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Understanding Research 2.0
  from a Socio-technical
        Perspective
               Yuwei Lin
 National Centre for e-Social Science
      University of Manchester
       http://www.ncess.ac.uk
Disclaimer
This paper is not about

 Dichotomy of Research 1.0 and Research
  2.0
 Imposing an ideal version of Research 2.0
 Looking at the Research 2.0 activities from
  a technology-oriented perspective
Outline
 Point of departure
 Research 2.0 and its meanings and
  practices in different scientific disciplines
 Tim O'Reilly's Web 2.0 design patterns
 De Roure and Goble's 6 Principles of
  software design to empower scientists
 MyExperiment development process
 Challenges emerging in the development of
  Research 2.0 and possible socio-technical
  solutions
Web 2.0
                            Blogging
                            Bookmarking
                            File sharing (slides,
                             photos, videos, tags)
                            Podcasting
                            Social networking
                            Co-authoring (wiki)

http://web2logo.com/
The World of the Web 2
                Communities
                Connected
                 and networked
                Shared
                 resources
                Collective
                 intelligence
                Wisdom of the
                 crowds
OpenWetWare
#This page
was last
modified
on 7
August
2008, at                   # To date
12:24.                     5,133 users
                           have edited
# This                     over 10,335
page has                   pages.
been
accessed                   # Content is
624,219                    available
times.                     under GNU
                           FDL or
                           Creative
SciVee.tv
New kinds of data and
      new kinds of platforms
Social scientists:
 analysing Facebook messages, twitter
  messages, blog entries
 understanding how Wikipedia is co-
  developed
 exploring how YouTube and SlideShare
  can be used for disseminating scientific
  publications
 how Second Life can be used for teaching
Open Access and Open Data
 Open access journals
 Open data:
  Ordance Survey data is not free/openly
  accessible.
  -> Open Street Map (Open Geo Data)
  sourcing crowd wisdom
  -> MapTube – developed by UCL Centre
  for Spatial Analysis (NCeSS Geographic
  Virtual Urban Environments node)
Go voting at
  http://www.maptube.org/congestion/
Congestion Charge
Science 2.0 / Academia 2.0




Nature
Publishing              Elsevier B.V.
Group

                   DELL & COLLEXIS
                   (LinkedIn-like)
O'Reilly's Web 2.0 Design Patterns
1. The Long Tail
2. Data is the Next Intel Inside
3. Users Add Value
4. Network Effects by Default
5. Some Rights Reserved
6. The Perpetual Beta
7. Cooperate, Don't Control
8. Software Above the Level of a Single Device
myExperiment.org
              myExperiment
              currently has
              1286 users, 109
              groups, 500
              workflows, 139
              files and 40
              packs



                          Open
                        Source
                     powered by
Workflows
    This workflow loads
      molecules from the
      database and than
      checks whether the
      perception of the atom
      types works or not. After
      the extraction of the
      database identifier from
      all molecules which
      caused problems during
      this process will the
      identifier be written to a
      file.
Reuse, repurpose workflows
             Use the local java
              plugins and some
              filtering operations to
              fetch the comic strip
              image from
              http://xkcd.com/
              Based on the
              FetchDailyDilbert
              workflow. I just
              uploaded this
              example so I can
              play around with the
              myexperiment api.
The Distributed Team



                              Develo
                     Devel    per,
User,                oper,    PM,
Amsterdam            Manch    Southa
               User, ester
               Manch          mptonUser,
         Devel                     Manche
         oper, ester               ster
         Manch             Devel
         ester             oper,
                           Manch
                           ester
De Roure and Goble's
         Six Principles
Of design for adoption
 Fit it, don't force change
 Jam today and more jam tomorrow
  (incentives)
 Just in time and just enough (delivery)
 Act local, think global
 Enable users to add value (empowerment)
 Design for network effect (community)
De Roure and Goble's
          Six Principles
Of user engagement
 Keep your friends close
 Embed users with developers and
  developers with users
 Keep sight of the bigger picture
 Favours will be in your favour (trust
  building)
 Know your users (rarely there is one kind of
  users)
 Expect and anticipate change
Socio-Technical Issues in the
     Development Process
 How to keep up with the fast-paced Web2.0
  development? -> agile management and
  development methods for a “Perpetual
  Beta”
 How to involve users? User-centred? Who
  are the users? How to draw the boundary?
  Fostering existing Taverna user community
  or building new communities?How if they
  have different requirements?
Ethical issues
 Privacy and confidentiality
 Social networking websites usually offer the
  features of personal profiles and online logs
  of personal activities online.
 Fear of being watched and monitored and
  screened.
 Socio-technical solutions: security
  technology + awareness raising
Legal issues
  Intellectual Property Rights
  “Release early, release often”
   (mantra of the open source
   software community)? ->
   Concerned over being copied
   or scooped
  Contradicting commercial
   interests if data is provided by
   private firms
  Science Commons
Communication
 VRE cf. Face-to-face contact
 Behavioural change in a Web 2.0
  environment
 Languages
 Trust
 Socio-technical solutions: a better
  Graphical User Interface, Ajax, and
  Communication Space for improving
  human-computer interaction
Multi-disciplinarity
 How to improve mutual understandings in a
  distributed and multidisciplinary environment?
 Different terminologies and epistemological
  understandings (e.g, tagging and tag cloud)
 Data in different and incompatible formats
 Context and provenance
 Socio-technical solutions:
  semantic web +
  social annotation
Methodological Innovation
 Collaborative and distributed ways of
  conducting research
 To reuse or not to reuse? - Trust building +
  Decision making + Social networking
 Mutual shaping between technology and
  academia
 A paradigm shift?
Developing a Research2.0 Site
 Research powered by Web 2.0 technologies
  for multidisciplinary collaboration,
  maintaining relationships
 Sharing, depositing, browsing, organising,
  annotating, reusing, recreating resources
  (e.g., data, tools, publications, experiences)
  in a virtual environment
 Research 2.0 – social networking sites for
  scientists?
Research 2.0(?)
 “[...] I am not sure we are building a full social
  networking site -- we are building a social
  curation site.”
 “One of the things that makes myExperiment a
  quot;virtual research environmentquot; rather than a
  social networking site is that it has support for
  the particular research objects that people are
  using - we've focused on workflows and
  experiment plans just now.“
Future Research
 Contexualising 'Research 2.0' is important –
  how Research 2.0 is perceived, adopted and
  practised for conducting what kind of work
 How skills and knowledge are enacted in situ
 How this supposedly democratic and
  seamless integration of distributed scientific
  work affects academic identities and shapes
  the social organisation of science.
 Whether e-Science practices can be easily
  translated across boundaries.
Thank you for your attention.

                Yuwei Lin
  National Centre for e-Social Science
       University of Manchester
        http://www.ncess.ac.uk

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Understanding Research 2.0 from a Socio-technical Perspective

  • 1. Understanding Research 2.0 from a Socio-technical Perspective Yuwei Lin National Centre for e-Social Science University of Manchester http://www.ncess.ac.uk
  • 2. Disclaimer This paper is not about  Dichotomy of Research 1.0 and Research 2.0  Imposing an ideal version of Research 2.0  Looking at the Research 2.0 activities from a technology-oriented perspective
  • 3. Outline  Point of departure  Research 2.0 and its meanings and practices in different scientific disciplines  Tim O'Reilly's Web 2.0 design patterns  De Roure and Goble's 6 Principles of software design to empower scientists  MyExperiment development process  Challenges emerging in the development of Research 2.0 and possible socio-technical solutions
  • 4. Web 2.0  Blogging  Bookmarking  File sharing (slides, photos, videos, tags)  Podcasting  Social networking  Co-authoring (wiki) http://web2logo.com/
  • 5. The World of the Web 2  Communities  Connected and networked  Shared resources  Collective intelligence  Wisdom of the crowds
  • 6. OpenWetWare #This page was last modified on 7 August 2008, at # To date 12:24. 5,133 users have edited # This over 10,335 page has pages. been accessed # Content is 624,219 available times. under GNU FDL or Creative
  • 8. New kinds of data and new kinds of platforms Social scientists:  analysing Facebook messages, twitter messages, blog entries  understanding how Wikipedia is co- developed  exploring how YouTube and SlideShare can be used for disseminating scientific publications  how Second Life can be used for teaching
  • 9. Open Access and Open Data  Open access journals  Open data: Ordance Survey data is not free/openly accessible. -> Open Street Map (Open Geo Data) sourcing crowd wisdom -> MapTube – developed by UCL Centre for Spatial Analysis (NCeSS Geographic Virtual Urban Environments node) Go voting at http://www.maptube.org/congestion/
  • 11. Science 2.0 / Academia 2.0 Nature Publishing Elsevier B.V. Group DELL & COLLEXIS (LinkedIn-like)
  • 12. O'Reilly's Web 2.0 Design Patterns 1. The Long Tail 2. Data is the Next Intel Inside 3. Users Add Value 4. Network Effects by Default 5. Some Rights Reserved 6. The Perpetual Beta 7. Cooperate, Don't Control 8. Software Above the Level of a Single Device
  • 13. myExperiment.org myExperiment currently has 1286 users, 109 groups, 500 workflows, 139 files and 40 packs Open Source powered by
  • 14. Workflows This workflow loads molecules from the database and than checks whether the perception of the atom types works or not. After the extraction of the database identifier from all molecules which caused problems during this process will the identifier be written to a file.
  • 15. Reuse, repurpose workflows Use the local java plugins and some filtering operations to fetch the comic strip image from http://xkcd.com/ Based on the FetchDailyDilbert workflow. I just uploaded this example so I can play around with the myexperiment api.
  • 16. The Distributed Team Develo Devel per, User, oper, PM, Amsterdam Manch Southa User, ester Manch mptonUser, Devel Manche oper, ester ster Manch Devel ester oper, Manch ester
  • 17. De Roure and Goble's Six Principles Of design for adoption  Fit it, don't force change  Jam today and more jam tomorrow (incentives)  Just in time and just enough (delivery)  Act local, think global  Enable users to add value (empowerment)  Design for network effect (community)
  • 18. De Roure and Goble's Six Principles Of user engagement  Keep your friends close  Embed users with developers and developers with users  Keep sight of the bigger picture  Favours will be in your favour (trust building)  Know your users (rarely there is one kind of users)  Expect and anticipate change
  • 19. Socio-Technical Issues in the Development Process  How to keep up with the fast-paced Web2.0 development? -> agile management and development methods for a “Perpetual Beta”  How to involve users? User-centred? Who are the users? How to draw the boundary? Fostering existing Taverna user community or building new communities?How if they have different requirements?
  • 20. Ethical issues  Privacy and confidentiality  Social networking websites usually offer the features of personal profiles and online logs of personal activities online.  Fear of being watched and monitored and screened.  Socio-technical solutions: security technology + awareness raising
  • 21. Legal issues  Intellectual Property Rights  “Release early, release often” (mantra of the open source software community)? -> Concerned over being copied or scooped  Contradicting commercial interests if data is provided by private firms  Science Commons
  • 22. Communication  VRE cf. Face-to-face contact  Behavioural change in a Web 2.0 environment  Languages  Trust  Socio-technical solutions: a better Graphical User Interface, Ajax, and Communication Space for improving human-computer interaction
  • 23. Multi-disciplinarity  How to improve mutual understandings in a distributed and multidisciplinary environment?  Different terminologies and epistemological understandings (e.g, tagging and tag cloud)  Data in different and incompatible formats  Context and provenance  Socio-technical solutions: semantic web + social annotation
  • 24. Methodological Innovation  Collaborative and distributed ways of conducting research  To reuse or not to reuse? - Trust building + Decision making + Social networking  Mutual shaping between technology and academia  A paradigm shift?
  • 25. Developing a Research2.0 Site  Research powered by Web 2.0 technologies for multidisciplinary collaboration, maintaining relationships  Sharing, depositing, browsing, organising, annotating, reusing, recreating resources (e.g., data, tools, publications, experiences) in a virtual environment  Research 2.0 – social networking sites for scientists?
  • 26. Research 2.0(?)  “[...] I am not sure we are building a full social networking site -- we are building a social curation site.”  “One of the things that makes myExperiment a quot;virtual research environmentquot; rather than a social networking site is that it has support for the particular research objects that people are using - we've focused on workflows and experiment plans just now.“
  • 27. Future Research  Contexualising 'Research 2.0' is important – how Research 2.0 is perceived, adopted and practised for conducting what kind of work  How skills and knowledge are enacted in situ  How this supposedly democratic and seamless integration of distributed scientific work affects academic identities and shapes the social organisation of science.  Whether e-Science practices can be easily translated across boundaries.
  • 28. Thank you for your attention. Yuwei Lin National Centre for e-Social Science University of Manchester http://www.ncess.ac.uk