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  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS SL. NO. TOPIC PAGE NO. 1 Introduction 1 2 Purpose 2 3 Key Segments 3 4 Porter's Five Forces Model 5 5 Hindustan Unilever Limited (HUL) 6 6 Organization Culture 7 7 Ethical Corporate Governance 10 8 BCG Matrix 12 9 Overview 13 10 Conclusion 14 1
  3. 3. 1. INTRODUCTION The Indian FMCG sector is the fourth largest sector in the economy with a total market size in excess of US$ 13.1 billion. It has a strong MNC presence and is characterized by a well-established distribution network, intense competition between the organized and unorganized segments and low operational cost. Availability of key raw materials, cheaper labor costs and presence across the entire value chain gives India a competitive advantage. The FMCG market is set to treble from US$ 11.6 billion in 2003 to US$ 33.4 billion in 2015. Penetration level as well as per capita consumption in most product categories like jams, toothpaste, skin care, hair wash etc in India is low indicating the untapped market potential. Burgeoning Indian population, particularly the middle class and the rural segments, presents an opportunity to makers of branded products to convert consumers to branded products. Growth is also likely to come from consumer 'upgrading' in the matured product categories. With 200 million people expected to shift to processed and packaged food by 2010, India needs around US$ 28 billion of investment in the food-processing industry. Automatic investment approval (including foreign technology agreements within specified norms), up to 100 per cent foreign equity or 100 per cent for NRI and Overseas Corporate Bodies (OCBs) investment, is allowed for most of the food processing sector. 2
  4. 4. 2. PURPOSE Indian Economy is among one of the fastest growing economies in the World. It has registered a robust growth rate in past few years. But weakening of U.S. Economy, higher inflation rate, higher interest rate, higher crude prices and higher commodity prices have a reflection on Indian Economy too. The Index of Industrial Production (IIP) has registered a double digit growth of 11.5 per cent in the year 2006-07 but it slip down by 300bp to 8.5 per cent in the year 2007-08. According to Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE) forecast, the IIP could be at 4.5 per cent for the year 2008-09. Source: CMIE FMCG Sector is one of the most important sectors for each and every Economy. It plays a vital role being a necessity and inelastic product which touches every life in one or the other aspect. The FMCG Industry remained insulated from inflation led demand slowdown. Inflation as measured by the wholesale price index (WPI) shot up to 9.5 percent in June 2008 quarter and further climbed up to 12.63 percent in September quarter. In both these quarters, industry sales accelerated by more than 15 per cent backed by healthy growth in off take as well as price hikes affected. During this period, the industry was largely able to hold on to margins through a combination of strategies such as reduction in packaging cost and changes in product mix. Since October, inflation rate has been waning and fell to 5.91 per cent for the week ended 27th December 2008. Thus demand for personal care products is likely to remain buoyant. Even during the slowdown of the economy, the FMCG sector has registered a growth rate of 14.5 per cent for the year 2007-08. There is a huge growth potential for all the FMCG companies as the per capita consumption of almost all products in the country is amongst the lowest in the world. Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) predicted that the Indian FMCG industry sales could grow 16 percent during 2008-09. According to Credit Rating Information Services of India Limited (CRISIL) anticipation, FMCG sector could touch around INR 140,000 Crores / 33.4 Billion USD by 2015. The key players in FMCG sector are HUL, Dabur India Limited, Procter & Gamble Hygiene & Health Care Limited, Nirma Limited, Emami Limited, Colgate Palmolive India Limited, Godrej Consumer Products Limited to name a few. 3
  5. 5. 3. KEY SEGMENTS The FMCG sector consists of three product categories, each with its own hosts of products that have relatively quick turnover and low costs: • Household Care • Personal Care • Food & Beverage Household Care Personal Care Food & Beverage •Fabric wash (laundry soaps •Oral care, hair care, skin •Health beverages; soft and synthetic detergents) care, personal wash (soaps) drinks •Household •Cosmetics and •Staples/cereals cleaners(dish/utensil toiletriesdeodorants •Beverages bakery products cleaners, floor cleaners, •Perfumes (biscuits, bread, cakes) toilet cleaners, air •Feminine hygiene •Snack food fresheners, insecticides and •Paper product •Chocolates mosquito repellents, metal polish and furniture polish) •Ice cream •Tea •Coffee •Soft drinks •Processed fruits, vegetables •Dairy products •Bottled water •Branded flour 3.1 Household Care • The fabric wash market and household cleaner market are well in excess of US$1.2billion. • Traditionally, the fabric wash market has driven the majority of India’s total household care sales. • Major players in this segment include Hindustan Lever, Nirma and Reckitt & Colman 4
  6. 6. 3.2 Personal Care • Traditionally, personal wash and hair care products, the basics personal hygiene, dominated the personal care segment with excess of USD$1.8 million. • Demand for skin and cosmetic care products, compared to other personal care product categories, has been relatively low. • Major players in this segment include Hindustan Lever; Godrej Soaps, Colgate-Palmolive, Marico, Dabur and Procter & Gamble. 3.3 Food & Beverage • The size of the food processing industry exceeds US$65.6 billion. • The size of the semi-processed/ready-to-eat food segment is over $1.1 billion. • Of the food processing industry,  Bread and biscuits sales exceeds US$1.7 billion;  Health beverage sales exceeds US$ 230 million;  Ice cream exceeds US$188 million  Chocolates sales exceeds US$73 million • In the hot beverage market, tea rather than coffee dominates. Coffee is consumed largely in the southern states. • The soft drink (carbonated beverages and juices) market is in excess of US$1 billion, predominantly urban (>70%), and its consumption is highly seasonal. • Major players in this segment include Hindustan Lever, Nestle, Cadbury and Dabur 5
  7. 7. 4. PORTER'S FIVE FORCES MODEL 4.1 Rivalry among Competing Firms: In the FMCG Industry, rivalry among competitors is very fierce. There are scarce customers because the industry is highly saturated and the competitors try to snatch their share of market. Market Players use all sorts of tactics and activities from intensive advertisement campaigns to promotional stuff and price wars etc. Hence the intensity of rivalry is very high. 4.2 Potential Entry of New Competitors: FMCG Industry does not have any measures which can control the entry of new firms. The resistance is very low and the structure of the industry is so complex that new firms can easily enter and also offer tough competition due to cost effectiveness. Hence potential entry of new firms is highly viable. 4.3 Potential Development of Substitute Products: There are complex and never ending consumer needs and no firm can satisfy all sorts of needs alone. There are plenty of substitute goods available in the market that can be re-placed if consumers are not satisfied with one. The wide range of choices and needs give a sufficient room for new product development that can replace existing goods. This leads to higher consumer’s expectation. 4.4 Bargaining Power of Suppliers: The bargaining power of suppliers of raw materials and intermediate goods is not very high. There is ample number of substitute suppliers available and the raw materials are also readily available and most of the raw materials are homogeneous. There is no monopoly situation in the supplier side because the suppliers are also competing among themselves. 4.5 Bargaining Power of Consumers: Bargaining power of consumers is also very high. This is because in FMCG industry the switching costs of most of the goods is very low and there is no threat of buying one product over other. Customers are never reluctant to buy or try new things off the shelf. 6
  8. 8. 5. HINDUSTAN UNILEVER LIMITED (HUL) HUL (HUL) is India’s largest fast moving consumer goods company, with le adership in Home & Personal Care Products and Foods & Beverages. HUL's brands, spread across 20 distinct consumer categories, touch the lives of two out of three Indians. They endow the company with a scale of combined volumes of about 4 million tonnes and sales of Rs. 13,718 crores. The mission that inspires HUL's over 15,000 employees is to "add vitality to life". With 35 Power Brands, HUL meets every day needs for nutrition, hygiene, and personal care with brands that help people feel good, look good and get more out of life. It is a mission HUL shares with its parent company, HUL, which holds 52.10% of the equity. A Fortune 500 transnational, HUL sells Foods and Home and Personal Care brands in about 100 countries worldwide. Particulars Key Brands Market Size (in Rs Cr.) Market Share Rank Fabric wash Surf Excel, Wheel 8988 37.5% 1 Personal Wash Dove, Lux, Lifebuoy 6632 54.3% 1 Dish wash 57.3% 1 Skin Ponds 2792 54.5% 1 Shampoo Sunsilk, Clinic plus 2168 47.8% 1 Talcum Powder 59.7% 1 Packet Tea Red Label 4452 22.7% 1 Coffee Bru 708 44.0% 1 Jams 67.5% 1 Toothpaste Pepsodent, Closeup 2764 29.5% 2 Ketchups 28.1% 2 7
  9. 9. 6. ORGANIZATION CULTURE 6.1 Mission HUL's mission is to add Vitality to life. We meet everyday needs for nutrition, hygiene, and personal care with brands that help people feel good, look good and get more out of life. 6.2 Corporate Purpose Our deep roots in local cultures and markets around the world give us our strong relationship with consumers and are the foundation for our future growth. We will bring our wealth of knowledge and international expertise to the service of local consumers - a truly multi-local multinational. Our long-term success requires a total commitment to exceptional standards of performance and productivity, to working together effectively, and to a willingness to embrace new ideas and learn continuously. To succeed also requires, we believe, the highest standards of corporate behavior towards everyone we work with, the communities we touch, and the environment on which we have an impact. 6.3 Code of Business Principles HUL has earned a reputation for conducting its business with integrity and with respect for the interests of those their activities can affect. This reputation is an asset, just as real as their people and brands. HUL’s first priority is to be a successful business and that means investing for growth and balancing short term and long term interests. It also means caring about their consumers, employees and shareholders, their business partners and the world in which they live. 6.4 Standard of Conduct HUL conducts their operation with honesty, integrity and openness, and with respect for the human rights and interests of their employees. They similarly respect the legitimate interests of those with whom they have relationships. 6.5 Obeying the Law HUL companies and their employees are required to comply with the laws and regulations of the countries in which they operate. 6.6 Employees HUL is committed to diversity in a working environment where there is mutual trust and respect and where everyone feels responsible for the performance and reputation of their company. They recruit, employ and promote employees on the sole basis of the qualifications and abilities needed for the work to be performed. They are committed to safe and healthy working conditions for all employees. They do not use any form of forced, compulsory or child labor. They are committed to working with employees to develop and enhance each individual's skills and capabilities. They respect the dignity of the 8
  10. 10. individual and the right of employees to freedom of association. They maintain good communications with employees through company based information and consultation procedures. 6.7 Consumers HUL is committed to providing branded products and services which consistently offer value in terms of price and quality, and which are safe for their intended use. Products and services are accurately and properly labeled, advertised and communicated. 6.8 Shareholders HUL conducts its operations in accordance with internationally accepted principles of good corporate governance. They provide timely, regular and reliable information on their activities, structure, financial situation and performance to all shareholders. 6.9 Business Partners HUL is committed to establishing mutually beneficial relations with their suppliers, customers and business partners. In their business dealings they expect their business partners to adhere to business principles consistent with their own. 6.10 Community Involvement HUL strives to be a trusted corporate citizen and, as an integral part of society, to fulfill their responsibilities to the societies and communities in which they operate. 6.11 Public Activities HUL companies are encouraged to promote and defend their legitimate business interests. HUL co-operates with governments and other organizations, both directly and through bodies such as trade associations, in the development of proposed legislation and other regulations which may affect legitimate business interests. HUL neither supports political parties nor contributes to the funds of groups whose activities are calculated to promote party interests. 6.12 The Environment HUL is committed to making continuous improvements in the management of their environmental impact and to the longer-term goal of developing a sustainable business. HUL will work in partnership with others to promote environmental care, increase understanding of environmental issues and disseminate good practice. 6.13 Innovation In their scientific innovation to meet consumer needs they respect the concerns of their consumers and of society. HUL works on the basis of sound science applying rigorous standards of product safety. 9
  11. 11. 6.14 Competition HUL believes in vigorous yet fair competition and supports the development of appropriate competition laws. HUL companies and employees will conduct their operations in accordance with the principles of fair competition and all applicable regulations. 6.15 Business Integrity HUL does not give or receive whether directly or indirectly bribes or other improper advantages for business or financial gain. No employee may offer give or receive any gift or payment which is, or may be construed as being, a bribe. Any demand for, or offer of, a bribe are rejected immediately and reported to management. HUL accounting records and supporting documents are accurately described and reflect the nature of the underlying transactions. No undisclosed or unrecorded account, fund or asset are established or maintained. 6.16 Conflicts of Interests All HUL employees are expected to avoid personal activities and financial interests which could conflict with their responsibilities to the company. HUL employees must not seek gain for themselves or others through misuse of their positions. This is our road to sustainable, profitable growth, creating long- term value for our shareholders, our people, and our business partners. 10
  12. 12. 7. ETHICAL CORPORATE GOVERNANCE HUL believes that for a Company to be successful, it must maintain global standards of Corporate Conduct towards all its stakeholders. The Company's foundation has therefore been rooted to stringent Corporate Governance principles. At Hindustan HUL, we believe that the principles of fairness, transparency and accountability are the cornerstones for good governance. The HUL Code of Business Principles reflects the Company's commitment to these principles. It is the Company's endeavor to continue to achieve highest governance levels. As regards the compliance with the requirements of Clause 49 of the Listing Agreement with the Stock Exchanges, the Company is in full compliance with the norms and disclosures. HUL believes that for a Company to be successful, it must maintain global standards of Corporate Conduct towards all its stakeholders. The Company's foundation has therefore been rooted to stringent Corporate Governance principles. At Hindustan HUL, we believe that the principles of fairness, transparency and accountability are the cornerstones for good governance. The HUL Code of Business Principles reflects the Company's commitment to these principles. It is the Company's endeavor to continue to achieve highest governance levels. As regards the compliance with the requirements of Clause 49 of the Listing Agreement with the Stock Exchanges, the Company is in full compliance with the norms and disclosures. 7.1 Board of Directors The Board of Directors of the Company represents an optimum mix of professionalism, knowledge and experience. The total strength of the Board of Directors of the Company is 10 Directors comprising a Non-Executive Chairman, four Executive Directors and five Non-Executive Independent Directors. 7.2 Committees of the Board 7.2.1 Audit Committee The Audit Committee of the Company is entrusted with the responsibility to supervise the Company’s internal control and financial reporting process. The Audit Committee also looks into controls and security of the Company’s critical IT applications, 7.2.2 Remuneration and Compensation Committee The Remuneration Committee is vested with all the necessary powers and authority to ensure appropriate disclosure on the remuneration of whole-time Directors and to deal with all the elements of remuneration package of all such Directors within the limits approved by the members of the Company. The Compensation Committee administers the stock option plan of the Company. 11
  13. 13. 7.2.3 Shareholder/Investor Grievances Committee The Committee specifically looks into redressing of investors’ complaints with respect to transfer of shares, non-receipt of shares, non-receipt of declared dividends and ensure expeditious share transfer process. The Committee also monitors and reviews the performance and service standards of the Registrar and Share Transfer Agents of the Company and provides continuous guidance to improve the service levels for investors. 7.2.4 Other Functional Committees Apart from the above statutory committees The Board of Directors have constituted other functional committees such as committee for approving disposal of surplus assets of the Company, committee for allotment of shares under ESOP to raise the level of governance as also to meet the specific business needs. 12
  14. 14. 8. BCG MATRIX Soap & Detergent and Tea are Cash Cow for the company. It has high relative market share and low growth rate. Personal Products and Coffee are stars for the company as it have high relative market share as well as high market growth rate. Only food is a segment which is a Question Mark for the company. The company have a low relative market share where as it is under high market growth rate. HUL is taking several steps to capture more market share so that food segment can also be a part of Star. 13
  15. 15. 9. OVERVIEW The Company is the largest FMCG player and market leader in most of the product category. The Company has registered a robust growth rate over last few years and has wide market coverage. HUL believe in product innovation and entrance into niche market. Recently company has launch Pureit, a water purifier, received a good response from the market. The company has a good growth rate. 14
  16. 16. 10. CONCLUSION FMCG companies such as HUL are still to be adversely hit by the economic slowdown, which is beginning to make its impact felt across other sectors. They manufacture items of everyday consumption and are usually the last to be hit by a slowdown. FMCG growth has been supported by strong demand in rural markets, which has been growing at between 15% and 18%, after three years of good agricultural output. HUL derives more than 50% of its sales from rural markets. With the presence of 12.2% of the world population in the villages of India, the Indian rural FMCG market is something no one can overlook. Increased focus on farm sector will boost rural incomes, hence providing better growth prospects to the FMCG companies. Better infrastructure facilities will improve their supply chain. FMCG sector is also likely to benefit from growing demand in the market. Because of the low per capita consumption for almost all the products in the country, FMCG companies have immense possibilities for growth. And if the companies are able to change the mindset of the consumers, i.e. if they are able to take the consumers to branded products and offer new generation products, they would be able to generate higher growth in the near future. It is expected that the rural income will rise in 2009, boosting purchasing power in the countryside. However, the demand in urban areas would be the key growth driver over the long term. Also, increase in the urban population, along with increase in income levels and the availability of new categories, would help the urban areas maintain their position in terms of consumption. 15