VSS 2006 - Taking it from Good…to Better…to Best in Online Course Design
Research intoWeb-based Design Michael K. Barbour University of Georgia
The Studies Centre for Distance Illinois VirtualLearning and Innovation High School Learning Styles and Teacher and Developer Web-based Design Perceptions Evaluation of a Course Student Development Process Perceptions End
Newfoundland and Labrador• area of the island is 43,359 square miles, while Labrador covers 112,826 square miles• according to the 2001 Census population for Newfoundland and Labrador was 512,930 (down from 551,795 in 1996)• 305 schools (down from 343 just three years ago)• 81,458 students (down from 118,273 a decade ago)• average school size 233 pupils (over 40% have less than 200)
Centre for Distance Learning and InnovationThe CDLI was founded in December 2000 by the Department of Education, in response to the recommendations of the 1999 Sparks-Williams Ministerial Panel on Educational Delivery.The vision of the Centre is to• provide access to educational opportunities for students, teachers and other adult learners in both rural and urban communities in a manner that renders distance transparent;• eliminate geographical and demographic barriers as obstacles to broad, quality educational programs and services; and• develop a culture of e-learning in our schools which is considered to be an integral part of school life for all teachers and students.
Centre for Distance Learning and Innovation• The two main sources of this support come from synchronous and asynchronous instruction.• The CDLI has experienced and highly qualified teachers that provide, depending on the subject area, anywhere from 30% to 80% of the students’ scheduled time (which is 10 one hour periods over a fourteen day cycle) in synchronous instruction using the voice over Internet protocol software, Elluminate Live®.• The asynchronous instruction is conducted using a course management system, WebCT®.
Centre for Distance Learning and Innovation• You Will Learn – briefly lists, in student friendly language, the instructional outcomes for the lesson;• You Should Know – lists, and when necessary elaborates on, knowledge and skills students are expected to have mastered prior to the lesson;• Lesson – is self-explanatory and may be broken into multiple pages;• Activities – contains further instructional events the student that students need to carry out in order to master the lesson outcomes; and• Test Yourself – offers an opportunity for the student to gauge the degree to which the outcomes were achieved.
CDLI Studies Learning Styles and Web-based DesignTeacher and Developer Student Perceptions Perceptions
Illinois Virtual High SchoolThe IVHS is a state-sponsored virtual high school designed to provide web-based learning opportunities to students and teachers.The IVHS began offering courses to students in 2001-2002The mission of the Illinois Virtual High School is “to use new and emerging technologies that expand the boundaries of space and time to provide Illinois students and their teachers with increased equity and access to the highest quality educational opportunities.”
Illinois Virtual High SchoolThe IVHS method of instruction is primarily asynchronous through eCollegeThe IVHS does use Elluminate Live for synchronous sessions, but these are infrequent in the students scheduleThere has traditionally been little consistency between the lay-out and design of Evaluation of a Course IVHS courses Development Process
The studyThis presentation represents the initialportion of a study on the perceptions of thecharacteristics of effective web-baseddesign for secondary school students withinthe CDLI environment. This initial portionconsiders the perceptions theadministration of the CDLI, coursedevelopers and those who held the role ofboth course developers and electronicteachers.
The studyJohn was one of the initial developers and was perceived as one of the stronger course developers until accepting a new job with the understanding he would not seek to be seconded by the CDLI.Cliff, a retired teacher who spent twenty-nine years in the classroom, is designing his first course.Norman, one of four original developers who went on to be an e-teacher, has also developed of sections of two other courses and is teaching a second web-based course.Bill, began his thirtieth year of teaching this past September, is another of the initial developers that went on to be an e-teacher for the past three years.Sam is a principal of a small, rural school, where he has taught in almost every subject area at every grade level, even though he is trained as a Science teacher.George, an administrator with the CDLI has been involved in distance education for the past decade and a half; first as a distance education coordinator in a rural school, then as an instructor and content developer, and later with a web-based program.
Why?• there has been much research on web-based course design – Collins, 1999; Gallini and Barron, 2001-2002; Stein, 2004• however, this research conducted in online learning has focused upon post-secondary institutions and corporate America – Kolbe and Bunker, 1997; Gunawardena and McIsaac, 2004; Hill, Wiley, Nelson and Han, 2004• the problem with this focus upon an adult population is that there is a difference between how adults learn compared to the way adolescents learn – Knowles, 1970; Moore, 1973; Bright, 1989; Cavanaugh, Gillan, Kromrey, Hess and Blomeyer, 2004
Initial findingsCourse developers should:1. prior to beginning development of any of the web-based material, plan out the course with ideas for the individual lessons and specific items that they would like to include;2. keep the navigation simple and to a minimum, but don’t present the material the same way in every lesson;3. provide a summary of the content from the required readings or the synchronous lesson and include examples that are personalized to the students’ own context;4. ensure students are given clear instructions and model expectations of the style and level that will be required for student work;5. refrain from using too much text and consider the use of visuals to replace or supplement text when applicable;6. only use multimedia that will enhances the content and not simply because it is available; and7. develop their content for the average or below average student.
Planning and preparationDevelopers should “not attempt to writeanything, do not attempt to constructanything, until you have designed yourproject out from end to end, from start tofinish… if you fail to do this, here’s whathappens… if you get in there and get on withit and make a misstep, … undoing thatmistake usually means changes thatpeculate right through the web of work thatyou’ve constructed. So, undoing you’remistakes is horrendously difficult. Secondthing is that when you take the time to layyour project out from start to finish, thechances are you will confer with otherpeople and that means that you will addlayers of… important content… to yourproject that would not otherwise have beenthere if you did not take the time.” (George)
KISS, but not the same way all the timeInstead of going… “You will learn,” or “You should know,” and so on, they’ll click right to the “Lesson”… if I have any activities assigned to them, they’ll simply just go right to the “Activities,” they won’t even bother with the “Lesson” itself. (Norman)Each lesson “has to offer a certain sense of choice to the students preferred style or mode of learning. Some students learn better by reading, some… with their hands, [and] some… by discussing items. Now a well designed lesson would either a) provide a couple of approaches or b) at least in the long scheme of things the lessons taken in aggregate would provide… a varied approach” (George).
Useful and personalDevelopers should “try to develop a good set of notes [and] a good set of worked examples.” (John)He had students “looking a lot at their own lives [and] their own communities” (Bill).“For example, if it’s… a student in Newfoundland and Labrador, you would use organisms that would reside in the province themselves,” which “can provide [the students] with something a little more substantive and relate to where they are” (Norman).
Clear directions and expectationsStudents “need to have clearly defined what has to be done [over] a certain period of time.” (John)“The directions and the expectations [need to be] precise enough so students can work effectively on their own, not providing a roadblock for their time.” (Bill)
Text, text and more text“You’re trying very often to explain things... [that are] difficult to understand. The more explanation you have there the less chance… students are going to read it, but some of the concepts are just too difficult to be… presented very concisely.” (Bill)“By providing students a visual cue with the written information it does provide a connection for them.” (Norman)
Appropriate selection of tools“There should be a lot of distractions there with things that… might be gimmicky.” (Bill)“Trying to be too flashy… really may distract… from the lesson itself and students may miss the message.” (Norman)
Who’s your audience“Appropriateness… [is] an important thing… because a lot of… people who develop courses… design… for… top students… but we’re also going to have some very, very weak students… so even if you’re into doing complicated material… keeping it as simple as possible.” (Bill)“Students are still students and… we shouldn’t assume that they’re all self motivated… it’s much better to shoot… for the average and below average student… making sure that… there’s a structure in place that guarantees they’re doing their… work.” (Cliff) Back to the studies
Background• Research was conducted with students enrolled in Enterprise Education 3205 through the Centre for Distance Learning and Innovation. (CDLI)• Students completed the prescribed curriculum solely through e-Learning.• 32 of the 44 students completed a learning styles inventory and agreed to the release of their marks.
Purpose of Research• In the classroom, we are able to adapt our instructional approach, our methods, even our instructional material.• This is much more difficult to accomplish in an e-learning environment.• Does the e-learning environment created by the CDLI lend itself to one learning style over another?• If it does, what can the CDLI do to help learners achieve in the environment that they have created?
Research Profile• KB Personal Learning Guide• Standard learning styles measure (visual, auditory, tactile)• Gardner’s multiple intelligences
Personal Learning Guide• Students rate sets of words on how well the words describe them.Discriminating Tentative Involved Practical 4 Best characterises 3 Next best 2 Next best 1 Least characterises• Once the students have rated nine sets, they are asked to add their responses to certain sets together to give them four totals
Personal Learning Guide • The four totals are plotted on the chart below to form a kite.
Personal Learning Guide• The Accommodative Learning Style - you have the ability to learn primarily from hands-on experience. You probably enjoy carrying out plans and involving yourself in new and challenging experiences. Your tendency may be to act on intuition and "gut feel" rather than careful analysis. When a thoughtful approach does not seem to be working out, you will be quick to discard it and improvise.• The Divergent Learning Style - you probably have the ability to view specific situations from many perspectives. For example, you may enjoy brainstorming and small group discussions. You also like to gather information and probably have broad interests. Your tendency may be to watch events rather than participate in them.• The Convergent Learning Style - you have the ability to find practical applications for ideas, concepts and theories. In particular you enjoy situations where there is a single or best answer to a question or problem. You may usually assume there is one best answer and use technical analysis to reveal it. You also may usually prefer to deal with technical issues rather than people issues.• The Assimilative Learning Style - you have the ability to create theoretical models (ideas that predict outcomes and descriptions of how different factor interact). You most likely enjoy inductive reasoning and distil disparate observations into logical explanations.  David A. Kolb and Richard J. Baker, Personal Learning Guide: A practical guide to increasing your learning from a training program or workshop, (Baker & Company: Dallas, TX, 1979-80), pp. 11-17.
Standard Measure• Students were given a statement and asked to give it a ratingI remember information better from lectures with explanations and discussions.I chew gum or snack when I study. 3 Often 2 Sometimes 1 Seldom• After students had responded to 24 of these statements, they were asked to write the numbers they selected for each statement into three different columns and total each column.
Standard Measure Visual Learners - you have to see it to believe it • needs to see it to know it • strong sense of colour • may have artistic ability • difficulty with spoken directions • over-reaction to sounds • trouble following lectures • misinterpretation of words Auditory Learner - if you hear it, you remember it • prefers to get information by listening • needs to hear it to know it • difficulty following written directions • difficulty with reading and writing Tactual Learner - if you can touch it with your hands, you will remember it • prefers hands-on learning • can assemble parts without reading directions • difficulty sitting still • learns better when physical activity is involved • may be very well co-ordinated and have athletic ability  Unknown, "Learning Lab - Learning Styles Evaluation," University of Northwestern Ohio (1998): 3 pages. 08 August 1999 <http://bsd- server.nc.edu/virtcol/ss/learn.html>.
Standard MeasureNumber of Visual Auditory TactilestudentsHighest 73.5% 61.4%(n=9) 66.6% (n=14)number (n=13)Above 20 74.2% (n=6) 53.0%(n=1) * 67.7% (n=7)Above 18 75.7% (n=15) 63.2%(n=10) 66.2% (n=17) * Only one respondent
Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences• Students were given a statement and asked to state if it was true or false. If the statement was true sometimes and false sometimes, they were to leave it blank.2. If I am angry or happy, I usually know why.8. I pick up new dance steps quickly.• After students had responded to 35 of these statements, they were asked to write an X over the numbers that they had responded “T” to based on the following table: A 9 10 17 22 30 = B 5 7 15 20 25 = C 1 11 14 23 27 = D 8 16 19 21 29 = E 3 4 13 24 28 = F 2 6 26 31 33 = G 12 18 32 34 35 =
Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences• Interpersonal Intelligence - Telecommunications programs; programs which address social issues; programs which include group presentation or decision making; games which require two or more players; TV production team approach• Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence - Software requiring alternate input such as joystick, mouse, or touch window; keyboarding and word processing programs; animation programs; programs which allow them to move objects around the screen; science probeware• Intrapersonal Intelligence - Computer assisted instruction/ILS labs; instructional games in which the opponent is the computer; programs which encourage self-awareness or build self- improvement skills; any program which allow them to work independently; brainstorming or problem solving software• Logical/Mathematical Intelligence - Database and spreadsheet programs; problem solving software; computer programming software; strategy game formats/simulations; calculators; multimedia authoring programs
Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences• Musical-Rhythmic Intelligence - Programs that combine stories with songs; reading programs which associate letter/sounds with music; programs which allow them to create their own song; constructing presentations using CD audio discs, videodisc player, and barcode program; sing along videodisc programs that display work "karaoke" style• Verbal/Linguistic Intelligence - Word processors that allow voice annotations; desktop publishing programs; programs with speech output; programs which encourage them to create poetry, essays, etc.; multimedia authoring; using videodiscs and barcode programs to create presentations; tape recorders; telecommunications/electronic networking• Visual/Spatial Intelligence - Draw and paint programs; reading programs that use visual clues such as rebus method or colour coding; programs which allow them to see information as maps, charts, or diagrams (i.e. charting capability of spreadsheet program; multimedia programs; science probeware  Jack Edwards, "Multiple Intelligences and Technology," About Face 10 3 (1995): 4 pages. 08 August 1999 <http://www.firn.edu/~face/about/dec95/mult_int.html>.
Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Inter- Bodily- Intra- Logical- Musical- Verbal- Visual- personal Kinestheti personal Mathematics Rhythmi Linguistic Spatial c cHighest 71.6% 70.3% 95.0% 67.7% 60.0% 62.3% 68.9%Number (n=5) (n=10) (n=1)* (n=7) (n=10) (n=12) (n=16)Above 4 69.7% 68.1% 74.0% 65.6% 64.8% 57.6% 67.1% (n=14) (n=12) (n=2) (n=16) (n=15) (n=16) (n=19) * Only one respondent
Trends and Patterns• Students with the assimilative learningstyle (KB) tend to perform better thanstudents from any of the other threelearning styles.• Students with the convergent learningstyle (KB) tend to perform better thanstudents from the divergent andaccommodative learning styles.
Trends and Patterns• Students who are visual learners performbetter than students who are tactile learners,who perform better than auditory learners.• While there are few differences in studentperformance based upon Gardner’s multipleintelligences, students who have aptitudes for“Musical-Rhythmic” and “Verbal-Linguistic”appear to be lower than the other fiveintelligences.
Ramifications• When teaching in an e-learningenvironment, instructors should providemore feedback to students, particularlythose with the accommodative learningstyle.• Instructors should also provide additionalopportunities for students to interact in averbal (e.g., audio or text-based) way.
Ramifications• Finally, instructors in an e-learningenvironment should consider allowingstudents to choose to complete more oftheir work in groups.• In designing e-learning environments,developers should make sure to includemore audio items.
ReferencesEdwards, Jack. "Multiple Intelligences and Technology." AboutFace 10 3 (1995): 4 pages. 08 August 1999<http://www.firn.edu/~face/about/dec95/mult_int.html>.Kolb, David A. and Baker, Richard J.. Personal LearningGuide: A practical guide to increasing your learning from atraining program or workshop. Baker & Company: Dallas, TX,1979-80.Unknown. "Learning Lab - Learning Styles Evaluation."University of Northwestern Ohio (1998): 3 pages. 08 August1999 <http://bsd-server.nc.edu/virtcol/ss/learn.html>. Back to the studies
IVHS Developers Evaluation1. How does the IVHS course development process compare to other virtual high school programs?2. How does the IVHS course development process contribute to the stated goals and objectives of the IVHS?3. How has the IVHS course development process been improved over time?4. What specific improvements to the IVHS course development process are recommended?
Sample• Document Analysis – Centre for Distance Learning and Innovation – 2 courses• Web-based Survey – 17 of 29 for part one / 15 of 29 for part two – 4 developers were not reachable• Interviews – 4 developers
Overall, course developers are pleased withtheir experience in developing courses for the IVHS. • Would you develop another course for the IVHS? (82%) • Would you recommend to other teachers that they develop a course for the IVHS? (76%) • “It was a great experience, one that I would like to repeat some time.” • “I would like to participate in the creation of another course in the technical field. I enjoyed.” • “It was intense, but an experience I would recommend to anyone interested in teaching in the online world.”
The IVHS course development process is fairly open-ended with a lot of room for developers tocreate the kind of course that they want to create, which is good and bad.• In the likert response items from the web-based survey, six of the fifteen comments specifically referenced the IVHS and five of these six items were ranked as the five lowest mean scores of the fifteen items.• “… slightly disappointed not by working with IVHS, but working with the tech team from Denver…”• “… I could already expect that the tech team was going to contact me at the last minute…”• “when I had lots of time, eCollege wasnt ready for… Then when I got really busy at school, it was also crunch time for eCollege…”
• “For about $5,000 I gave up most of an entire winter to put together a course with the quality I felt it should have… I figure I earned about $5.00 an hour”• “The timeline was short and strenuous…”• “But what could I do without proper technical skills and caught in such tight time frame?”• “… but doesnt pay enough for the hours of work needed to do a good job.”• “The one problem was the timeline.”
Approximately half of the IVHS courses were developed by a team of two or more developers and this has worked well in some instances and not so well in others.• “My support group was excellent…”• “It is very helpful to have a coworker look over the logic, the content of ones created segments.”• “I did work with a partner, especially at the beginning because I thought that was very important, and we divided up the responsibilities which helped an awful lot and of course we were able to review each other’s information and so on, and that was very, very helpful, and I won’t say necessary, but certainly someone has to be there to be that second head to say oh this sounds fine or no…”• “… we could talk back and forth and find solutions to particular problems that arose that would be relevant to the student and still maintain alignment with the curriculum.”
• “we had a trio to start with as far as three people in this process and somehow we didn’t agree on what was to be done and how, and so on, and that sort of took away our time frame…”• “Well we had a, partnerships or I had people who I cooperated with on those projects that basically I did the first semester and the other person did the second semester, and we kind of proof read each others work and edited but for the most part I developed one semester, they developed one semester then we just said that we developed the year long course.”
The course developers for the IVHS weretrained as teachers and unable to utilize the technology of the web to its fullest capacity.• In the web-based survey, fourteen of the seventeen respondents indicated that they would have liked some training on the use of particular pieces of software, specifically: – Dreamweaver/Frontpage - 64.3% – Fireworks/Photoshop - 50% – Flash - 71.4% – Java - 57.1% – Audio Programs - 42.9% – Video Programs - 57.1%
• “… what to hide, what to make mouse over, where to put a link…”• “this could be audio as well, which makes it more user friendly.”• “… recognize the fonts of the language I teach as FONTS and not as images”• “… provide automatic feedback to students on the course tasks that would be different from just the feedback one gets from multiple choice type tasks.”• “… allow the course designer to put at least audio files on line on her own would be welcome.”
As the IVHS begins to use the Syllabuild Tool to standardize their course development process, the freedom todesign the look and feel of their courses was one of the things that the course developers enjoyed.• Did you enjoy the freedom to design the look and feel of your course? (82%)• Would you have preferred that the IVHS provide a course template into which you could have written your content? (No – 70.6%)
• “The directions to the team (what to hide, what to make mouse over, where to put a link) the basic outline the vocab sections and how to arrange them. an answer key to the tests, assignments when not graded by the system, especially fill ins that the teacher of the course can use for quick grading. Perhaps a set of expectations to check off so that the student knows what is expected for each assignment. For example: write in complete sentences. This could be audio as well, which makes it more user friendly.”• “First of all I would like to have had a template that would recognize the fonts of the language I teach as FONTS and not as images, a template that would enable the course designer to provide automatic feedback to students on the course tasks that would be different from just the feedback one gets from multiple choice type tasks. A template that would allow the course designer to put at least audio files on line on her own would be welcome.”• “It could have been very open but it would have been helpful to have an open shell of chapters. Something so that the students would have an exact outline to how much to finish in a semester.”
Recommendations1. Create a structure for the course development process so that the IVHS, eCollege, and the developer are under the same impressions when it comes to the nature of the assistance that can be provided and the expectations of all parties within the specific deadlines of the course development process.2. Divide the course development process into timed segments that describe the nature of the deliverable due at the end of each period, with partial payment for the successful delivery of each of the segments.3. If the IVHS continues to use a team of developers for a single course, determine a method of select team members that will work well together.4. Provide training in multimedia software for course developers or split the course development process so that technical developers can add multimedia components to courses after the content has been developed.5. Any tool used to guide the development of course developers needs to be open enough to allow for the creativity of the developer. Back to the studies
The Students StudyKari Baker is a grade twelve student at Beaches All Grade, a school of approximately twenty teachers and one hundred and seventy students, with about 50 of those in the high school. The school receives eight different CDLI courses, while Kari has completed three of those and is currently enrolled in three more.Jenni Mills is one of two grade ten student at St. Rita’s All Grade, a necessary existent school of approximately twenty students and four teachers. The school receives thirteen courses from the CDLI. Jenni has taken one of those as a grade nine student and is close to finishing another four this year.Carla Saunders is a grade twelve student at Ocean Academy, an all grade school with twelve teachers and approximately one hundred and twenty students. The school receives seven different CDLI courses and Carla has taken three of those courses.Annette Kean is a grade twelve student at St. Christopher’s School, an all grade school with sixteen teachers and approximately one hundred and fifty students, with about thirty of those in the high school. The school offers three different CDLI courses and Ashley is taking her first one.Becky Manning is a grade twelve student at Beaches All Grade in Beaches. Her school has approximately one hundred and seventy students, with about fifty students in the secondary grades. Becky has taken a total of seven web-based courses through the Centre for Distance Learning and Innovation, including four of her six courses this year.Lori Bursey is also a grade twelve student. She attends St. Rita’s All Grade in McBrides, a school with only nineteen students and four teachers in a geographically isolated portion of the province. She is the only student in her particular grade and has taken six courses through the Centre for Distance Learning and Innovation over the past four years.
Findings• Use of Web-based Content• Web-based Design
Use of Web-based Content• Students initially “myself personally, I hardly use those lessons” (Kari) indicate that “but overall, if they weren’t they don’t use there it wouldn’t make the web-based much of a difference to me content that I don’t think.” (Kari) “I don’t hardly use these at much. all” (Jenni) “I have only used them three or four times” (Kari) “in my offline time, I would say one out of five.” (Becky)
Use of Web-based Content• However, when “I like when the “Lessons” just deal with the content that we learn” (Kari) discussing each “the lessons are really good for of the individual studying” (Jenni) “I use the MLOs a bit, but not as components it much as the WebCT content.” (Carla) comes out that “I use the WebCT content a lot more.” (Jenni) they do use them “I’d say I’d spend half of the class, so more than they about half an hour, every class on the WebCT content.” (Lori) initially let on. “if I still, I’m still puzzled and I can’t find the answer, can’t find an explanation, I’ll go to my WebCT, to my WebCT material and see if there’s anything there that can help me” (Becky)
Use of Web-based Content• One barrier to “they always have assignments that you have to do, they’re always, using the web- they’re like constantly giving you assignments and stuff” (Jenni) based content is “its almost like the teachers don’t the amount of realize that you have courses in school too” (Kari) work assigned “there’s always so much work to be during offline done” (Kari) “teachers always have labs or time. questions or assignments for you to do we’re never short of work” (Becky) “you’re always doing work, there’s always, there’s always work to do.” (Becky)
Use of Web-based Content• Another barrier “but rarely he takes assignments out of those lesson thingies out to using the there” (Kari) “sometimes we do lessons like the web-based one you have there on the board, content is how but other times she just assigns questions from the book.” (Carla) little e-teachers “the only time we do the actually use it. “Activities” is if there’s readings or extra things that we should know” (Carla) “in the limited time that the teachers have, but if we have extra time to be given to look through the WebCT material or if our teachers always made reference” (Becky) “remind students that it is there and to use it” (Becky)
Use of Web-based Content• Another barrier “I use my book a lot more than the WebCT, it might to using the web- not be explained as good based content is as the book.” (Carla) they may not “not sure if I trust what is trust it. in WebCT” (Becky)
Web-based Design• Students don’t like “instead of just reading out of the old textbook, which gets text. pretty boring” (Kari) “he has many pictures and write things in his own words, which is really interesting and a lot better than sitting down and reading the book.” (Kari) “basically text is boring and pictures are exciting” (Becky) “text is alright, but sometimes is not really useful” (Becky) “more than just reading through text.” (Becky)
Web-based Design• Students enjoy the “I think the links that they give you various media that because they take you in the other, in other really useful sites that you can the Internet is able to really use.” (Jenni) offer. “maybe some more, you know, video type things so that you could actually see what they’re doing” (Lori) “videos and stuff for to show them how its done” (Lori) “interactive things, and like, links to videos and pictures and anything” (Becky) “graphics and videos and things like that, they’re always exciting and can teach you just as much as the text sometimes” (Becky) “there is a little bit of text and some diagrams and examples and little questions throughout” (Becky)
Web-based Design• Students want “watch MLOs and I find they’re really good multimedia used to and they explain things in the video clips explain concepts andand the, there’s a guy there explaining how provide information. to do the interesting and it really helpsand its really topics and just background, a lot.” (Kari) “diagrams are really good to, for stuff that you don’t really understand, something that could actually show you and be like, let you see how it works.” (Jenni) “the information in there was all done for you exactly what you have to do and you could just keep playing with it over and over that, you, it was really easy to get it after.” (Lori) “I find like, graphics really good and videos, and things like that, and, like I said, they’re just good because it gives you a different way of, ah, understanding the concepts.” (Becky)
Web-based Design• Students want to “a summary of all that you learned that have a good set of day and pretty much just summarizing everything up” (Kari) notes. “Yeah, if there good notes, it’s really easier to study.” (Carla) “you need a good set of notes to follow or get someone else to help you, you’ve got to have good notes.” (Annette) “I don’t even use my textbook because he has such good notes done up.” (Annette) “I think it’s important to have a really good set of notes because if you don’t you really, its going to be hard for the course.” (Jenni) “i agree the notes are excellent” (Carla) “to explain it to you and show you how to do it” (Lori)
Web-based Design• Students find the “the thing I like about it is those “Test review questions, yourself” because they really give you an particularly “Test idea of what it is going to be like for the Yourself” quizzes, test and they help you remember” (Jenni) quite useful. “the test yourself is really helpful” (Carla) “I always do the “Test yourself” at the end” (Carla) “the test yourself, like I was telling you, which is really good for studying and review.” (Lori) “I find the test yourself really good” (Becky) “the test yourself, is always good, like, it lets you know if you’re on track, if you understand what the lesson’s about” (Becky)Back to the studies
Contact InformationMichael K. Barbour Doctoral Candidate Department of Educational Psychology and Instructional Technology University of Georgia email@example.com http://www.michaelbarbour.com