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Islam

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Islam

  1. 2. Key Ideas <ul><li>Islam </li></ul><ul><li>“ La ilaha illalla Muhammad rasu lullah” </li></ul><ul><li>Sharia - divine law </li></ul><ul><li>Ummah- community </li></ul><ul><li>Usul al-din - Theological categories common to Shiites </li></ul><ul><li>a. Tauhid – unity of God </li></ul><ul><li>b. Nabuwwat –belief in the prophets </li></ul><ul><li>c. Quiyamat- day of judgement </li></ul>
  2. 3. Key persons in the life of the Prophet <ul><li>Muhammad 570-632 ( Amin) </li></ul><ul><li>Qur’an 96.14 </li></ul><ul><li>Abdullah Ibn Muttalib & Amina bint Wahb - </li></ul><ul><li>Abu Talib </li></ul><ul><li>- Ka’ba </li></ul><ul><li>Kadijah </li></ul><ul><li>- </li></ul>
  3. 4. Timeline of Islamic Civilization <ul><li>570 Muhammad was born </li></ul><ul><li>622 Hegira : Muhammad left Mecca for Medina </li></ul><ul><li>630 Mecca surrendered </li></ul><ul><li>632-Death of Muhammad </li></ul><ul><li>632-661 Palestine, Syria, Egypt and most of Persia </li></ul><ul><li>711 cross the Strait Gibraltar </li></ul><ul><li>718 South eastern Europe </li></ul><ul><li>732 Battle of Tours </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish Spain </li></ul><ul><li>756 Umayyad ruled most of the Iberian peninsula (Cordoba was the capital) </li></ul><ul><li>8-13 th c Muslims expand trade and empire (Spain to India to northern Africa) </li></ul><ul><li>1380 Arrival 0f ISLAM in the Philippines </li></ul>
  4. 5. Islam Political & Religious Succession <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad </li></ul><ul><li>Abu Bakr (SUNNI) Ali (SHI’ITE) </li></ul><ul><li>Abu Bakr - first Caliph ( khalifa – successor to assume responsibility of administration but not prophethood) </li></ul><ul><li>  Ali – cousin of Muhammad </li></ul>
  5. 6. Filipino Muslim Perceptions of Their History and Culture As Seen Through Indigenous Written Sources: Samuel Tan <ul><li>Indigenous Sources: </li></ul><ul><li>Kirim – tarsilas (genealogies) and other manuscripts of the Maguindanao sultanate and datuship </li></ul><ul><li>Jawi – sources associated with Sulu, Tausug-Sama sultanate and datuship, genealogies, luntar (account) , Kitab (book), surat and alamat </li></ul>
  6. 7. Spanish and American Sources: <ul><li>1878, Jose Montero y Vidal, Guerras Piraticos </li></ul><ul><li>Historia dela Pirateria Malayo Mahametana en Mindanao y Jolo </li></ul><ul><li>1893, Francisco Combes , Historia de Mindanao y Jolo </li></ul><ul><li>1889, Juan dela Concepcion, Historia General de Filipinas </li></ul><ul><li>1903-1913, David Borrows, A Decade of American Government in the Phil i ppines </li></ul><ul><li>1936, Victor Hurleys, Swish of the Kris: The Story of the Moros </li></ul>
  7. 8. Impressions from Spanish & American Sources : <ul><li>that the Moros as the colonial sources called them were a degraded race of savages whose only ambition was to plunder, guided strongly by religion based on the teaching of a false prophet which they called Mohammedanism </li></ul><ul><li>that their lack of civilization underline the need to subjugate and civilize them through Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>That the Moros are prone to violence and savagery, nevertheless capable of learning ways of civilized societies through gradual democratization </li></ul>
  8. 9. Other Sources: <ul><li>1905, Studies in Moro History, Law, and </li></ul><ul><li>1908, Religion & History of Sulu </li></ul><ul><li>Najeeb M. Salleeby </li></ul><ul><li>- anchored on the premise that Muslim Islamic traditions proved the existence of civilized society which has utilized armed struggle to preserve Muslim history and culture </li></ul><ul><li>2. 1977, Muslims in the Philippines, Cesar Majul </li></ul><ul><li>-200 correspondences, statements , comments of Sultans, datus, and local leaders from the US National Archives and Library of Congress </li></ul><ul><li>-Records Management Office and Archives </li></ul>
  9. 10. Records show: <ul><li>Saleeby : </li></ul><ul><li>1. Genealogy of Mantiri Asip – one of the ministers of Rajah Baginda </li></ul><ul><li>2. Genealogy of Rajah Tuan Mashaika– earliest mystics who came to Sulu and the first rulers of Sulu </li></ul><ul><li>Tuanship - a political institution after or contemporaneous with rajaship before the datuship in 1380 </li></ul>
  10. 11. Inferences: Philippine Islamization Phases <ul><li>Development of folk Islam </li></ul><ul><li>- the indigenous process that started from the ancient genesis of the Timuway , Raja, Tuan, Olangkaya and datu to the rise of the Sultanate </li></ul><ul><li>Gradual shaping of Islamic tradition with the formation of the Sultanate as the central political structure </li></ul><ul><li>- the Islamization process began with the advent of Tuan Mashaika to the arrival of Karim ul –Makdum and then to the formalization of Islamic institutions under the sultanate. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Timeline: <ul><li>Before 1280 - beginning of Early Settlements </li></ul><ul><li>- Islamic penetration of the indigenous culture from the Indo-Malay world </li></ul><ul><li>- rise of pre-datuship institutions timuay, raja , tuan </li></ul><ul><li>1280 – 1450- emergence and development of Ulangkayaship and datuship </li></ul><ul><li>1450-1960 – Advent and Political Evolution of the Sultanate </li></ul><ul><li>a. Formalization and dominance of Islamic institutions </li></ul><ul><li>b. Rise and dominance of sultanate 1450-1750 AD </li></ul><ul><li>c. Decline of the Sultanate 1750-1915 </li></ul><ul><li>d. Political demise of sultanate and datuship 1915-1960 </li></ul>
  12. 13. Philippne Muslims: Ethno-linguistic groups: <ul><li>Iranun Kalibugan </li></ul><ul><li>Maguindanaoan Sangil </li></ul><ul><li>Maranao Molbog </li></ul><ul><li>Tao-Sug Palawani </li></ul><ul><li>Sama Badjao </li></ul><ul><li>Yakan Others: Higaonon, </li></ul><ul><li>Jama Mapun Subanen, T’boli </li></ul><ul><li>Ka’agan </li></ul>
  13. 14. Issues: <ul><li>Jabidah Massacre </li></ul><ul><li>2. MNLF, MILF </li></ul><ul><li>3. Bangsamoro </li></ul>

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