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  1. 1. The New Science of Life Chapter 24 Great Idea: Our new understanding of genetic mechanisms is leading to enormous technological advances in medicine and other aspects of our lives.
  2. 2. Chapter Outline <ul><li>The Technology of Genes </li></ul><ul><li>Stem Cells, Cloning, and Regenerative Medicine </li></ul><ul><li>The New Face of Medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Unraveling the Past: Mitochondrial DNA </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Technology of Genes
  4. 4. Genetic Engineering <ul><li>Genetic engineering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign genes inserted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Existing genes altered </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technique </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restriction enzymes cut DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Another DNA strand binds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New gene is expressed </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Genetic Engineering – cont. <ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GMO </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DOA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FDA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EPA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bioterrorism </li></ul>
  6. 6. Restriction Enzymes
  7. 7. The Process of Genetic Engineering
  8. 8. Genetically Modified Organisms
  9. 9. Technology <ul><li>Bioterrorism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anthrax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spores </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smallpox </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spanish influenza – 1918 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Homeland Security </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Technology <ul><li>The PCR process </li></ul>
  11. 11. Science by the Numbers <ul><li>PCR multiplication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each cycle doubles the number of DNA molecules </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. DNA Fingerprinting <ul><li>DNA fingerprinting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis of DNA in human tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify criminals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify victims </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze DNA sections for repeats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare to individual of interest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>VNTR </li></ul><ul><li>STR </li></ul>
  13. 13. CSI
  14. 14. STR Method of DNA Fingerprinting
  15. 15. Stem Cells, Cloning, and Regenerative Medicine
  16. 16. Stem Cells, Cloning, and Regenerative Medicine <ul><li>Gene Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genes on or off </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce only copies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Early development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pluripotent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develop into any cell in body </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Stem Cells, Cloning, and Regenerative Medicine – cont. <ul><li>Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blastocyst </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outer cells: placenta </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inner cells: embryonic stem cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gastrula </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not pluripotent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Differentiation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adulthood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Somatic or adult stem cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Stem cell line </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduce without differentiation </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Early Stages of Embryonic Development
  19. 19. Science in the Making <ul><li>Cloning Dolly the sheep </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1997; Ian Wilmut </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproductive cloning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Procedure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other mammals cloned </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. The First Cloned Mammal
  21. 21. Ian Wilmut
  22. 22. Foreign DNA Introduced into an Animal Cell
  23. 23. The New Face of Medicine
  24. 24. Computer-Assisted Drug Design <ul><li>Medicine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One or more molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bond to specific molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change cellular chemistry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Previous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Search in nature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use molecular techniques </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Design drugs from scratch </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Computer-Assisted Drug Design – cont. <ul><li>CADD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protease inhibitors </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Computer-Aided Drug Design
  27. 27. Cancer-A Different Kind of Genetic Disease <ul><li>Normal Cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guardianship </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cancer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells reproduce without restraint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Due to genetic defect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually 5–6 damaged genes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collection of diseases </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Cancer-A Different Kind of Genetic Disease – cont. <ul><li>Genetic defects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase cancer probability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifetime risk >80% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surgery, radiation, chemotherapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gene therapy </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Normal and Cancer Cells
  30. 30. Science by the Numbers <ul><li>Double-blind clinical trials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Judges drug’s effectiveness </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Gene Therapy <ul><li>Gene therapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Replace defective gene with healthy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In vivo or in vitro </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SCID </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genes inserted randomly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No proteins made </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Therapeutic viruses </li></ul>
  32. 32. Gene Therapy Process for SCID
  33. 33. DNA Repair in the Cell <ul><li>Damage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outside cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Human developed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inside cell </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. DNA Repair in the Cell – cont. <ul><li>Repair mechanisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Point defect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enzymes remove section </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mismatch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remove length of DNA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reconstruct section </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. DNA Repair in a Cell
  36. 36. Plants and Pesticides
  37. 37. Unraveling the Past: Mitochondrial DNA
  38. 38. Unraveling the Past: Mitochondrial DNA <ul><li>Mitochondria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent DNA (mtDNA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single loop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>37 genes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-coding section </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1000 base pairs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use to study human evolution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All mitochondria from mother </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. DNA in Mitochondria
  40. 40. Thinking More about Embryonic Stem Cells <ul><li>Issue debated </li></ul><ul><li>No simple answers </li></ul>