Acid rain pp

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Acid rain pp

  1. 1. Acids and Bases SHS CAPT lab – Acid Rain L. Allen Stonington High School
  2. 2. The pH scale SHS CAPT lab – Acid Rain pH is expressed without units. The number arises from the concentration of hydrogen ions in the solution pH paper is a good quick way to find out what the pH of a solution is. If the pH is below 7, the solution is an acid. If it is over 7, the solution is a base. pH of 7 is neutral, not an acid or a base.
  3. 3. Acid Rain Statue of Queen Victoria in Salford UK showing the effects of acid rain on limestone
  4. 4. Sources & Effects of Acid Rain SHS Intro to College CEP Sources and effects of acid rain and other forms of acid deposition.  Author: Sebastian Wypych.
  5. 5. Effect of Acid Rain on Materials <ul><li>Acid rain contributes to the corrosion of metals and the deterioration of paint and stone. These effects reduce the value of buildings, bridges, cultural objects (such as statues, monuments, and tombstones), and cars. </li></ul>SHS CAPT lab – Acid Rain
  6. 6. Formation of Acid Rain <ul><li>Acid rain forms when certain molecules in the atmosphere combine with water, forming acidic compounds that dissolve in the water that becomes rain. </li></ul><ul><li>The gases sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and various nitrogen oxides (NO x ) are mainly responsible for the increase in acidity. </li></ul><ul><li>These gases are primarily created by industrial factories, coal-fired power plants, and car emissions. </li></ul><ul><li>The gases SO 2 and NO x are thought to be carried long distances by air currents. Storm systems also move long distances, carrying with them any pollutants they may pick up. </li></ul>SHS CAPT lab – Acid Rain
  7. 7. Causes/What Can We Do? SHS CAPT lab – Acid Rain Causes of acid rain and what we can do to counteract them.  Author: Anita Bokwa.
  8. 8. Quiz Yourself … <ul><li>Every liquid is either an acid or a base T or F </li></ul><ul><li>There are a variety of strengths of acids and bases. T or F </li></ul><ul><li>pH is a measure of ____ ions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydroxide (OH-) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen (H+) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aqueous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>None of the Above </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An aqueous solution is one that has compounds dissolved in water. T or F </li></ul>SHS CAPT lab – Acid Rain
  9. 9. Quiz Yourself II … <ul><li>5. What are the main causes of acid rain? </li></ul><ul><li>6. What are the effects of acid rain in the environment and on building materials? </li></ul>SHS CAPT lab – Acid Rain
  10. 10. Answers… <ul><li>1. A solution with a pH of 7 is considered to be neutral. It is neither an acid nor a base. Distilled water (H 2 0) has a pH of 7. </li></ul><ul><li>2. There are a variety of strengths in acids and bases. They include... - Strong Acid (Near pH 1) - Weak Acid (Near pH 6) - Strong Base (Near pH 14) - Weak Base (Near pH 8) </li></ul><ul><li>pH is a measure of hydrogen ions (H + ). Hydrogen ions have lost their electron. </li></ul><ul><li>4. An aqueous solution is one where the solvent is water. Acids and bases are often placed in water to dilute them. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Pollution from burning of fossil fuels (sulfur dioxide SO 2 and nitrogen oxides NOx). </li></ul><ul><li>6. Acid rain damages plants, disturbs the chemical balance in lakes and rivers (affecting fish reproduction), and damages man-made structures (i.e. buildings, statues, etc) </li></ul>SHS CAPT lab – Acid Rain
  11. 11. Acid Rain Experiment <ul><li>You have 3 types of materials: quartz, marble and granite. </li></ul><ul><li>Which one will be most resistant to acid rain? </li></ul><ul><li>What can we do to figure it out? </li></ul><ul><li>What can we use to simulate acid rain? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we compare the effect of the acid rain with that of “regular” rain? </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of data can you take…? </li></ul>SHS CAPT lab – Acid Rain
  12. 12. Acid Rain Experiment – Types of Data <ul><li>Qualitative Data: </li></ul><ul><li>Do you see any changes? (bubbles, color changes, etc) </li></ul>SHS CAPT lab – Acid Rain <ul><li>Quantitative Data: </li></ul><ul><li>Can you measure any changes? (pH, mass, volume, etc.) </li></ul>
  13. 13. For our experiment: <ul><li>We can use vinegar instead of the milder acid in rain. That will speed things up! </li></ul><ul><li>If we see bubbles, something is happening… </li></ul><ul><li>If we can see a change in the pH of a solution after it is poured over some rocks, those rocks are breaking down into the acid. </li></ul><ul><li>We could weigh the rocks before they go into the acid, and if they weigh less after some time in solution, they have broken down. </li></ul><ul><li>We could compare the volume of rock before and after exposure to acid rain. </li></ul>SHS CAPT lab – Acid Rain
  14. 14. What next? <ul><li>Read the lab sheets over quickly. </li></ul><ul><li>Come up with a general idea of how you and your partner will conduct this experiment. </li></ul><ul><li>Look around the room to see what equipment we have, what materials you have available. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask questions to clarify any points you aren’t sure about. </li></ul><ul><li>Finalize your experimental design with your partner. </li></ul>SHS CAPT lab – Acid Rain
  15. 15. HOMEWORK <ul><li>Read the lab sheets thoroughly </li></ul><ul><li>Look up acid rain and write a short background paragraph for your lab report. IYOW please! </li></ul><ul><li>Write your procedure for this lab so that you can conduct the whole lab in one period. </li></ul><ul><li>Create a data table where you can put all the information you get in your experiment. </li></ul>SHS CAPT lab – Acid Rain

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