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A Virtuous Cycle of Semantics and Participation

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A Virtuous Cycle of Semantics and Participation - PhD dissertation

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A Virtuous Cycle of Semantics and Participation

  1. 1. A Virtuous Cycle of Semantics and Participation Doctoral dissertation of: Davide Eynard Advisor: Prof. M.Colombetti Tutor: Prof. A.Bonarini
  2. 2. 2 Ch 1 Introduction Politecnico di Milano, 07-04-2009 Davide Eynard
  3. 3. 3 Participative systems A particular class of social systems in which people can interact, share information, or both. Encyclopedias Maps Bookmarks Music News Word processors Politecnico di Milano, 07-04-2009 Davide Eynard
  4. 4. 4 Participation and semantics How does the virtuous cycle work? Data Structure Politecnico di Milano, 07-04-2009 Davide Eynard
  5. 5. 5 Motivations Successful  See “What is Web2.0” by Tim O'Reilly  On the Internet, but also inside intranets Interesting from different point of views:  Psychology • Incentives, bootstrap problem  HCI • New interfaces and interaction paradigms  Social Sciences • Collective intelligence, trust  KM • Use meaningful formats for interoperability  New technologies • Scalability, reliability Politecnico di Milano, 07-04-2009 Davide Eynard
  6. 6. 6 There's Bad and “Bad” Bad collaborative system  Too complex  Bad interaction with user  No incentives to participate  Tool doesn't fit the objective  “I love the system – I just don't use it!” “Bad” collaborative system  Users like it  Fits tool and community well, but...  ... it could be made better with semantics! Politecnico di Milano, 07-04-2009 Davide Eynard
  7. 7. 7 Research objectives Given a community, a task and a context  develop a methodology to evaluate whether a system correctly fits an activity  use semantics to make the system better, incentivating user contribution Politecnico di Milano, 07-04-2009 Davide Eynard
  8. 8. 8 Ch 2 Background Politecnico di Milano, 07-04-2009 Davide Eynard
  9. 9. 9 Background – Social Systems  Creating and publishing • blogs, wikis, collaborative editors  Communicating • e-mail, forums, chat, microblogging  Sharing • p2p, client-server, social bookmarking  Recommending • implicitly or explicitly, specific or general  Coordinating • calendars, project or knowledge management  Networking • social networks (object centered or not)  Playing • MUD, MMORPG (Second Life)  Market places • auctions, recruitment Politecnico di Milano, 07-04-2009 Davide Eynard
  10. 10. 10 Background – Basics on social interactions  Wenger, Lave • Communities of Practice • Legitimate Peripheral Participation • see Bryant, Forte, Bruckman: Becoming Wikipedian Image courtesy of Ross Mayfield's Weblog  Engeström, Vygotsky • Activity Theory Image courtesy of University of Helsinki - Center for Activity Theory and Developmental Work Research Politecnico di Milano, 07-04-2009 Davide Eynard
  11. 11. 11 Background – Semantic Web “An extension of the current Web, in which information is given well defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation” Politecnico di Milano, 07-04-2009 Davide Eynard
  12. 12. 12 Ch 3 Our work Politecnico di Milano, 07-04-2009 Davide Eynard
  13. 13. 13 Our work – Evaluate and design The Six Ws: User-centered design:  Who  keep semantics hidden • user, community, producer,  reuse and standardize consumer  merge with the activity  What  evolve with complexity • tool, object, contents, traces  How (see D. Norman: “The design of • explicit vs implicit everyday things”) participation, coupling  When • sync vs async participation  Where • context, centralized vs distributed  Why • incentives, engagement Politecnico di Milano, 07-04-2009 Davide Eynard
  14. 14. 14 Our work – Extend systems with semantics Semantics have been applied on different levels  Link data (“a little semantics goes a long way”, J. Hendler)  Better describe knowledge  Infer new knowledge with reasoning When ontologies are used, they are applied on different levels too Upper Domain Context System [B.1] Politecnico di Milano, 07-04-2009 Davide Eynard
  15. 15. 15 Ch 4, 5, 6 Experimental developments Politecnico di Milano, 07-04-2009 Davide Eynard
  16. 16. 16 Semantic Wikis Wikis are not all the same: Wikipedia + OMP ­ Intranet ? Generic Internet users who Generic Internet users who Employees with specific Who write for everyone write for everyone addressee (group, boss) Internal atomic docs, Encyclopedia, divided in Hypertextual book (mostly What articles atomic) reports, attachments, annoucements Contributive, often Contributive, collective, Mostly collective, explicit How explicit participation participation collective, explicit/implicit participation Asynchronous (stronger need When Asynchronous Asynchronous for updates!) Centralized in an intranet Centralized (what about Where China?) Centralized context (authorship, confidentiality) Social/personal incentives, Social/personal incentives, “Because my boss says so”, Why small COP often just individuals groups/labs as COP Semantic extensions:  for data (templates for contents – describe knowledge)  and metadata (about pages and attachments – describe and infer) Politecnico di Milano, 07-04-2009 Davide Eynard
  17. 17. 17 Folksonomies Main limits: Generic Internet users who  no synonym control Who mostly tag for themselves  “basic level” variations What Classification technology Contributive, implicit, low  lack of precision How coupling  lack of recall When Asynchronous  lack of hierarchy Where Usually centralized  system-dependent Why Personal incentives Folksonomy + Ontology  disambiguate words  add hierarchy  interlink folksonomies  (describe and link) [B.2, B.3, B.5] Politecnico di Milano, 07-04-2009 Davide Eynard
  18. 18. 18 Annotation Systems: Linking Open (meta)Data Linking Open Data is:  a project which aims at making data freely available to anyone, setting RDF links between items from different data sources  a paradigm to publish information on the Web Metadata = information about information  anything which has a URI can be commented (or annotated)  common limits of annotation systems: • low user incentives • cannot reuse metadata over different systems  LOD as a possible solution • provides a large data base to bootstrap system • suggests a widespread, machine interpretable standard for information sharing and reuse • what about linking other types of data? [D.1, B.4, D.2] Politecnico di Milano, 07-04-2009 Davide Eynard
  19. 19. 19 Ch 7 Conclusions Politecnico di Milano, 07-04-2009 Davide Eynard
  20. 20. 20 Conclusions we chose a topic Politecnico di Milano, 07-04-2009 Davide Eynard
  21. 21. 21 Conclusions we chose a topic we extended it Politecnico di Milano, 07-04-2009 Davide Eynard
  22. 22. 22 Conclusions we chose a topic we extended it (in different directions) Politecnico di Milano, 07-04-2009 Davide Eynard
  23. 23. 23 Conclusions we chose a topic we extended it (in different directions) this allowed us to study it from other perspectives Politecnico di Milano, 07-04-2009 Davide Eynard
  24. 24. 24 Conclusions we chose a topic we extended it (in different directions) this allowed us to study it from other perspectives Results  the behavior and the success of a participative system depend on many different factors (i.e. community, incentives, context)  we developed a general methodology to evaluate participative systems and technologies and we applied it to some specific cases  for each of these cases, we used semantics to build better tools Politecnico di Milano, 07-04-2009 Davide Eynard
  25. 25. 25 Conclusions Our contributions  General • our methodology does not depend on a particular system  Specific • we applied semantics on different levels (and not just on contents) to build a better intranet wiki; • we applied semantic disambiguation techniques to address some of the most important problem of folksonomies and provided a new, hierarchical interface to browse tag-based systems; • we suggested a solution to the bootstrap problem, which employs already available open data sources to provide a user incentive; • by converting email and web history to a standard and shared representation, we automatically linked two of the most accessed data repositories to a huge amount of related information. Limits  Our evaluations were mostly focused on datasets and algorithms Politecnico di Milano, 07-04-2009 Davide Eynard
  26. 26. 26 Conclusions Future work  Develop a model for the evaluation, the extraction, and the reconciliation of data coming from different and heterogeneous data sources  Delve deeper into the intelligent part of collective intelligence Politecnico di Milano, 07-04-2009 Davide Eynard
  27. 27. 27 The end Thank you! Questions? Politecnico di Milano, 07-04-2009 Davide Eynard
  28. 28. 28 Relevant publications  [D.2] Eynard, D. (2008) Using semantics and participation to customize personalization. HP Labs Technical Report HPL-2008-197.  [B.5] Bindelli, S., C. Criscione, C.A. Curino, M.L. Drago, D. Eynard, & G. Orsi (2008). Improving Search and Navigation by Combining Ontologies and Social Tags. Proc. of the 1st International Workshop on Ambient Data Integration, Monterey, Mexico.  [B.4] Eynard, D., & M. Colombetti (2008). Exploiting user gratification for collaborative semantic annotation. Proc. SWUI 2008.  [B.3] Laniado, D., D. Eynard & M. Colombetti (2007). Using WordNet to turn a folksonomy into a hierarchy of concepts. Proc. 4th Fourth Italian Semantic Web Workshop, 192–201.  [B.2] Laniado, D., D. Eynard & M. Colombetti (2007). A semantic tool to support navigation in a folksonomy. Proc. 18th Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia (ACM Press, New York), 153–154,.  [D.1] Eynard, D., J. Recker & C. Sayers (2007). An IMAP plugin for SquirrelRDF. HP Labs Technical Report HPL-2007-161.  [B.1] Eynard, D. (2007). Research on collaborative information sharing systems. Proc. Knowledge Web PhD Symposium 2007, 81–82. Politecnico di Milano, 07-04-2009 Davide Eynard
  29. 29. Contact Davide Eynard Tel. 02 2399 4010 Fax 02 2399 3411 eynard@elet.polimi.it http://www.dei.polimi.it/people/eynard Project page @AIRLab: http://airwiki.elet.polimi.it Back
  30. 30. 30 Semantic Wikis  Data • semantic templates using a domain ontology  Metadata • automatic extraction and ontology supported management of attachment metadata • context ontology to describe properties and relations between documents Politecnico di Milano, 07-04-2009 Davide Eynard
  31. 31. 31 Annotation Systems: Linking Open (meta)Data  Email • An automatic IMAP to RDF translation tool • Information can be queried on the fly with SPARQL, saved in RDF and piped to external services  Browser history • Linking history data (visited or bookmarked URLs) with related, already available metadata from Freebase  Semantic Annotation Tools • Exploiting user gratification for collaborative semantic annotation Politecnico di Milano, 07-04-2009 Davide Eynard
  32. 32. 32 Linking Open (meta)Data Browser  Linking history data (visited or bookmarked URLs) with related, already available metadata Politecnico di Milano, 07-04-2009 Davide Eynard
  33. 33. 33 Linking Open (meta)Data Semantic Annotation Tools  Exploiting user gratification for collaborative semantic annotation Politecnico di Milano, 07-04-2009 Davide Eynard
  34. 34. 34 Annotation systems Speakinabout architecture: Politecnico di Milano, 07-04-2009 Davide Eynard
  35. 35. 35 Taxonomy of participation - a total mess! alone with others do/create suggest share contributive participative/collective social Politecnico di Milano, 07-04-2009 Davide Eynard
  36. 36. 36 Levels of participation - The county fair example • many people participate (take part) to the event • some contributed with suggestions, actions or resources • some collaborated to organize it • some are just there to have fun, or for their business • ... but the fair success depends on all of them! • see Engeström's Activity Theory Politecnico di Milano, 07-04-2009 Davide Eynard
  37. 37. 37 1) Structure data Politecnico di Milano, 07-04-2009 Davide Eynard
  38. 38. 38 Folksonomies: datasets and stats x axis: tags ordered by usage y axis: percentage of tags belonging to WordNet We have collected a large dataset from del.icio.us that allowed us to study tags statistically. Politecnico di Milano, 07-04-2009 Davide Eynard

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