Radar tech msk

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Radar tech msk

  1. 1. Radar Techniques RTC, IGI Airport New Delhi
  2. 2. Introduction
  3. 3. ObjectiveTo apply effective radar techniques byunderstandingArea Navigation (RNAV) operations inTerminal Area (TMA)
  4. 4. RNAVAircraft CapabilitiesTMA RNAV SIDs and STARsWaypointsTMA operations • Terrain clearance • Level Categories • ‘DIRECT TO’ instruction • Radar Vectoring and RNAV SIDs/STARs
  5. 5. RNAV Aircraft CapabilitiesRNAV 1 AIRCRAFT CAPABILITY• Large database SIDs/STARs loaded automatically & able to interpret coded SIDs/STARs• Comprehensive pilot display requirements• Displays a minimum of 10 waypoints• Track accuracy +/- 1 nm (95% of total flight time)• DIRECT TO function required• Fly-by and fly-over capabilities required• Parallel off-set not required• Fully suitable for Terminal Control Area
  6. 6. RNAV TMA RNAV SIDs and STARs• Defined by waypoints• Limitations of RNAV over conventional‘ SIDs/STARs  Not all aircraft are RNAV1 equipped  Aircraft capability has to be identified• 2 methods used to terminate STARs  Closed STARs : uninterrupted RNAV nominal track to the final approach segment  Open STARs : RNAV nominal track up to a waypoint abeam the final approach fix
  7. 7. RNAV WaypointWaypoint A specified geographical location used to define an area navigation route or the flight path of an aircraft employing area navigationFly-by waypoint A waypoint which requires turn anticipation to allow tangential interception of the next segment of a route or procedureFlyover waypoint A waypoint at which a turn is initiated in order to join the next segment of a route or procedure
  8. 8. RNAV WaypointFactors affecting turn anticipation and recovery turn• Speed• Level• Amount of turn between segments• Type of aircraft and System manufacturer
  9. 9. RNAV TMA operation Terrain clearanceTERRAIN CLEARANCE• Existing responsibilities are not changed.• It DOES NOT relieve: Pilots of their responsibility to ensure that any clearances are safe in respect to terrain clearance Air Traffic Control (ATC) of its responsibility to assign levels which are at or above established minimum flight altitudes
  10. 10. RNAV TMA operation Level CategoriesCATEGORIES OF LEVEL INFORMATIONMinimum Flight AltitudeCleared levelsLevel Restrictions ?
  11. 11. RNAV TMA operation ‘DIRECT TO’ instructionDIRECT TO instruction in the TMA• All RNAV 1 certified aircraft are able to execute DIRECT TO waypoints• ATC could consider DIRECT TO as an alternative to radar vectoring for RNAV 1 capable aircraft• By using DIRECT TO instead of radar vectoring, RNAV 1 systems maintain distance to go informationRNAV DIRECT TO instructions are not radar vectors
  12. 12. RNAV TMA operation ‘DIRECT TO’ instructionInability to comply ‘DIRECT TO’ instruction• navigation computer problem• too close to waypoint specified• angle of turn/speed too great• waypoint not displayed on the Flight Management System (FMS) for pilot selection• waypoint not part of SID/STAR• SID/STAR not assigned
  13. 13. RNAV TMA operation ‘DIRECT TO’ instructionDIRECT TO a waypoint which is part of the SID/STAR• The pilot selects the waypoint in the FMS• The FMS and Navigation Display (ND) are updated maintaining details of the route from the DIRECT TO waypoint onwards• The aircraft continues with the SID/STAR after reaching the waypoint• The aircraft is expected to meet level/speed restrictions if published, if the cleared level makes this possible• DIRECT TO could shorten track miles impacting the aircrafts ability to meet level and speed restrictions
  14. 14. RNAV TMA operation ‘DIRECT TO’ instructionDIRECT TO a waypoint which is not part of the SID/ STAR• It takes time for the pilot to retrieve the waypoint from the database• The clearance for the SID/STAR is cancelled and previously loaded SID/STAR is dropped by the RNAV system• No further routeing is maintained or displayed• The aircraft requires explicit routeing after the waypoint from ATC• RNAV systems will revert to "present heading mode" after reaching the waypoint
  15. 15. RNAV TMA operation ‘DIRECT TO’ instructionCONSTRAINTS OF DIRECT TO INSTRUCTIONS IN THE TMA• ‘Active waypoints dynamically updated• As waypoints are passed, they are removed from the active waypoints list• The aircraft can have considerable difficulty manoeuvring DIRECT TO a waypoint which is considered by the RNAV system, to have been passed• DIRECT TO should only be used for waypoints ahead of the aircraft
  16. 16. RNAV TMA operation Radar Vectoring and RNAV SIDs/STARsRADAR VECTORING & RNAV SIDs/STARsAircraft may require considerable manipulation of the RNAV system inorder to resume a SID/STAR cancelled by ATCArrivals: If radar vectoring is initiated, ATC should consider continuing with radar vectoring until intercept of the final approach aidDepartures: If radar vectoring is initiated, ATC should consider: • remaining with radar vectoring until the aircraft is in a position to join the en-route ATS route structure, or • issuing a DIRECT TO the last waypoint of the RNAV SID
  17. 17. RNAV TMA operation Radiotelephony Phraseology for RNAV TMA• Checking if Aircraft able to accept a SID/STAR "ADVISE IF ABLE (designator) DEPARTURE [or ARRIVAL]“• If aircraft unable to accept ATC issued RNAV SID/STAR “UNABLE (designator) DEPARTURE [or ARRIVAL] DUE RNAV TYPE"• If aircraft unable to continue on issued RNAV SID/STAR due to some failure or degradation of their RNAV system “UNABLE RNAV DUE EQUIPMENT"• If ATC unable to issue requested RNAV SID/STAR "UNABLE TO ISSUE (designator) DEPARTURE [or ARRIVAL] DUE RNAV TYPE"
  18. 18. TMA operation RNAV CAPABILITY INDICATIONRNAV CAPABILITY INDICATIONAircraft equipment capabilities are indicated on the Flight PlanRNAV 1Flight Plan (FPL) item 10 will include R ‘ and item 18 PBN/ will includeD1-D4RNAV 5FPL item 10 will include R and item 18 PBN/ will include B1-B5
  19. 19. THANKS

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