Acid Rain  Charles Fletcher, Martyna S. Sowa, Svetlana Zusina,  ACID RAIN AND ITS EFFECT ON THE ENVIRONMENT
 
<ul><li>What is acid rain and what is the scale of the problem? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we know if the rain is acid? </li...
Acid rain, or acid deposition, is a mixture of sulphuric and nitric acids.  <ul><li>Wet deposition  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
The valid risk assessment <ul><li>The net acid deposition flux </li></ul><ul><li>=  </li></ul><ul><li>the total acid depos...
<ul><li>The acidity status of precipitation is a result of a balance between  </li></ul><ul><li>acidifying compounds (oxid...
Causes and chemistry <ul><li>a) Acid reactions with sulphur </li></ul><ul><li>S + O 2  ->  SO 2  </li></ul><ul><li>2SO 2  ...
PRECURSORS AND SOURCES <ul><li>The main precursors of acid rain are emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxid...
NATURAL: <ul><li>Terrestial, tidal, and nutrient-rich oceanic areas  </li></ul><ul><li>Volcanic eruptions </li></ul><ul><l...
TRANSPORT OF ACID RAIN PRECURSORS <ul><li>Acid rain in a certain area can be caused by pollutants from emissions that are ...
ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS: <ul><li>Water and marine life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extinction of fish in lakes </li></ul></ul><ul>...
POLICIES AND TAKING ACTION <ul><li>Strategies for mitigating acid rain </li></ul>
Liming bodies of acidified water <ul><li>This process of neutralizing acidity in endangered lakes and streams is through t...
Reducing SO 2  and NO x  emissions <ul><li>Changing from high to low sulfur coal </li></ul><ul><li>Moving to non-fossil fu...
Policy <ul><li>1979 - Geneva Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution took place with the idea to limit sulfur...
Results and Conclusions <ul><li>Acid rain remains an acute problem in many parts of the world and is threatened by the rap...
Thank you! www.steelumbrellas.com
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Acid Rain Powerpoint presentation

  1. 1. Acid Rain Charles Fletcher, Martyna S. Sowa, Svetlana Zusina, ACID RAIN AND ITS EFFECT ON THE ENVIRONMENT
  2. 3. <ul><li>What is acid rain and what is the scale of the problem? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we know if the rain is acid? </li></ul><ul><li>What causes acid rain (chemical reactions)? </li></ul><ul><li>Where do the acid rain precursors come from? </li></ul><ul><li>How does acid rain affect the environment? </li></ul><ul><li>What can we do to protect our planet form acid rain? </li></ul>
  3. 4. Acid rain, or acid deposition, is a mixture of sulphuric and nitric acids. <ul><li>Wet deposition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>snow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fog </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dry deposition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>gases and particles </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. The valid risk assessment <ul><li>The net acid deposition flux </li></ul><ul><li>= </li></ul><ul><li>the total acid deposition flux </li></ul><ul><li>– </li></ul><ul><li>deposition flux of base cations. </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>The acidity status of precipitation is a result of a balance between </li></ul><ul><li>acidifying compounds (oxides of sulfur and nitrogen) and alkaline compounds (ammonia and alkaline material in windblown soil dust). </li></ul><ul><li>The acidity of precipitation is measured by the concentration of hydrogen ion. </li></ul><ul><li>(pH value -below 5.6 is acidic). </li></ul>
  6. 7. Causes and chemistry <ul><li>a) Acid reactions with sulphur </li></ul><ul><li>S + O 2 -> SO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>2SO 2 + O 2 ->2SO 3 2- </li></ul><ul><li>SO 3 2- + H 2 O -> H 2 SO 4 </li></ul><ul><li>b) Acid reactions with nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>N 2 +O 2 ->2NO </li></ul><ul><li>2NO +O 2 ->2NO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>4NO 2 +O 2 + 2H 2 O ->4 HNO 3 </li></ul>
  7. 8. PRECURSORS AND SOURCES <ul><li>The main precursors of acid rain are emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel combustion in power plants (SO 2 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Exhaust pipes in automobiles (NO x ) </li></ul>MAN MADE
  8. 9. NATURAL: <ul><li>Terrestial, tidal, and nutrient-rich oceanic areas </li></ul><ul><li>Volcanic eruptions </li></ul><ul><li>Forest fires </li></ul><ul><li>Outgassings from anaerobic wetlands </li></ul><ul><li>Breakdown of amino acids in organic wastes </li></ul>
  9. 10. TRANSPORT OF ACID RAIN PRECURSORS <ul><li>Acid rain in a certain area can be caused by pollutants from emissions that are hundreds, even thousands of kilometers away especially through wet deposition. </li></ul>
  10. 11. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS: <ul><li>Water and marine life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extinction of fish in lakes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flora </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants, forests, crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>leaf necrosis, tissue damage, death of the whole tree </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Soil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improper growth of plants and trees </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Human Health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>respiratory problems </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. POLICIES AND TAKING ACTION <ul><li>Strategies for mitigating acid rain </li></ul>
  12. 13. Liming bodies of acidified water <ul><li>This process of neutralizing acidity in endangered lakes and streams is through the addition of lime (calcium carbonate and calcium hydroxide). Chemicals such as caustic soda, sodium carbonate, slacked lime and limestone help raise pH of acidified water. </li></ul><ul><li>Drawbacks: </li></ul><ul><li>Very expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment needs to be repeated every 3-6 years </li></ul><ul><li>Remote lakes are inaccessible </li></ul><ul><li>Large pieces of lime dissolve slowly </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t solve the problem for soil acidification </li></ul>
  13. 14. Reducing SO 2 and NO x emissions <ul><li>Changing from high to low sulfur coal </li></ul><ul><li>Moving to non-fossil fuels such as nuclear power </li></ul><ul><li>Using Solar, Wind or Hydro resources </li></ul><ul><li>COAL CLEANING </li></ul><ul><li>IMPROVING IN-PROCESS TECHNOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>REDUCTION OF COMBUSTION TEMPERATURE (NO X ) </li></ul>CHANGING THE FUEL USED:
  14. 15. Policy <ul><li>1979 - Geneva Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution took place with the idea to limit sulfur and nitrogen emissions was successfully achieved </li></ul><ul><li>1995-1997 Title IV of the Clean Air Act was established to reduce the adverse effects of acid deposition through reductions in annual emissions of sulfur dioxide of ten million tons from 1980 emission levels. </li></ul>Many policies and programs were established in the past couple of decades once governments started to become concerned with the harmful effects of air pollution.
  15. 16. Results and Conclusions <ul><li>Acid rain remains an acute problem in many parts of the world and is threatened by the rapid industrial development of the developing countries </li></ul><ul><li>The future strategies should concentrate on both the decrease of acidifying compounds and the increase of alkaline elements </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone should stayed informed and educated on the matter of acid rain and lead an energy efficient lifestyle </li></ul>
  16. 17. Thank you! www.steelumbrellas.com

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