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Text Structures
Analyze organizational methods
used in informational texts
Making Information Clear
 Authors choose structure to organize
information and make their meaning
clear.
 Readers use strategies to support
interpretation of text.
Writing Clarity
 Authors use organization to develop their
point of view
 They use different approaches to
support their purposes
 They pick an organization format that will
help make their ideas clear to the
reader
Readers ask…
 Can I see a pattern to
the writing?
 How are the ideas
divided and
presented?
 Why has the author chosen this
particular organization pattern?
Organizational Patterns
 Description
 Chronological (or Sequence)
 Cause and Effect
 Compare/Contrast
 Problem/Solution
Description
• Author provides descriptive details or
characteristics of a topic.
topic
detail
detaildetail
detail
Description Key Words
snow
sparkle
white
frozenflakes
crystal
• For example
• Specifically
• Characteristics
include
• Next
• Another kind
• In addition
• Spatial words like
near, beyond, over,
etc.
Description Example 1
Coral snakes are distinguished by their
red, yellow/white, and black colored
banding. Most species of are small in
size. North American species average
around 3 feet in length, but
specimens of up to 5
feet or slightly larger
have been reported.
Description Example 2
Geologists classify types of rocks by
closely examining certain characteristics.
They often begin by looking at the rock
through a magnifying lens to check for
crystal structures, luster, and color.
Breaking the rock shows specimen’s
fracture or cleavage.
Chronological
 Story or information is told in the order
that the events occurred
Elementary
School
Middle
School
High
School
Sari’s Education
Chronology Key Words
 First
 Next
 Then
 After
 Before
 Sequential dates
 Events
 Order
First she sat in
the hard chair
Next she sat in
the soft chair
Finally, she sat in
the baby’s chair
Chronological Example (1)
 First, Goldilocks sat in the great big,
Papa Bear chair, but it was too hard.
 Then, she sat in the medium sized,
Mama Bear chair, but it was too soft.
 Finally, she sat in the
little, bitty, Baby Chair,
and it was just right.
Chronological Example (2)
 When the Anglo-Saxons conquered the
British Isles they introduced their
language which was composed of
common everyday words like boat and
tree.
 Later, the Normans
added French words
like café.
Cause and Effect
 The author establishes a link between
the way things are now and how they got
that way.
Cause
Effect
Cause and Effect Key
Words
 If/then
 Reasons
 Why
 Because
 As a result
 This led to
 Consequently
 Due to
Cause Effect
Order doesn’t matter
 Sometimes the cause will be presented
first…
 …then the effect will follow
Cause
Effect
Cause/Effect Example (1)
 Cause: During the experiment, Henry
poured the liquid bromine into the saline
solution.
 Effect: His hypothesis
was proved correct
when the solution
changed colors.
Order still doesn’t matter
 Sometimes the issues are presented
with the effects sited first…
 …then the causes are offered as
explanation
Cause
Effect
Cause/Effect Example (2)
 Effect: The future of gorillas in the wild is
at risk. Scientists predict that at the
present rate of decline, in 30 years all
the world’s wild gorillas will be gone.
 Cause: Gorilla meat
is a dietary staple for
nearly 12 million
people in Africa.
Comparison and Contrast
 One idea is presented first, followed by a
similar or different way of seeing things.
Apples Oranges
Compare/Contrast Key
Words
 Differ
 Same
 Alike
 Compare
 But
 Both
 Similar
 On the other
hand
1920’s 1950’s
Compare/Contrast Example
(1)
 Seurat painted scenes of everyday life
full of realistic people and objects with
soft edges and lines. He wanted his art
to capture “feelings” of the moment.
 Picasso, on the other
hand, used distorted
images and strange
colors to create mood.
Compare/Contrast Example
(2)
 Saturn is the second largest planet in
the solar system, much larger than
Earth. It is mostly made of hydrogen. It
rotates more quickly too. A day on
Saturn is only about 10 Earth hours
long. But it takes about 30 of our years
to make one full trip around the sun.
Problem/Solution
 A problem is presented and followed by
the steps to bring about a solution.
Problem
• The beach was
littered with
trash.
Steps
• Jeff organized a
beach clean-up
party.
Solution
• 30 people came
to pick up trash
and soon the
beach was
clean.
Problem/Solution Key Words
 problem is
 dilemma is
 if-then
 because
Problem Steps Solution
 so that
 question-answer
 problem is solved
 reason why
Problem/Solution (1)
 Native American tribes who
lived on the central plains
had to move from place to
place to follow the migrating
herds. Since they could not
build permanent homes, they
invented the teepee which
allowed them to move their
homes from place to place.
Problem/Solution (2)
 Ted and Sam both wanted to drive
the car. They started yelling at
each other. Their mom came and
told them to stop fighting. She told
Ted he could drive the car today,
and Sam would have
a turn tomorrow.
Question Examples
This story is organized by—
 comparing Alfred’s life to
those of German families
 describing a series of events
in Nobel’s life
 discussing what the
scientist’s role was in
organizing the prize
 providing examples of how
people lived in 1925
Which of the following best
describes the organization of
the passage?
 Presenting in order the steps
of cave and sinkhole
formation
 Comparing the formation of a
cave to the formation of a
sinkhole
 Describing features of caves
and sinkholes
 Presenting basic information
first about caves and then
about sinkholes
REVIEW
 What are the 5 organizational
patterns?
 Why do author’s use different
types of organization?
 What clues will help you
determine the pattern?
Remember…
Description
Chronological
Cause/Effect
Comparison/Contrast
Problem/Solution
Resources
Comprehension Strategies by Keene, Ellin Oliver, 2002.
When Kids Can’t Read by Kylene Beers, 1998
Graphics
Phillip Martin Clip Art
http://www.phillipmartin.info/clipart/homepage.htm
A Reading and Writing Out Loud Presentation
Barbara Yardley, M.Ed.
For additional activities, worksheets and a complete Common Core
teaching unit on Text Structure
visit
http://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Store/Barbara-Yardley/

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Analyzing Text Structures

  • 1. Text Structures Analyze organizational methods used in informational texts
  • 2. Making Information Clear  Authors choose structure to organize information and make their meaning clear.  Readers use strategies to support interpretation of text.
  • 3. Writing Clarity  Authors use organization to develop their point of view  They use different approaches to support their purposes  They pick an organization format that will help make their ideas clear to the reader
  • 4. Readers ask…  Can I see a pattern to the writing?  How are the ideas divided and presented?  Why has the author chosen this particular organization pattern?
  • 5. Organizational Patterns  Description  Chronological (or Sequence)  Cause and Effect  Compare/Contrast  Problem/Solution
  • 6. Description • Author provides descriptive details or characteristics of a topic. topic detail detaildetail detail
  • 7. Description Key Words snow sparkle white frozenflakes crystal • For example • Specifically • Characteristics include • Next • Another kind • In addition • Spatial words like near, beyond, over, etc.
  • 8. Description Example 1 Coral snakes are distinguished by their red, yellow/white, and black colored banding. Most species of are small in size. North American species average around 3 feet in length, but specimens of up to 5 feet or slightly larger have been reported.
  • 9. Description Example 2 Geologists classify types of rocks by closely examining certain characteristics. They often begin by looking at the rock through a magnifying lens to check for crystal structures, luster, and color. Breaking the rock shows specimen’s fracture or cleavage.
  • 10. Chronological  Story or information is told in the order that the events occurred Elementary School Middle School High School Sari’s Education
  • 11. Chronology Key Words  First  Next  Then  After  Before  Sequential dates  Events  Order First she sat in the hard chair Next she sat in the soft chair Finally, she sat in the baby’s chair
  • 12. Chronological Example (1)  First, Goldilocks sat in the great big, Papa Bear chair, but it was too hard.  Then, she sat in the medium sized, Mama Bear chair, but it was too soft.  Finally, she sat in the little, bitty, Baby Chair, and it was just right.
  • 13. Chronological Example (2)  When the Anglo-Saxons conquered the British Isles they introduced their language which was composed of common everyday words like boat and tree.  Later, the Normans added French words like café.
  • 14. Cause and Effect  The author establishes a link between the way things are now and how they got that way. Cause Effect
  • 15. Cause and Effect Key Words  If/then  Reasons  Why  Because  As a result  This led to  Consequently  Due to Cause Effect
  • 16. Order doesn’t matter  Sometimes the cause will be presented first…  …then the effect will follow Cause Effect
  • 17. Cause/Effect Example (1)  Cause: During the experiment, Henry poured the liquid bromine into the saline solution.  Effect: His hypothesis was proved correct when the solution changed colors.
  • 18. Order still doesn’t matter  Sometimes the issues are presented with the effects sited first…  …then the causes are offered as explanation Cause Effect
  • 19. Cause/Effect Example (2)  Effect: The future of gorillas in the wild is at risk. Scientists predict that at the present rate of decline, in 30 years all the world’s wild gorillas will be gone.  Cause: Gorilla meat is a dietary staple for nearly 12 million people in Africa.
  • 20. Comparison and Contrast  One idea is presented first, followed by a similar or different way of seeing things. Apples Oranges
  • 21. Compare/Contrast Key Words  Differ  Same  Alike  Compare  But  Both  Similar  On the other hand 1920’s 1950’s
  • 22. Compare/Contrast Example (1)  Seurat painted scenes of everyday life full of realistic people and objects with soft edges and lines. He wanted his art to capture “feelings” of the moment.  Picasso, on the other hand, used distorted images and strange colors to create mood.
  • 23. Compare/Contrast Example (2)  Saturn is the second largest planet in the solar system, much larger than Earth. It is mostly made of hydrogen. It rotates more quickly too. A day on Saturn is only about 10 Earth hours long. But it takes about 30 of our years to make one full trip around the sun.
  • 24. Problem/Solution  A problem is presented and followed by the steps to bring about a solution. Problem • The beach was littered with trash. Steps • Jeff organized a beach clean-up party. Solution • 30 people came to pick up trash and soon the beach was clean.
  • 25. Problem/Solution Key Words  problem is  dilemma is  if-then  because Problem Steps Solution  so that  question-answer  problem is solved  reason why
  • 26. Problem/Solution (1)  Native American tribes who lived on the central plains had to move from place to place to follow the migrating herds. Since they could not build permanent homes, they invented the teepee which allowed them to move their homes from place to place.
  • 27. Problem/Solution (2)  Ted and Sam both wanted to drive the car. They started yelling at each other. Their mom came and told them to stop fighting. She told Ted he could drive the car today, and Sam would have a turn tomorrow.
  • 28. Question Examples This story is organized by—  comparing Alfred’s life to those of German families  describing a series of events in Nobel’s life  discussing what the scientist’s role was in organizing the prize  providing examples of how people lived in 1925 Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage?  Presenting in order the steps of cave and sinkhole formation  Comparing the formation of a cave to the formation of a sinkhole  Describing features of caves and sinkholes  Presenting basic information first about caves and then about sinkholes
  • 29. REVIEW  What are the 5 organizational patterns?  Why do author’s use different types of organization?  What clues will help you determine the pattern?
  • 31. Resources Comprehension Strategies by Keene, Ellin Oliver, 2002. When Kids Can’t Read by Kylene Beers, 1998 Graphics Phillip Martin Clip Art http://www.phillipmartin.info/clipart/homepage.htm A Reading and Writing Out Loud Presentation Barbara Yardley, M.Ed. For additional activities, worksheets and a complete Common Core teaching unit on Text Structure visit http://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Store/Barbara-Yardley/

Editor's Notes

  1. Readers who are familiar with text structures expect the information to unfold in certain ways (RAND Reading Study Group, 2002). Understanding text structure helps comprehension by supporting a reader’s interpretation of the text. It helps with making prediction, understanding how things are related to one another and what is important in the text, and helps them to remember and summarize information.
  2. Many other organizational pattern exist. For the purposes of this unit, students will concentrate on just these five which are commonly used in informational text.
  3. Description is meant to help the reader envision a particular topic and often appeals to the five senses. Description organization is often used in connection with other types of text structure. For example, a problem/solution piece might given a vivid description of the original problem,
  4. Can be represented with a timeline or with a vertical graphic organizer
  5. Point out the transition words: first, then, finally. Ask students to give examples of other time transition words.
  6. Another graphic organizer that is commonly used is a three column graphic where the middle column is labeled “both”
  7. The author poses a problem or question and then gives the answer.
  8. , so that, question-answer, problem is solved
  9. Questions about organization often contain the word in the question stem. Highlight key words in the answer choices that indicate types of organization patterns.