“I use the blackboard and atextbook to teach and distributephotocopies of any additionalexercises. It worked for me, so whywouldn’t it work for my students?”Phillip Lismore, Essential Teacher, 2007.
Shared experiences? Shared expectations?• Who are our students?• How do their expectations differ?
Blended Lives• Blended lives . . . – Communicate with friends and family online – Consume online – Read the newspaper online – Pay bills online Access the world online
So is this really surprising . . .“It worked for me, so why wouldn’t it work formy students?”Phillip Lismore, Essential Teacher, 2007.
Which language do you speak?Digital Natives (1980) Digital Immigrants• Have always had digital • Have a certain “accent” tools • Question technology• Use these tools “as • Take time to process, extensions of their bodies evaluate and share and minds” • Prefer mono-focal• Quick to adapt/share environment• Thrive in poly-focal • Have learned through a environment one dimensional• Prefer multi-dimensional & approach multi-modality approaches
LanguageSo if we are teaching for digital immigrants, and our students are digital natives . . .Aren’t we using a different language than our students in the classroom?
Blended LearningShift Happens . . . – A teaching and learning paradigm shift – In a Response to Shift Happens • 94% of college students reported that learning on the computer was easier. • 88% preferred digital content over a text. • 90% like using computer to learn
Blended Learning• Not our ELLs, right? – In my own ESL classes . . . • 93% of students felt they learned more when using a computer • 84% have created web content • 75% have used their cell phone to check grades • 10% have a landline• 75% of Adult ESL learners had access to a cell phone in 2008
What really is blended learning?• As defined by Garrison and Vaughan . . . “The thoughtful fusion of face-to- face and online learning experiences.”
The Flipped Classroom• According to Bergmann and Sams, the classroom needs to go back to be a social, cooperative learning environment. We can use today’s tools to lecture, watch, interactively read, and even collaborate. Ultimately, students become more responsible for their own learning.• Isn’t this what we attempt to do in most ESL classes? So, how is this new?
Blended Learning• It’s about extending learning . . . Extending the Classroom• Not just to use technology, but use our insights in language acquisition, and learning theories.
What do we know about language learning?• Language is interrelated • Learners need to take an and meaningful whole active role• Language is an • The more motivating the integrated process content is, the more the• Time exposed to the student will engage. target language is critical • The more a student is• The classroom engaged in content, the atmosphere affects more a student will learn. learningTeaching Adult Second Language Learners, Cambridge, 1999
Blended LearningWhat does this really translate to?
Blended LearningWhen blended learning is effectively employed:1. Increased interaction, engagement and time with content lead to greater learning gains.
Blended Learning• Department of Education 2009 study found that students in a blended learning course performed significantly better than those in an online or face-to-face course.
• TESOL English Language Bulletin October 17, 2012 reported on a project between publishers, tech companies and the FCC to figure out effective ways to introduce digital technologies into all classrooms.• A recent study was highlighted where students who used digital tools scored 20% higher on standardized tests• Why? It cites, students were more motivated, attentive and engaged.
Blended LearningWhen blended learning is effectively employed:3. It supports what we know about language learning.
Language LearningLanguage is anintegrated processTime exposed to thetarget language is criticalLearners need to takean active roleThe more motivatingthe content is, the morethe student willengage.The more a student isengaged in content,the more a student willlearn.
Blended LearningWhen blended learning is effectively employed:4. Creates time and allows for better use of class time.
Maximize Class Time Students better preparedMore class time spent collaborating
Blended LearningWhen blended learning is effectively employed:5. Gives every student a voice.
Blended LearningWhen blended learning is effectively employed:6. Helps learners to organize their knowledge/become more autonomous.
Blended LearningWhen blended learning is effectively employed:7. Appeals to a wide variety of learning styles and takes a multi-modal approach to teaching.
Blended LearningBlended learning is effectively employed: When the course is layered . . .face-to- face classroom time and online instruction must be interdependent.
Blended Learning• Old Model: Classroom Instruction Online/digital tool Additive
Blended Learning • New Model: Interconnected or Multiliplicative Learning2Additive Additive
Blended Learning• How to Layer? – What can be done in the classroom? • Think Social Activities
Blended Learning– What can (and should) be done outside the classroom? • Think complex topics that require students more in-depth engagement to construct meaning
Blended LearningLayering a course . . . According to Chatfield, there are two ways to layer. Front loading (content prior to F2F) Back loading (F2F exposes students to content, collaboration done online)
Front Loading In class . . . • Post Reading opportunities: – Group discussions – Comprehension questions – Extend the reading – Vocabulary exercises
Back Loading In class . . .• Pre-speaking – Brainstorming/Listening – Vocabulary work – Group discussions
Blended LearningBlended Learning is effectively employed when ESL Professional connects the classroom and the digital envrionment:• Tutor: provides instruction, feedback, testing• Tool: has access to written, audio, video and other visual materials relevant to language• Medium: places for interpersonal communication, distance learning, participation• OR all three!
Blended Learning• Advantages for teachers: Bridge experiences/expectations Stay more informed Be better informed Offers flexiblility Allows us to go back to a social, cooperative language classroom
Blended LearningESL Professionals using a blended learningenvironment . . . Augment their teaching Customize course to meet curricular needs Are better and more informed of student success and mastery Have a “portfolio” of student work, evidence for mastery of student learning outcomes
Blended Learning• Blending social nature of classroom with web-based tool (Learning Management System) – Reinforces course content – Engages students – Increases access time to course content – Appeals to a wide variety of learning styles and modalities – Tailors learning to individual needs – Connects digital natives
Blended Learning• More interaction with content + unlimited access to content + greater autonomy= Greater Learner Gains
Blended LearningHow can you infuse some of these tools into your courses?Think about layering . . .creating interdependenceThink about the role of the technology tutor, tool, medium
Blended LearningMost importantly . . .Take baby steps . . .it takes time . . .You are learning a new ‘language’
Blended Learning I hear and I forget I see and I rememberI do and I understand Confucius