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Aj 200 Terrorism & Cybercrime


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This was a presentation that I gave as a guest speaker in the Administration of Justice introductory level class at the University of Southern Mississippi. Most of the information comes from either Ryan Glarum\'s book on Biosecurity and Bioterrorism or the introductory criminal justice textbook.

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Aj 200 Terrorism & Cybercrime

  1. 1. Terrorism & Cybercrime J. Levi White, MS, CEECS, CFCE AJ 200 August 31, 2009
  2. 2. Terrorism <ul><li>Terrorism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The unlawful use of force or violence to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives or goals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A politically motivated act of violence </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Forms or Types of Terrorism <ul><li>Eco-terrorism (or environmental terrorism) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attacks upon those who profit from destruction of the environment or animals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic terrorism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attacks on banks or other financial centers seen as symbols of capitalistic oppression </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Racial terrorism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of intimidation and violence against select racial and ethnic groups or sects of society </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cyberterrorism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attacks on computers or information systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bioterrorism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The intentional use of microorganisms or toxins derived from living organisms to cause death or disease in humans or the animals and plants on which we depend. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Characteristics of Terrorists <ul><li>Extremely motivated by a profound political cause, religious belief, or social grievance that often places them in a state of inequality compared to their stated enemy. They resent their enemy, whom they blame for their problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely aggressive and view the use of violence – even suicidal violence – as appropriate and justified means to strike the enemy. </li></ul><ul><li>Believe that their violence will produce social change benefiting the terrorist organization or movement. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Terrorist Organizations <ul><li>Al Qaeda </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formed in 1988 by Osama bin Laden and Muhammad Atef </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for Sept. 11 attacks in NYC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hamas (Islamic Resistance Movement) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Founded in 1987 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engaged in “holy war (jihad)” against Israel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Founded in 1964 by Yasser Arafat </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Timeline of Terrorism (Last 40 Years, Almost) <ul><li>June 5, 1968: US Presidential candidate Robert F. Kennedy is assassinated by Sirhan Sirhan; June 9, 1970: PLO attempts assassination of Jordan’s King; September 1970: PFLP hijacks planes in Netherlands, Switzerland, and Germany and kills more than 400 passengers. In response, Jordan Attacks Palestine, resulting in 20,000+ deaths; September 5, 1972: Black September kills 9 Israeli athletes at Olympic Games; November 4, 1979: 52 US diplomats held hostage for 444 days by fundamentalist Islamic students; May 13, 1981: Pope John Paul II is shot in assassination attempt; October 6, 1981: Egyptian President assassinated by Muslim extremist; April 18, 1983: US Embassy bombed in Beirut with 63 killed; October 23, 1983: 241 US Marines and 58 French troops killed in Beirut; December 21, 1988: Pan Am Flight 103 explodes, killing 259 passengers, claimed by Libyan government; February 26, 1993: World Trade Center bombed by Al Qaeda killing 7 and injuring 1100; April 14, 1993: Assassination attempt on GHW Bush; April 19, 1995: Oklahoma City bombing by Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols killing 168; and the list goes on… </li></ul>See pages 370-371 in your text
  7. 7. What is Bioterrorism? <ul><li>Bioterrorism is the intentional use of microorganisms or toxins derived from living organisms to cause death or disease in humans or the animals and plants on which we depend. </li></ul><ul><li>Bioterrorism is big bucks! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US FY02-FY06 = $28B+ </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. History of Biowarfare <ul><li>6 th Century BC – Assyrians poisoned water wells </li></ul><ul><li>4 th Century BC – Scythian archers tipped arrows with manure, blood, and tissue from corpses </li></ul><ul><li>1340 AD – Dead horses and animals hurled over Thun L’Eveque castle walls in France </li></ul><ul><li>1422 AD – Dead men thrown over walls of castle in Bohemia </li></ul><ul><li>1495 AD – Spanish contaminated French wine with blood from lepers </li></ul><ul><li>1600s – Polish military used rabid dog saliva </li></ul><ul><li>15 th Century – Francisco Pizarro gave smallpox to South Americans </li></ul><ul><li>1763 – British officers used smallpox covered blankets on Delaware Indians </li></ul><ul><li>Civil War, North used smallpox against South </li></ul>
  9. 9. History of Biowarfare (cont.) <ul><li>Germans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the first to develop and use advanced biological weapons. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During World War I, animals targeted </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Japanese </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unit 731 responsible for over 4000 deaths (1000 POW & 3000 Japanese Test Subjects) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1939 Typhoid in Soviet Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1941 Plagued Fleas on China & Manchuria </li></ul></ul><ul><li>United States </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1943 US started Camp Detrick </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1949 Detrick sneaks into Pentagon for testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1950 Trial on San Fancisco reveals possible death of 800,000, real infection of 11, death of 1. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>239 intentional releases recorded: St. Louis, Minneapolis (sprayers in cars), New York (light bulb in subway) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2001 – Anthrax envelopes to news and political heads </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. History of Biowarfare (cont.) <ul><li>1969 – Nixon denounces biowarfare for US </li></ul><ul><li>1972 – US ended biological weapons research </li></ul><ul><li>Soviet Union & Russia continued research until 1990s </li></ul>
  11. 11. Why use Biological Weapons? <ul><li>Biological weapons attractive due to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Replication after dissemination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Target: animal, human, food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time delay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spread from person to person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A question of scale (warning) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. A Question of Scale <ul><li>10 grams Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) causes as much damage as 2000 pounds of nerve agent sarin </li></ul>
  13. 13. Routes of Entry <ul><li>Inhalation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anthrax </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ingestion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salmonella </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Absorption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yellow rain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Injection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1978 Bulgarian man received Ricin from the tip of an umbrella </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Cybercrime <ul><li>Cybercrime Defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer-based criminal behaviors intended to damage or destroy computer networks, fraudulently obtain money and other commodities, and disrupt normal business operations. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cybercrime is any crime that involves or is committed with a computer or other digital device. </li></ul><ul><li>Two categories of CyberCrime </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crimes committed against a computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crimes committed with the aid of a computer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Of 10% reported, 2% are convicted </li></ul>
  15. 15. Who are Cyber Criminals? <ul><li>Pedophiles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest amount of cybercrime at 70-80% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hackers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Black Hat Hackers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose is to defeat security measures for criminal purposes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White Hat Hackers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose is to defeat security measures for the improvement of internet security </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WHH are still operating outside of the law </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Con-artists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nigerian Money Scam </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Embezzlers </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hack websites to display messages of hate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop viruses and wage cyber warfare </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Crimes Against a Computer <ul><li>Intrusion incident (Hacking) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gaining illegal access </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Denial of service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overloading a website to shut the site down </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Security breach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gaining illegal access for malicious purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Virus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer code that gains access and replicates </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Crimes Committed with the aid of a Computer <ul><li>Child pornography / exploitation </li></ul><ul><li>Threatening letters / emails </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spoofing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fraud </li></ul><ul><li>Embezzlement </li></ul><ul><li>Theft of intellectual property </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sniffing – monitoring data traffic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spyware – illegally installed programs sending info. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cyber-vandalism or sabotage </li></ul><ul><li>Spamming (emailed advertisements) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spoofing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hijacking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking control of a person’s computer through malware (malicious software) </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Identity Theft <ul><li>Identity Theft Defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The use or attempted use of another person’s financial account or identifying information without the owner’s permission </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phishing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The creation and use of emails and websites designed to look like well-known legitimate businesses, financial institutions, or government agencies to deceive internet users into disclosing private information. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1998 Identity Theft Act made identity theft a federal crime </li></ul>
  19. 19. U.S. Patriot Act <ul><li>Allows law enforcement personnel to use electronic surveillance to monitor non-terrorism crimes that terrorists commit to build and sustain their resource infrastructure. </li></ul><ul><li>Allows roving wiretaps that permit the surveillance of a particular person rather than a particular telephone or communication device. </li></ul><ul><li>Allows the delay of informing an individual that a search warrant has been executed. </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain business records for businesses that have a possible connection to a terrorist </li></ul><ul><li>Removed “red tape” that kept law enforcement, intelligence, and national defense communities from sharing information. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Any Questions?? Thank you!