History of Mesopotamia (currently IRAQ)• Over the centuries, many different people lived in this area creating a collection of independent states• Sumer- southern part (3500-2000 BCE)• Akkad- northern part (2340 – 2180 BCE)• Babylonia- these two regions were unified (1830-1500 BCE and 650-500 BCE)• Assyria- Assyrian Empire (1100 -612 BCE)
Religion • Position of King was enhanced and supported by religion • Kingship believed to be created by gods and the king’s power wasgods were worshipped at huge divinely ordainedtemples called ziggurats • Belief that gods lived on the distant mountaintopsPolytheistic religion consisting of over3600 gods and demigods • Each god had control of certain things and each city was ruled by aProminent Mesopotamian gods different godEnlil (supreme god & god of air) • Kings and priests acted asIshtar (goddess of fertility & life) interpreters as they told the peopleAn (god of heaven) what the god wanted them to doEnki (god of water & underworld) (ie. by examining the liver or lungsShamash (god of sun and giver of law) of a slain sheep)
Ziggurats • Large temples dedicated to the god of the city • Made of layer upon layer of mud bricks in the shape of a pyramid in many tiers (due to constant flooding and from belief that gods residedZiggurat of Ur -2000BCE on mountaintops) • Temple on top served as the god’s home and was beautifully decorated • Inside was a room for offerings of food and goods • Temples evolved to ziggurats- a stack of 1-7 platforms decreasing in size from bottom to top • Famous ziggurat was Tower of Babel (over 100m above ground and 91m base)
GREEK ART• Divided into four periods: – Geometric period – Archaic period – Classical Period – Hellenistic period
GEOMETRIC PERIOD• Spanned approximately two centuries, 900 to 700 BCE.• Dark age of Greece – collapse of civilization. Greece was gripped by chaos and poverty.• So called due to its predominant style of geometric shapes and patterns in works of art.
• Dipylon Vase – a large krater used as grave marker and found in the dipylon cemetery of Athens.
ARCHAIC PERIOD• Spanned roughly from 660 – 480 BCE.• The expansion of trade with eastern countries influenced their art form.• Flowing forms and fantastic animals – MESOPOTAMIAN ART• Growing emphasis on the HUMAN FIGURE.
GREEK ARCHITECTURE• Greek life was dominated by religion and so it is not surprising that the temples of ancient Greece were the biggest and most beautiful.• Political purpose – celebrate and glorify their success in war.• Developed Three architectural system or Orders: Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian.
DORIC ORDER• Originated on the Greekmainland, was the earliest,simplest and most commonly used.• The Doric style is rather sturdyand its top (the capital), is plain.
IONIC ORDER• The Ionic style is thinner and more elegant. Its capital isdecorated with a scroll-likedesign (a volute).
CORINTHIAN ORDER• The Corinthian style is seldomused in the Greek world, butoften seen on Roman temples.Its capital is very elaborate anddecorated with acanthus leaves.
PARTHENON• Parthenon - temple of Athena Parthenos ("Virgin"), Greek goddess of wisdom, on the Acropolis in Athens.• The Parthenon was built in 5th century BC,
GREEK SCULPTURE• Emerged as a principal art form.• Began in 600 BCE, the Archaic age was best known for the emergence of stone statues of humans, such as limestone called kouros sculptures• Kouroi figures – male sculptural figures depicted nude.• Kore figures – female counterpart of the kouros figure. Clothed and embellished with intricate carved detail.
GOLDEN AGE OF GREECE• the time Athens rose to prominence and Greek expansion• the Classical age could be seen as a turning point in art.• creating statues and mastered marble• celebrating mankind as an independent entity
GOLDEN AGE GREEK SCULPTURE• Diskobolos, 450 BCE
Contrapposto• Figure rests weight on one leg, which is planted firmly on the ground, while the torso is slanted or forms a diagonal, creating an S- like arrangement for the body
ROMAN ART• Roman art combined native talent, needs and styles with other artistic sources, particularly that of Greece.• Mt. Vesuvius is important in history for Burying the city called Pompeii during the eruption on 79 CE.• Imitators of Greek Art.• Master builder – builds from concrete
ROMAN SCULPTURE• Introduced Realism in sculpture – Rome’s unique contribution to the arts.• portrait sculpture of Roman emperors were often used for propaganda purposes
ROMAN ARCHITECTURE• The most significant contribution of the Romans to architecture were the Archs and the use of concrete to replace cut stone.• legendary for the durability of its construction• Aqueducts - based on the arch, were commonplace in the empire and essential transporters of water to large urban areas.
A series of repeating arches is called an Arcade
COLLOSSEUM• Colosseum – a structure consists of two back- to-back amphitheaters forming an oval arena, around which rows of marble bleachers.
TRIUMPHAL ARCHS• A triumphal arch is a structure in the shape of a monumental archway, in theory built to celebrate a victory in war, but often used to celebrate a ruler.
• Pantheon – temple dedicated “to all the planetary gods”• used concrete in the construction of the building
Artistic Achievements of the Renaissance•Renaissance art has the following characteristics:•It imitates the classical work of Greece/Rome andrejects the medieval forms of art.•It is very realistic.•It portrays secular themes and glorifies theachievements of the individual.
RENAISSANCE ARTISTS• Donatello di Betto Bardi (1386–1466). •was the most influential Florentine artist before Michelangelo. He revived the classical figure of the nude body with its balance and self-awareness
RENAISSANCE ARTISTS•Michelangelo Buonarotti (1475–1564)•Born in 1475 in a small town near Florence, is consideredto be one of the most inspired men who ever lived
David Michelangel o created his masterpiece David in 1504.
Sistine ChapelAbout a year after creatingDavid, Pope Julius II summonedMichelangelo to Rome to workon his most famous project, theceiling of the Sistine Chapel.
Creation of Eve Creation of AdamSeparation of Light and Darkness The Last Judgment
Art Characteristics Rejected the excess & ornamentation of the Baroque period Formal Used for Propaganda Greek and Roman themes Restraint in color, space and emotion Interested in: Discipline Order A moral view of the universe The idea of “art as enlightenment” Style features: Clean, linear style “Simple but elegant” Neutral colors Shallow depth of background (not much 3-D)
Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825)• Studied in Rome=knowledge of Classics• Influenced the “official” art of Europe and America• Clear sense of “right” and “wrong”• Political Propaganda supported Democracy/Republic• Addressed art to the middle-class/ (“bourgeoisie”)
Art: Jacques-Louis David• Oath of the Horatii, 1784, oil on canvas
David portrayed the French Revolution. • Death of Marat
David was used by Napoleon to spread propaganda. • Napoleon Crossing the Alps
• Students in 19C art academies were taught to draw using plaster casts from museums and draw from nude models
DEFINITION OF TERMS• Byzantine Characterized by a rich use of color and figures that are applied flat and stiff. The figures also tend to appear to be floating and have large eyes.• Academic Art a highly established, often realistic, tradition, showing expert command of artistry and other techniques in painting.
• Romanesque A type of architecture exterior shows a heavy, fortress-like structure is enlivened by round arches, colonettes, and other Roman motifs.- Chiarascuro a technique first seen during the gothic era in the frescoes in the (Arena Chapel) Scrovegni Chapel in Padua by Giotto
• Genre painting Are paintings of scenes of everyday life• Fresco a painting done on wet plaster• Classic highest standard/excellence in art, refers to classical greek and roman culture