Immigration 2005: 191 million immigrantsReasons:- Poverty- Human rights violations- Famine- Natural disasters- Wars so on
Immigrant stressors Immigrants as a threat- Symbolic threat (challenges to the collective identity of the majority)- Material threat(challenges to thefinancial and statuswell-being)
Immigrant stressors Economic problems Language problems Policies, customs and norms Stereotypes, prejudice and discrimination ACCULTURATIVE STRESS
Acculturative stress“an immigrant’s response to life events that are rooted in intercultural contact”Factors:- Intrapersonal (motive of migration)- Society of origin (cultural distance)- Society of settlement ( multi- or monocultural ideology, hierarchy of immigrants)- Intrapersonal and social (conformity values and need for closure)
Consequences of acculturative stress Bad mood and anxiety Heightened level of depression Loneliness
Loneliness Loneliness – a psychological state characterized by a set of discomforting emotions and cognitions (unhappiness, pessimism, self-blame, depression).- Is associated with perceived lack of social support and lower and less satisfying relationships than desired;- Is a universal experience;- Frequently the solicitation of social support is impeded by individual (shyness, poor social skills) and situational (relocation) factors.
Consequences of acculturative stress Bad mood and anxiety Heightened level of depression Loneliness Reduced perception Nostalgia of social support (experiments – 1,2)
Findings about nostalgiaNostalgia is triggered by bad mood and loneliness(participants in a bad mood or in a “high loneliness” reported higher levels of nostalgia)Nostalgia can be recruited, either spontaneously or intentionally
Main ideas of the section Immigration is a big and fast-growing problem Immigrants suffer from not only economic problems and stressors connected with new mode of life, but also from psychological persecution by receiving society This cause acculturative stress and loneliness Loneliness cause reduced perception of social support on the one hand, and nostalgia on the other
Nostalgia “a sentimental longing for the past” Nostalgia VS Homesickness- Positive emotion - Negative emotion- Sentimental longing - Psychological problems- Refers to close others, - Refers only to the placemoments, places, pets.. of origin- Occurs frequently - Short-lived
Nostalgia as an emotion Self-relevant and social The self, surrounded by others, is the main character in the nostalgic narrative; (studies - 3) Positive- The simultaneous expression of happiness and sadness is more frequent than in ordinary events- Yet, nostalgic events featured more frequent expressions of happiness than sadness- Redemption – a narrative pattern that progresses from negative to positive state.
Functions of nostalgia Elevating positive affect; Supporting self-regard; Providing a sense of meaning; Fostering self-continuity; Strengthening relational bonds and perceptions of social support
Elevating positive affect(Studies – 4)Nostalgic participants reported more positive affect than control participants Nostalgia is a pathway through which people generate positive affect
Supporting self-regardNostalgia affirms valued aspects of the self as afriend, family of group member allows toface threats to self-esteem with reduceddefensivenessNostalgic participants reported higher levels ofself-regard than control onesNostalgia is a mechanism through which people attain positive self-regard
Providing a sense of meaningNostalgia facilitates coping with existentialthreat by buffering the effects of moralitysalienceThe more nostalgic participants felt, the moremeaningful they perceived their life to be Nostalgia enhanced perceptions of life as meaningful and lessened existential fear
Fostering self-continuityReflection about a nostalgic event led to higherperceptions of continuity in one’s life comparedto an ordinary or autobiographical eventThe cause of a nostalgic state is negativediscontinuity (being cut off one’s past isperceived as painful) rather than positive (.. aspleasant) or neutralNostalgia fosters perceptions of self-continuity
Strengthening relational bonds and perceptions of social support (Studies – 5) Nostalgic participants reported:- feeling more protected and loved,- reduced attachment anxiety and avoidance,- being more likely to initiate interactions, self- disclose, and provide emotional support for others Nostalgia strengthens perceptions of social support
But if nostalgia appears as a consequence of acculturativestress, DOES IT HELP TO OVERCOME IT?
Psychological healthPH – absence of negative affectivity (badmood, loneliness)Nostalgia has energizing or motivationalconsequences. Is positively correlated with thefrequency and intensity of inspiration.
Interpersonal adequacy Nostalgia bolsters IA indirectly:- Positive affect builds social resources (friendship and social support)- Self-esteem lowers antisocial behavior and delinquency problems- Sense of meaning is a marker of healthy interpersonal functioning (absence of bad habits)- Self-continuity is negatively related to antisocial behavior and social adjustment (group schism and even suicide) and enable integration.
Interpersonal adequacy Nostalgia bolsters IA directly:Increases relational bonds and perception ofsocial support Forbearance of aversive socialfeedback, cognitive openness and exploratoryorientation facilitate integration by formationof new relationships with members of receivingsociety Nostalgia magnifies perceptions of social support, thus counteracting the effect of loneliness
But if nostalgia appears as a consequence of acculturative stress, DOES IT HELP TO OVERCOME IT?Yes, it does by providing conditions for successful integration
Main ideas of the section Nostalgia is a positive self-relevant and social emotion Nostalgia produces positive affectivity, self- regard, self-continuity, sense of meaning and strengthens social bonds Nostalgia provides psychological health and interpersonal adequacy Nostalgia contributes to successful integration
Is it general? The effect was found for:- Children- Students- Adults
Is resilience connected with nostalgia.. Resilience – the ability to recover from shock, insult, or disturbance.
Influence of resilienceBoth resilient and nonresilient people deriveperceived social support from nostalgia;BUTHighly resilient people are more likely to recruitnostalgia when lonely, have incorporatednostalgia in their arsenal of coping mechanisms
To sum up.. Immigration is a big and fast-growing problem Immigrants suffer from not only economic problems and stressors connected with new mode of life, but also from psychological persecution by receiving society This cause acculturative stress and loneliness Loneliness cause reduced perception of social support on the one hand, and nostalgia on the other
Nostalgia is a positive self-relevant and social emotion Nostalgia produces positive affectivity, self-regard, self-continuity, sense of meaning and strengthens social bonds Nostalgia provides psychological health and interpersonal adequacy Nostalgia contributes to successful integration and helps to overcome consequences of loneliness
ConclusionNostalgia is a psychological resource that protects and fosters mental health. Nostalgia strengthens social connectedness andbelongingness, partially ameliorating the harmful effects of loneliness
Problems and limitations- Being nostalgic too frequent can be an unhealthy response to acculturative stress and cause separation rather than integration- It is not clear how nostalgia will influence other acculturation patterns (assimilation, segregation, marginalization)- Although gender differences were not found, gender roles are culture-specific
Future directionsSocioemotional selectivity theory – older people start viewtheir life span as limited, shift attention from future- andknowledge-oriented goals and emphasize the importanceof meaning and social networks in life- Are age-related changes in motivation reflectedin the frequency and content of nostalgia?- Does nostalgia acquire greater significance inolder age?- At which acculturative stage is nostalgia a mostpotent aid in coping with acculturative stress?
Discussion1) Think about some practical implications of performed findings;2) Do your personal experiences coincide with findings?3) What do you think about gender differences in nostalgia?4) How important is nostalgia in other life situations, when there is no acculturative stress?5) What are the others mechanisms that can help someone to overcome acculturative stress? May be from your experience.6) How do you feel about likelihood of cultural differences in nostalgia? May be individualistic societies are less likely to miss other people so much?7) How did you overcome acculturative stress yourself? Did some factors (such as multicultural Jacobs’ community) helped you?8) Knowing all the findings about nostalgia what would you suggest for those, who suffer from acculturative stress?
Thank you!Congratulations with the last presentation ;)