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Traffic alert and Collision Avoidance System

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  • Slide 3 The Aircraft Transponder Rx 1030 and TX 1090 the Radar Ground Station Tx 1030 and RX 1090.
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Traffic alert and Collision Avoidance System

  1. 1. Lecture 10: Traffic alertand Collision Avoidance System (TCAS)
  2. 2. AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL Home • ATC systems prevent aircraft collisions, organizePrevious and expedite the flow of traffic. • It also provides weather and navigational Next information. • Secondary surveillance radars are used for traffic Help control. • Modern ATC use air traffic control radar beacon system (ATCRBS) surveillance radar monitoring and separation of air traffic.
  3. 3. Secondary Surveillance RADAR Home • Primary RADAR measures position of targets by detection of reflected radio signals.Previous • SSR not only detects the aircraft but also gives its Next altitude and identity. • SSR makes use of RADAR transponders that replies to interrogation by transmitting an encoded data. Help • Transponder is a radio receiver and transmitter which receives request at 1090MHz and transmits at 1030 MHz.
  4. 4. Mid-Air Collision (MAC) HomePrevious Worst MAC in History •Saudi Arabian Airlines Next VS Kazakhstan Airlines , Help 1996 (349 people killed) A mid-air collision is an aviation accident in which two or more aircraft come into contact during flight.
  5. 5. What is TCAS Home • TCAS stand for Traffic alert and Collision Avoidance SystemPrevious • It is a transponder based interrogation system capable of displaying conflicting traffic and Next Help providing resolution advisory. • Provides an extra level of protection against mid-air collisions.
  6. 6. HOW TCAS WORKS Home • TCAS consists of antennas on aircraft body, computer processor & TCAS display inside cockpit.Previous • TCAS antenna continually surveys the airspace Next around an aircraft & transmit the signal. Help • Other aircraft that also equipped with TCAS in the surrounding area will reply the signal. • TCAS continuously calculates tracked aircraft position, therefore TCAS display constantly updated and provide real time position information.
  7. 7. HOW TCAS WORKS Home • TCAS operates similar as Secondary SurveillancePrevious Radar (SSR), but in air to air role. Next Help
  8. 8. HOW TCAS WORKS Home • Targets (other aircraft) are displayed on thePrevious TCAS screen as different symbols which show level of threat. • Aircraft relative altitude also will be displayed. Next Help – Relative altitude is the targets altitude in relation to the aircraft. EX: -03↑ depicts a target 300 feet below and climbing. • TCAS can not display aircraft without TCAS antenna/transponders.
  9. 9. TCAS BLOCK DIAGRAM HomePrevious Next Help
  10. 10. Traffic Advisory (TA) & Resolution Advisory (RA) Home Determination of the alerts: TA & RA AUDIO WARNINGPrevious Traffic Advisory (TA) Intruder be at 45 “Traffic, Traffic” help the pilots in the visual search and 35 seconds for the intruder aircraft, and alert Next them to be ready for a potential from the collision resolution advisory area. Help Resolution Advisory (RA) Intruder be at 30 “Climb, Climb” avoidance maneuvers and 20 seconds “Descent, recommended to the pilot. from the collision Descent” area. • Maximum number of aircraft processed = 30
  11. 11. PROTECTION THRESHOLDS HomePrevious Next Help
  12. 12. TYPICAL TCAS DISPLAY HomePrevious Next Help
  13. 13. TCAS Advantages and Disadvantages Home • All threats taken into accountPrevious • Detection of all transponding aircraft, including those which are not displayed on the air traffic controller’s screen Next • Independent system, which acts as a last resort measure to Help avoid mid-air collision when other safety precautions fail. • TCAS reduced the risk of mid-air collision • TCAS can not display aircraft without TCAS antenna/transponders.
  14. 14. TCAS Limitations Home • No detection of aircraft without or notPrevious operating transponders . Next • No knowledge of the pilot’s intentions and of the ATC separation minima Help • Basic display: no identification, no past positions, no speed vector • Sometime generate unnecessary alerts.
  15. 15. HomePrevious Next Help

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