committee that developed the format. But you don't have to remember that because even computer nerds will think you're weird if you mention what JPEG stands for. Instead, remember that a JPEG is a compressed image file format. JPEG images are not limited to a certain amount of color, like GIF images are. Therefore, the JPEG format is best for compressing photographic images. So if you see a large, colorful image on the Web, it is most likely a JPEG file.
  84. 84. Jaggies are stair-like lines that appear where there should be smooth straight lines or curves. For example, when a nominally straight, un-aliased line steps across one pixel, a dogleg occurs halfway through the line, where it crosses the threshold from one pixel to the other. *Jaggies can occur for a variety of reasons, the most common being that the output device (display monitor or printer) does not have enough resolution to portray a smooth line. In addition, jaggies often occur when a bit-mapped image is converted to a different resolution. This is one of the advantages that vector graphics has over bit-mapped graphics – the output looks the same regardless of the resolution of the output device
  85. 85. Which is 6M   and which is 1.5M ?
  86. 86. Which is…
  87. 87. which?
  88. 88. See if you can tell now.
  89. 89. And you would have to be making some REALLY large prints (or cropping a LOT to tell this in a print.
  90. 90. Left is 6M   and right is 1.5M ?
  91. 91. Function Button
  92. 92. Function Button • Left… AWB = White Balance • Up… Drive Mode = Single, Continuous Shooting 3 fps, Self – Timer, Remote, etc. • Right… ISO = Set to 200… or Auto. Tomorrow…you can use Auto ISO…but normally, control the ISO…lowest possible. • Down… Flash Mode…NO flash, AUTO Flash, FILL Flash
  93. 93. Function Button
  94. 94. Info Button • This screen is shown when you press the Info button while taking pictures – Check the date!!!
  95. 95. • Click the play button…if you see pictures, – You will need to Format!!!
  96. 96. Lens Performance • 18mm – Barrel Distortion with light fall off
  97. 97. Lenses are rated in several categories • Bokeh (how smooth are the out-of-focus areas • Color Rendition • Distortion • Falloff, Light • Ghosting • Lateral Color Fringes (Chromatic Aberation)
  98. 98. Lens Quality
  99. 99. iPhone Awesome Camera • Free APP that allows • Self timer • Split FOCUS and EXPOSURE points • Etc.
  100. 100. Resources • http://www.dcresource.com/reviews/pentax/k100d-review • http://www.digitalcamerareview.com/default.asp?newsID • http://www.ephotozine.com/article/Pentax-K100D-Super • http://www.pentaximaging.com/products/product_details • http://www.pentaximaging.com/files/scms_docs/SHAKE

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