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04 The First Empires


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04 The First Empires

  1. 1. THE FIRST EMPIRES An Introduction to Conquering the World THE COURSE OF EMPIRES by Thomas Cole (1833-36) “ The Savage State”
  2. 2. “ The Arcadian or Pastoral State”
  3. 3. “ The Consummation of Empire”
  4. 4. “ The Destruction of Empire”
  5. 5. “ Desolation”
  6. 6. There is the moral of all human tales; 'Tis but the same rehearsal of the past. First freedom and then Glory - when that fails, Wealth, vice, corruption - barbarism at last. And History, with all her volumes vast, Hath but  one  page. Canto IV, Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage, Byron as quoted by Thomas Cole
  7. 7. The Akkadian Empire , the first empire in history
  8. 8. The Persian Achaemenid Empire , the earliest large empire in history
  9. 10. The Umayyad Dynasty , after the death of Muhammad
  10. 14. What is an empire? A geographically extensive group of states and ethnicities governed by a central authority. There are two types – TERRITORIAL EMPIRES HEGEMONIC EMPIRES Created through direct conquest, war, and control with force. Created through indirect conquest, coercion, and control with power. There is direct political control in the area, greater tribute is collected, but the armies are tied down. There is indirect political control, less tribute is collected, but armies are more expansive.
  11. 15. The Asabiya of Empires Following Ibn Khaldun’s theory, we can infer that the asabiya of an empire is incredibly low. And yet, they made up for it. It is during the age of empires when we see advancements and progress in almost every human endeavour.
  12. 17. PRESENT DAY Tell Abu Shahrain, Iraq
  13. 18. c5400 BCE Eridu Eridu (Sumerian: Eridu; transliteration: Eriduki; from the Sumerian for "mighty place") is an ancient city in what is now Tell Abu Shahrain, in Iraq. Eridu was considered the earliest city in southern Mesopotamia, and has been argued to be the oldest city in the world
  14. 19. Mesopotamian civilization (3200 to 539BCE) is founded between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. It is a succession of nations that built on the achievements of the one before.
  15. 21. SUMERIANS (3200 – 2000 BCE)
  16. 22. THE STANDARD OF UR: Sumer in war and peace
  17. 23. AKKADIANS (2300 – 2200 BCE)
  18. 24. AMORITES (2000 – 1600 BCE) If anyone brings an accusation of any crime before the elders, and does not prove what he has charged, he shall, if a capital offense is charged, be put to death. If a man strikes a pregnant woman, thereby causing her to miscarry and die, the assailant's daughter shall be put to death. If a man knocks the teeth out of another man, his own teeth will be knocked out. If anyone strikes the body of a man higher in rank than he, he shall receive sixty blows with an ox-whip in public.
  19. 25. ASSYRIANS (1300 – 612 BCE)
  20. 26. CHALDEANS (612 - 539 BCE)
  21. 27. CHALDEANS (612 - 539 BCE)
  22. 28. SUMMARY OF MESOPOTAMIA People Highlights Sumerians 3200 – 2000 BCE <ul><li>Had the earliest cities </li></ul><ul><li>Invented: the wheel, writing (cuneiform), lunar calendar, the ziggurat as the city center </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced irrigation </li></ul>Amorites 2000 – 1600 BCE <ul><li>Also called Old Babylon </li></ul><ul><li>A Semitic people that conquered Akkad </li></ul><ul><li>Hammurabi (ruled 1792-1750BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Known for: The Epic of Gilgamesh , mathematics, division of time: duodecimal system </li></ul>Assyrians 1300 – 612 BCE <ul><li>Splendid city of Nineveh </li></ul><ul><li>Superb and unmatched warriors of the time </li></ul>Chaldeans 612 – 539 BCE <ul><li>Also called New Babylon </li></ul><ul><li>Advances in architecture and astronomy </li></ul>
  24. 30. Persia is modern-day Iran. It’s earliest inhabitants are the Elamites (2800 – 550BCE) who would often feud with the Babylonians and Assyrians. More influential, however, have been the Aryans who came into Iran around 1100BCE. Of these people, the Medes and the Persians were most prominent. THE PERSIAN EMPIRE
  25. 31. Achaemenid Empire (550 to 330 BCE) founded by Cyrus the Great THE PERSIAN EMPIRE
  26. 32. <ul><li>Contributions to World History </li></ul><ul><li>Zoroastrianism – Often considered the earliest monotheistic religion, it speaks of a conflict between asha (truth, order) and druj (the lie, chaos). </li></ul><ul><li>Universalism – Incredibly tolerant of other cultures (at least by standards of their time), followed a ‘One World Policy’, and called their king the Shahanshah or King of Kings. </li></ul><ul><li>Effective Imperial Administration – They divided their lands into satrapies (governed by a satrap), a monarchy with a noble class, professional armies, taxation systems, and even banking. </li></ul>THE PERSIAN EMPIRE
  27. 33. Achaemenid Empire (550 to 330 BCE) founded by Cyrus the Great THE PERSIAN EMPIRE