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 Introduction
 Origin of the acid rain.
 Definition, forms,
  formation and chemistry
  of acid rain.
 Global impact of acid rain.
 Impact of acid rain in
  India.
 Negative environmental
  effects of acid rain.
 Beneficial effects.
Acid rain is the
                                                 Acid rain is
  term used to
                      Acid rain is directly   becoming a global
describe polluted
                      linked air pollution.     environmental
  rainfall (acid
                                                  problem.
   pollution).


                                     The main acid-
              Acid rain is a       forming pollutants
             transboundary         are sulphur dioxide
           pollution problem.     (SO2) and oxides of
                                     nitrogen(NOx).
 In 1872, Robert Angus Smith
  coined the term ‘acid rain’ in
  his book ‘Air and Rain: The
  beginning of a Chemical
  Climatology’.
 Smith first found acid rain in
  heavily industrialized
  Manchester, England in 1852.
 He proved that acid rain has
  connections to pollution in
  atmosphere.
The rise in
                                          This results in     These acidic
The main driving      world’s energy
                                          more sulphur         pollutants
    factors are      demands leads to
                                           dioxide and      contribute acidic
 industrialization      large scale
                                          nitrogen oxide      atmospheric
and urbanization.     burning of coal
                                            emissions.         pollution.
                      and fossil fuels.




   Acid rain is caused by human activities.
Precipitation that has a pH of less than
that of natural rain water.
• Natural rain water has a pH range of 5-7.Normal
  rain is slightly acidic due to the presence of
  carbonic acid formed by the mixture of CO2 and
  rainwater. CO2 + H2O H2CO3



Acid rain water has a pH <5.

• Acid rain often has a pH as low as 2.4
Acid rain


                                 Acid snow


                                  Acid fog
                       Wet
                    deposition
                                 Acid frost


                                 Acid dew
Acidic deposition
                                 Acid hail


                                 Acid gases
                       Dry
                    deposition   Acid dust/
                                  particles
 Acid rain has a pH below
  5.6 due mainly to the
  reaction of water vapor
  with sulfur dioxide and the
  oxides of nitrogen. Acid
  rain often has a pH as low
  as 2.4
 2SO2 + O2 + 2H2O
  2H2SO4

   4NO2 + O2 + 2H2O
    HNO3
   Pure water has a pH of 7.
   The rain from an unpolluted
    atmosphere has a pH close
    to 6.0 (slightly acidic).
Carbon dioxide and water combine
     to form carbonic acid.
                                      CO2 + H2O H2CO3



  Nitrogen dioxide and water to
form a mixture of nitrous acid and
            nitric acid              2NO2 + H2OHNO2+HNO3




Sulfur dioxide combines with water   SO2+H2OH2SO3
       to form sulfurous acid        SO3+H2OH2SO4
 Acid rain is a cocktail
  mixture of 65%
  sulphuric acid,30%
  nitric acid and 5%
  hydrochloric acid.
 Nearly 95% of the
  acidity comes from
  atmospheric sulfur
  dioxide and nitrogen
  oxides.
 The contribution of
  sulfur gases to acid rain
  is 60-70%.
   Forest fires
                           Volcanoes

Natural sources
                           Lightning
                           Wet lands-organic decay
                           Bacterial action in soil



                           Power generation
Anthropogenic sources




                           Factories
                           Combustion of oil. Coal and gas
                           Smelting of metals
Sulfuric acid                       Nitric acid deposition
                                    • About 25% of the acidity is
deposition                            caused by oxides of nitrogen.
• About 75% of acidity is caused    • Very reactive in the
  by sulfuric acid in rain water.     atmosphere.
• combustion of fossil fuels,
  volcanic eruptions.



Episodic                            Chronic
Acidification-’Acid shocks’         acidification
• Short intense acidic events       • Low, stable acidification
• Winter snowmelt, heavy rains      • Loss of acid neutralizing
• Suddenly changes the pH levels      capacity of streams, lakes and
  of rivers and lakes.                soil ecosystems.
   North eastern United
    States
   South eastern Canada
   Parts of Europe-parts of
    Sweden, Norway and
    Germany.
   Parts of south Asia
   South Africa
   SriLanka
   Southern India
Taj Mahal in India
Temples, murals and ancient
inscriptions in Southern India


Acropolis, Parthenon in Greece



Renaissance buildings in Italy.
West        Mayan       Several
minister   pyramids     churches
Abbey in   in Mexico      and
England                cathedrals
Acid rain does not respect political
 boundaries. Emissions from one
country may be carried by wind to
     a neighbouring country.
Britain      • smog episodes around London, (1952)


 Germany        • acid mists in central Germany

   Poland       • acid cold smog (1985)

  Greece        • Deterioration of the Parthenon in the
                  Athens area.

    Italy       • Damage to Venice structures

Scandinavia     • 15% of acid rain caused by Great-Britain

                • black acid snow-the Cairngorm mountains
  Scotland        (1984)
                •corrosion of bells of the Utrecht Dom tower since
Netherlands      1951


United states   •disrupts forest ecosystems and pollutes surface
                 waters.
   Coal consumption
             Road traffic

sources
             Fertilizer plants
             Refineries
             Thermal power plants
             Petrochemical industries
             Metal smelting industries

             pH of acid rain in   Bombay and
              Trombay=4.45
effects




             pH of acid rain in   Kolkata = 5.85
             pH of acid rain in   Chennai= 8.85
             pH of acid rain in   Delhi = 6.2    1
   Localized effects-few kilometers range
                      Effects decrease with increasing

Direct effects
                       distance from emission source.
                      Effects based on concentration of
                       pollutants in the air.




                      Widespread effects –hundreds and
                       thousands of kilometers.
Indirect effects




                      Secondary and tertiary effects
Atmospheric         Harm or kill
  acid input        individual fish




Acidic surface    Reduce population
   waters             numbers




Toxic elements
                 Complete elimination
   -acid           of particular fish
  molecules             species
Affects the soil buffering capacity of
watersheds.
Restrict flora of aquatic macrophytes
and phytoplankton.
Reduce fish diversity and
abundance.
Cause biotic depletion.
Implicate metal pollution.
Limit aquatic productivity.
Retard recycling of cations from
sediments.
   Decrease the acid neutralizing capacity
    (ANC) of soils.
   Leach macro- and micro-nutrients from
    the soil.
   Mobilize aluminium leaching into the soil
    water.
   Increase the accumulation of sulphur and
    nitrogen in soil.
   Harms the microbes of the soil.
   Reduces fertility of the soil.
 Directly harm leaf tissues: cuticle,
  waxy layer and needles.
 Damages roots and bark.
 Reduce forest canopies at high
  elevations.
 Poison tree with toxic substances and
  make trees vulnerable to diseases.
 Reduce tree growth and increase tree
  mortality.
   Cause gradual yellowing (chlorosis) of
    leaves.
   Burn leaf tissues and cause
    depigmentation.
   Disrupt the process of photosynthesis.
   Affect the water retaining ability of plants.
    Leach nutrients from plant tissues.
   Reduce plant germination and
    reproduction.
Cause extensive gill damage.
Increase fish morbidity(sickness) and
mortality(death).
Reduce age distribution and size.
Reduce growth rate and condition factor.
Induce skeletal deformities in young
ones.
Enhance uptake of heavy metals.
Cause reproductive failure.
Direct effects          Indirect effects
 Increased morbidity    Pain
  (sickness).            Discomfort
 Asthma, bronchitis     Aggravate heart
 Dry coughs              disease
 Headaches
 Eye, nose and
  throat irritations.
 Mortality from lung
  diseases.
 Cause physical damage by corrosion of
  limestone, marble, carbon-steel, zinc,
  nickel, paint and some plastics.
 Reduce life usefulness and aesthetic
  appeal of structures.
 Acid smoke solids soiling building
  materials.
 Accelerate chemical degradation of
  metals, paints stone cement etc.
Before   After 1908
   Sulfate aerosols diminish visibility and
    augment global warming.
   Nitrogen oxides contribute to the
    formation of ozone.
   Mercury contamination in fish.
   Over-fertilization of coastal waters 9
    coastal eutrophication).
   Decrease bacterial flora and other
    beneficial micro-organisms.
   Offset mineral balance in forests, rivers,
    fields and lakes.
   Stimulates growth of fine
    range grasses in iron
    deficient calcareous soils
   Improve water penetration
    in sodic soils.
   Increase micro-nutrient
    availability in calcareous
    soils.
   Dr.B.Victor is a highly experienced
    professor, recently retired from the reputed
    educational institution- St. Xavier’ s College,
    Palayamkottai, India-627001.
   He was the dean of sciences, IQAC
    coordinator and assistant controller of
    examinations.
   He has more than 32 years of teaching and
    research experience
   He has taught a diversity of courses and
    guided 12 Ph.D scholars.
    send your comments to :
    bonfiliusvictor@gmail.com
Acid rain- a global ecological problem

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Acid rain- a global ecological problem

  • 1.
  • 2.  Introduction  Origin of the acid rain.  Definition, forms, formation and chemistry of acid rain.  Global impact of acid rain.  Impact of acid rain in India.  Negative environmental effects of acid rain.  Beneficial effects.
  • 3. Acid rain is the Acid rain is term used to Acid rain is directly becoming a global describe polluted linked air pollution. environmental rainfall (acid problem. pollution). The main acid- Acid rain is a forming pollutants transboundary are sulphur dioxide pollution problem. (SO2) and oxides of nitrogen(NOx).
  • 4.  In 1872, Robert Angus Smith coined the term ‘acid rain’ in his book ‘Air and Rain: The beginning of a Chemical Climatology’.  Smith first found acid rain in heavily industrialized Manchester, England in 1852.  He proved that acid rain has connections to pollution in atmosphere.
  • 5. The rise in This results in These acidic The main driving world’s energy more sulphur pollutants factors are demands leads to dioxide and contribute acidic industrialization large scale nitrogen oxide atmospheric and urbanization. burning of coal emissions. pollution. and fossil fuels. Acid rain is caused by human activities.
  • 6. Precipitation that has a pH of less than that of natural rain water. • Natural rain water has a pH range of 5-7.Normal rain is slightly acidic due to the presence of carbonic acid formed by the mixture of CO2 and rainwater. CO2 + H2O H2CO3 Acid rain water has a pH <5. • Acid rain often has a pH as low as 2.4
  • 7. Acid rain Acid snow Acid fog Wet deposition Acid frost Acid dew Acidic deposition Acid hail Acid gases Dry deposition Acid dust/ particles
  • 8.
  • 9.
  • 10.  Acid rain has a pH below 5.6 due mainly to the reaction of water vapor with sulfur dioxide and the oxides of nitrogen. Acid rain often has a pH as low as 2.4  2SO2 + O2 + 2H2O 2H2SO4  4NO2 + O2 + 2H2O HNO3  Pure water has a pH of 7.  The rain from an unpolluted atmosphere has a pH close to 6.0 (slightly acidic).
  • 11. Carbon dioxide and water combine to form carbonic acid. CO2 + H2O H2CO3 Nitrogen dioxide and water to form a mixture of nitrous acid and nitric acid 2NO2 + H2OHNO2+HNO3 Sulfur dioxide combines with water SO2+H2OH2SO3 to form sulfurous acid SO3+H2OH2SO4
  • 12.  Acid rain is a cocktail mixture of 65% sulphuric acid,30% nitric acid and 5% hydrochloric acid.  Nearly 95% of the acidity comes from atmospheric sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.  The contribution of sulfur gases to acid rain is 60-70%.
  • 13.
  • 14. Forest fires  Volcanoes Natural sources  Lightning  Wet lands-organic decay  Bacterial action in soil  Power generation Anthropogenic sources  Factories  Combustion of oil. Coal and gas  Smelting of metals
  • 15. Sulfuric acid Nitric acid deposition • About 25% of the acidity is deposition caused by oxides of nitrogen. • About 75% of acidity is caused • Very reactive in the by sulfuric acid in rain water. atmosphere. • combustion of fossil fuels, volcanic eruptions. Episodic Chronic Acidification-’Acid shocks’ acidification • Short intense acidic events • Low, stable acidification • Winter snowmelt, heavy rains • Loss of acid neutralizing • Suddenly changes the pH levels capacity of streams, lakes and of rivers and lakes. soil ecosystems.
  • 16. North eastern United States  South eastern Canada  Parts of Europe-parts of Sweden, Norway and Germany.  Parts of south Asia  South Africa  SriLanka  Southern India
  • 17. Taj Mahal in India Temples, murals and ancient inscriptions in Southern India Acropolis, Parthenon in Greece Renaissance buildings in Italy.
  • 18. West Mayan Several minister pyramids churches Abbey in in Mexico and England cathedrals
  • 19. Acid rain does not respect political boundaries. Emissions from one country may be carried by wind to a neighbouring country.
  • 20. Britain • smog episodes around London, (1952) Germany • acid mists in central Germany Poland • acid cold smog (1985) Greece • Deterioration of the Parthenon in the Athens area. Italy • Damage to Venice structures Scandinavia • 15% of acid rain caused by Great-Britain • black acid snow-the Cairngorm mountains Scotland (1984) •corrosion of bells of the Utrecht Dom tower since Netherlands 1951 United states •disrupts forest ecosystems and pollutes surface waters.
  • 21. Coal consumption  Road traffic sources  Fertilizer plants  Refineries  Thermal power plants  Petrochemical industries  Metal smelting industries  pH of acid rain in Bombay and Trombay=4.45 effects  pH of acid rain in Kolkata = 5.85  pH of acid rain in Chennai= 8.85  pH of acid rain in Delhi = 6.2 1
  • 22. Localized effects-few kilometers range  Effects decrease with increasing Direct effects distance from emission source.  Effects based on concentration of pollutants in the air.  Widespread effects –hundreds and thousands of kilometers. Indirect effects  Secondary and tertiary effects
  • 23. Atmospheric Harm or kill acid input individual fish Acidic surface Reduce population waters numbers Toxic elements Complete elimination -acid of particular fish molecules species
  • 24.
  • 25. Affects the soil buffering capacity of watersheds. Restrict flora of aquatic macrophytes and phytoplankton. Reduce fish diversity and abundance. Cause biotic depletion. Implicate metal pollution. Limit aquatic productivity. Retard recycling of cations from sediments.
  • 26. Decrease the acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) of soils.  Leach macro- and micro-nutrients from the soil.  Mobilize aluminium leaching into the soil water.  Increase the accumulation of sulphur and nitrogen in soil.  Harms the microbes of the soil.  Reduces fertility of the soil.
  • 27.  Directly harm leaf tissues: cuticle, waxy layer and needles.  Damages roots and bark.  Reduce forest canopies at high elevations.  Poison tree with toxic substances and make trees vulnerable to diseases.  Reduce tree growth and increase tree mortality.
  • 28.
  • 29. Cause gradual yellowing (chlorosis) of leaves.  Burn leaf tissues and cause depigmentation.  Disrupt the process of photosynthesis.  Affect the water retaining ability of plants.  Leach nutrients from plant tissues.  Reduce plant germination and reproduction.
  • 30. Cause extensive gill damage. Increase fish morbidity(sickness) and mortality(death). Reduce age distribution and size. Reduce growth rate and condition factor. Induce skeletal deformities in young ones. Enhance uptake of heavy metals. Cause reproductive failure.
  • 31. Direct effects Indirect effects  Increased morbidity  Pain (sickness).  Discomfort  Asthma, bronchitis  Aggravate heart  Dry coughs disease  Headaches  Eye, nose and throat irritations.  Mortality from lung diseases.
  • 32.  Cause physical damage by corrosion of limestone, marble, carbon-steel, zinc, nickel, paint and some plastics.  Reduce life usefulness and aesthetic appeal of structures.  Acid smoke solids soiling building materials.  Accelerate chemical degradation of metals, paints stone cement etc.
  • 33. Before After 1908
  • 34. Sulfate aerosols diminish visibility and augment global warming.  Nitrogen oxides contribute to the formation of ozone.  Mercury contamination in fish.  Over-fertilization of coastal waters 9 coastal eutrophication).  Decrease bacterial flora and other beneficial micro-organisms.  Offset mineral balance in forests, rivers, fields and lakes.
  • 35. Stimulates growth of fine range grasses in iron deficient calcareous soils  Improve water penetration in sodic soils.  Increase micro-nutrient availability in calcareous soils.
  • 36. Dr.B.Victor is a highly experienced professor, recently retired from the reputed educational institution- St. Xavier’ s College, Palayamkottai, India-627001.  He was the dean of sciences, IQAC coordinator and assistant controller of examinations.  He has more than 32 years of teaching and research experience  He has taught a diversity of courses and guided 12 Ph.D scholars.  send your comments to : bonfiliusvictor@gmail.com