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Discourse markers NEF Advanced lesson 1

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Analyse discourse markers in lesson 1 by reading the information on NEF Advanced page 136 and answering the questions.

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Discourse markers NEF Advanced lesson 1

  1. 1. DISCOURSE MARKERS An analysis
  2. 2. Read section 1 A on page 136, and answer the following questions. I. EXPRESSING RESULT. SO, AS A RESULT, THEREFORE, CONSEQUENTLY. 1. Where would you place “so”, “as a result” and “consequently” in this sentence? I didn’t wear a sweater. I caught a cold. 2. Where would you place “therefore”?
  3. 3. I didn’t wear a sweater. I caught a cold. a. I didn’t wear a sweater. As a result /Consequently / Therefore, I caught a cold. b. a.I didn’t wear a sweater, so/ and therefore/ and consequently I caught a cold. c. I didn’t wear a sweater. I therefore/ consequently caught a cold.
  4. 4. 1A discourse markers (1): linkers result So is the most common way of introducing a clause of result. It was freezing cold, so I wore a thick coat. As a result, therefore, and consequently (more formal than so) are often used at the beginning of a sentence or clause. It snowed hard all night. As a result the airport was closed the following morning. We regret that you do not have the necessary qualifications, and therefore/ consequently we are unable to offer you the job. When the marker is at the beginning of a clause, it is usually preceded by a comma, or comma + and. Therefore and consequently can also be used before a main verb, e.g. We have therefore/consequently decided not to offer you the job.
  5. 5. II. REASON 1. Which linkers can you use instead of “because” in this sentence without rephrasing? Jen left Spain because she couldn’t find a job. 2. Can we say… a) b) c) I arrived late because of there was traffic/because of traffic? The bar closed down due to the owner had financial difficulties? Take an umbrella in case it will rain?
  6. 6. a. Jen left Spain as she couldn’t find a job. b. Jen left Spain since she couldn’t find a job. If you want to use because of, due to, owing to you’ll have to rephrase “she couldn’t find a job” (e.g. because of her problems to find a job) a) b) c) I arrived late because of there was traffic/because of traffic You can’t say the first sentence but you can say the second one.. because of must be followed by a noun or by “the fact that” preceding the clause. The bar closed down due to the owner had financial difficulties? Same as a The bar closed down due to the owner’s financial difficulties. Take an umbrella in case it will rain? No. In case must be followed by a present tense.
  7. 7. 1A discourse markers (1): linkers reason Because, as, and since (more formal) are used to introduce clauses giving a reason and are synonyms. I have stopped writing to her, because/as/since she never answers me. As is often used at the beginning of a sentence, e.g. As the weather is so awful, we’ve decided not to go out. Because of, due to, and owing to also express the reason for something. They are usually followed by a noun. The plane was late because of the fog. Flight 341 has been delayed due to/owing to adverse weather conditions. Due to and owing to are more formal than because of.
  8. 8. III. PURPOSE What’s the difference between…? 1.I left, so he could study. 2.I left so he could study.
  9. 9. a. I left, so he could study. The comma preceding “so” indicates this “so” means result. (así que) b. I left so he could study. Lack of comma indicates this is “so that” (=purpose), but the “that” has been omitted.
  10. 10. 1A discourse markers (1): linkers purpose You can also use so (that) + can/could + verb or will/would + verb to express purpose. You can leave out that in informal speech and writing. They moved to London so (that) they could see their grandchildren more often. You must use so (that) when there is a change of subject in the result clause, e.g. She put a rug over the baby so (that) he wouldn’t be cold. Use in case + clause when you do something in order to be ready for future situations/problems or to avoid them. I’m not going to tell Ann in case she tells everyone else.
  11. 11. How would you say the following sentences in English? a. Estudio mucho para mejorar mi inglés. b. Se quitó los zapatos para no hacer ruido.
  12. 12. a. I study hard to/ in order to / so as to improve my English. b. She took her shoes off in order not to/ so as not to make noise.
  13. 13. 1A discourse markers (1): linkers purpose To, in order to, and so as to introduce a clause of purpose and are all followed by an infinitive. So as to and in order to are more formal. I did a language course to/in order to/so as to improve my English. For negative purpose use in order not to or so as not to. She closed the door quietly so as not to/in order not to wake the baby. NOT She closed the door quietly not to wake the baby.
  14. 14. IV. CONTRAST What’s the difference between these sentences? a) He could cook, but he wouldn’t. b) He could cook, yet he wouldn’t. There’s no difference in meaning. Yet is used in more formal/literary contexts.
  15. 15. 1A discourse markers (1): linkers contrast But is the most common and informal way of introducing contrast, and is normally used to link two contrasting points within a sentence. We enjoyed the concert, but we didn’t have very good seats. Yet is used in the same way, but is more formal/literary. Agnes was attracted to the stranger, yet something in her head was telling her not to get close to him.
  16. 16. CONTRAST (2) Is there any difference between although, even though and though in this sentences..? a. Mary married Tom although she didn’t love him. b. Mary married Tom even though she didn’t love him. c. Mary married Tom. She didn’t love him, though.
  17. 17. 1A discourse markers (1): linkers contrast Even though is more emphatic than although. Though is more common in informal speech. We enjoyed the concert although/even though/though we didn’t have very good seats. ! Though can also be used at the end of a phrase as a comment adverb, e.g. He’s very friendly – a bit mean, though. However and nevertheless are normally used at the beginning of a sentence, to connect it to the previous one. They are usually followed by a comma. We enjoyed the concert. However, we didn’t have very good seats. Agnes was attracted to the stranger. Nevertheless, something in her head was telling her not to get close to him. Nevertheless is more formal/literary than however. Nonetheless is an alternative to nevertheless.
  18. 18. Can we say…?  She apologised in spite of not being responsible for the delay?  Despite her fear to bats, she entered the cave?
  19. 19. Yes, you can. contrast After in spite of and despite you must use a noun, a gerund) or the fact that + clause. In spite of being attracted to the stranger, something in Agnes’s head was telling her not to get close to him. Despite her attraction to the stranger… Despite the fact that she was attracted to the stranger…

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