SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 7
Download to read offline
Theworkingprincipleofthelithium-ion battery!
Lithium-ion batteries belong to the group of batteries that generate electrical energy by
converting chemical energy via redox reactions on the active materials, i.e. the negative (anode)
and a positive electrode (cathode), in one or more electrically connected electrochemical cells.
Lithium-ion batteries can be further divided into primary (non-rechargeable) and secondary
(rechargeable) batteries, depending on whether or not they are rechargeable by applying an
electric current.
In conventional lithium-ion batteries, Li -ions are shuttled between the positive electrode (usually a
layered transition metal oxide material) and a graphite-based negative electrode according to the
“rocking chair” principle (cf. video).
The term discharge is used for the process in which the battery supplies electrical energy to an
external load. The electrolyte in this system contains additional Li -ions to ensure rapid transport
of the ionic charge within the cell.
+
+
(https://e-lyte-innovations.de)
SERVICES PRODUCTS COMPANY
CONTACT (HTTPS://E-LYTE-INNOVATIONS.DE/CONTACT/)
 
Besidesionconduction, theelectrolyte fulfillsother importantpurposes:
 
Support of the formation of effective interphases (e.g., solid electrolyte interphase, SEI or cathode
electrolyte interphase, CEI) which:
enable the battery to function
are well Li -ion conducting (rate!)
are protective against further electrolyte decomposition
 
Contribute to cell safety – being inert to other materials, such as:
Separator
Current collectors
Conductive additives, Binders
Cell casing
 
When discharged, the Li -ions
are in the positive electrode
material. Thus, the positive
electrode is the source of the
Li -ions necessary for the
conversion of electrical energy
into chemical energy. To allow
Li -ions to migrate from the
positive electrode to the
negative electrode, the
electrolyte is also enriched with
Li -ions.
In the very beginning of the first
+
Step1-Initialstate(state
ofcharge(SOC)0%)
+
+
+
+
Step2-FormationofSEIandCEI
(https://e-lyte-innovations.de)
SERVICES PRODUCTS COMPANY
CONTACT (HTTPS://E-LYTE-INNOVATIONS.DE/CONTACT/)
charging process, electrons
migrate from the positive
electrode⊕ material (oxidation)
via an external conductor into
the negative electrode⊕ material
(reduction). To ensure charge
neutrality, Li -ions de-intercalate
from the positive electrode
material into the electrolyte and
migrate through the electrolyte
to the negative electrode
material for subsequent storage.
As a result of these reactions,
boundary phases, the so-called
SEI and CEI⊕, are formed at the
interfaces between electrolyte /
negative electrode surface and
electrolyte / positive electrode
surface,  respectively. These
interphases are built up from
insoluble electrochemically
induced decomposition products
of electrolyte components and
Li -ions originating from the
positive electrode and enable a
reversible cycling of the battery.
After the formation of the SEI
and CEI, further Li -ions de-
intercalate from the positive
electrode material into the
electrolyte and migrate through
it to the negative electrode
material to be subsequently
incorporated into the latter.
After the formation of the SEI
and CEI⊕, further Li ions de-
intercalate from the positive
electrode material into the
electrolyte and migrate through
it to the negative electrode
material to be subsequently
incorporated into the latter.
+
+
+
Step3-Electrode
reactions
+
(https://e-lyte-innovations.de)
SERVICES PRODUCTS COMPANY
CONTACT (HTTPS://E-LYTE-INNOVATIONS.DE/CONTACT/)
Positive electrode:      
LiMO → Li MO + x·e +
x·Li    
Negative electrode:    
C + x·e + x·Li → Li C
Overall cell reaction:
C + LiMO → Li C + Li
MO
Depending on the number of Li -
ions embedded in the negative
electrode (depending on the
state of charge, SOC), it
changes colour from black over
red (early SOC) to gold (100%
SOC).
During discharge, the reverse
reactions are taking place. The
electrode⊕ reactions are:
 
Positive electrode = “cathode”
(reduction)
Li MO + x·e + x·Li → LiMO
 
Negative electrode = “anode”
(oxidation)       
2 (1-x) 2
–
+
6
– +
x 6       
6 2  x 6 (1-x)
2
Step4-Colourchangeduring intercalation/de-
intercalationintographite
+
Step5-Discharge
(1-x) 2
– +
2
(https://e-lyte-innovations.de)
SERVICES PRODUCTS COMPANY
CONTACT (HTTPS://E-LYTE-INNOVATIONS.DE/CONTACT/)
Li C → C + x·e + x·Li
After discharge (SOC 0%), the
Li -ions are re-stored in the
positive electrode material from
which they originally came. The
back and forth movement of Li -
ions reminds of the movement of
a rocking chair, which is why this
principle was called the “rocking
chair principle”.
Especially the first cycle (charge
and discharge) is associated
with an irreversible loss of Li -
ions in the SEI and CEI but also
in the negative electrode
material. As a result, fewer Li -
ions are now able to be stored in
the negative electrode in the
following charge cycle, which
leads to a reduced capacity of
the battery.
Different aging processes take
place in a lithium-ion battery,
which reduces the performance
of the battery over the period of
use and depends strongly on the
cell chemistry and the intended
use of the battery. Especially the
right choice of the electrolyte
has an enormous influence on
these aging mechanisms and
underlines once more the
importance of tailor-made
electrolytes.
In order to optimize lithium-ion batteries with respect to the specific energy and energy density,
lifetime and safety, many efforts have been made to further expand the application possibilities of
LIBs. Especially the increasing demands for both high specific energy and energy density lithium-
ion batteries particularly for automotive applications, raise the research efforts all over the world.
The energy density and specific energy of batteries by definition is the amount of energy stored in
x 6  6
– +
Step6-Rockingchair principle
+
+
+
+
(https://e-lyte-innovations.de)
SERVICES PRODUCTS COMPANY
CONTACT (HTTPS://E-LYTE-INNOVATIONS.DE/CONTACT/)
a given system per unit volume and per unit mass, respectively. The product of the specific
capacity and the mean discharge voltage gives the specific energy and this relation finds
expression in equation 1:
E = C · U           (1)
According to equation 1, it appears reasonable that most of the current research focuses on new
positive electrode materials with higher operation voltages (high-voltage approach) and/or
increased specific capacity (high-capacity approach). The high-voltage cathode materials are
highly restricted by the narrow electrochemical stability window state-of-the-art carbonate-based
electrolytes (≈1.0 – 4.4 V vs. Li/Li ) and reinforce the design of intrinsically stable electrolytes or
suitable electrolyte additives to enable high-voltage lithium-ion batteries.
+
We are looking forward to your message
(https://e-lyte-
innovations.de/services/electrolyte-
manufacturing/)
Electrolyte Manufacturing
(https://e-lyte-
innovations.de/services/electrolyte-
development/)
Electrolyte Development
(https://e-lyte-innovations.de)
SERVICES PRODUCTS COMPANY
CONTACT (HTTPS://E-LYTE-INNOVATIONS.DE/CONTACT/)
© 2021 - E-LYTE
INNOVATIONS
(https://e-lyte-innovations.de/services/service-and-
measurements/)
Measurements and Consulting
Privacy Policy (https://e-lyte-innovations.de/privacy-policy/)
Imprint (https://e-lyte-innovations.de/imprint/)
(https://e-lyte-innovations.de)
SERVICES PRODUCTS COMPANY
CONTACT (HTTPS://E-LYTE-INNOVATIONS.DE/CONTACT/)

More Related Content

What's hot

Liquid Electrolyte for Lithium Batteries
Liquid Electrolyte for Lithium BatteriesLiquid Electrolyte for Lithium Batteries
Liquid Electrolyte for Lithium BatteriesSaiful Islam
 
Rechargeable Batteries Presentation Report
Rechargeable Batteries Presentation ReportRechargeable Batteries Presentation Report
Rechargeable Batteries Presentation ReportDevansh Gupta
 
Rechargeable Li-ion batteries based on Olivine-structured (LiFePO4) catho...
Rechargeable Li-ion batteries based on Olivine-structured     (LiFePO4) catho...Rechargeable Li-ion batteries based on Olivine-structured     (LiFePO4) catho...
Rechargeable Li-ion batteries based on Olivine-structured (LiFePO4) catho...Arun Kumar
 
electrolyte for next generation batteries
electrolyte for next generation batterieselectrolyte for next generation batteries
electrolyte for next generation batteriesnikita garg
 
Brief Introduction of Lithium-ion Battery_ChristinaDu
Brief Introduction of Lithium-ion Battery_ChristinaDuBrief Introduction of Lithium-ion Battery_ChristinaDu
Brief Introduction of Lithium-ion Battery_ChristinaDuJUAN DU
 
Lithium Ion Batteries, an Overview
Lithium Ion Batteries, an OverviewLithium Ion Batteries, an Overview
Lithium Ion Batteries, an OverviewPrakhar Gupta
 
Batteries and types
Batteries and typesBatteries and types
Batteries and typesKalyani Basu
 
Rechargeable Batteries
Rechargeable BatteriesRechargeable Batteries
Rechargeable Batteriesstooty s
 
Wet & dry batteries
Wet & dry batteriesWet & dry batteries
Wet & dry batteriesmunibz04
 
MODULE - I : BATTERY TECHNOLOGY
MODULE - I : BATTERY TECHNOLOGYMODULE - I : BATTERY TECHNOLOGY
MODULE - I : BATTERY TECHNOLOGYrashmi m rashmi
 
Rechargeable Sodium-ion Battery - The Future of Battery Development
Rechargeable Sodium-ion Battery - The Future of Battery DevelopmentRechargeable Sodium-ion Battery - The Future of Battery Development
Rechargeable Sodium-ion Battery - The Future of Battery DevelopmentDESH D YADAV
 
The Lithium Battery Explorer Part 1 - Introduction to Lithium-ion Batteries
The Lithium Battery Explorer Part 1 - Introduction to Lithium-ion BatteriesThe Lithium Battery Explorer Part 1 - Introduction to Lithium-ion Batteries
The Lithium Battery Explorer Part 1 - Introduction to Lithium-ion BatteriesUniversity of California, San Diego
 
Manufacturing of Li-ion battery
Manufacturing of Li-ion batteryManufacturing of Li-ion battery
Manufacturing of Li-ion batteryBalaBharathi15
 
Polymer/Ionic Liquid Electrolytes and Their Potential in Lithium Batteries
Polymer/Ionic Liquid Electrolytes and Their Potential in Lithium BatteriesPolymer/Ionic Liquid Electrolytes and Their Potential in Lithium Batteries
Polymer/Ionic Liquid Electrolytes and Their Potential in Lithium BatteriesFuentek, LLC
 
Lecture on Lead Acid Battery
Lecture on Lead Acid BatteryLecture on Lead Acid Battery
Lecture on Lead Acid BatteryAniket Singh
 

What's hot (20)

Liquid Electrolyte for Lithium Batteries
Liquid Electrolyte for Lithium BatteriesLiquid Electrolyte for Lithium Batteries
Liquid Electrolyte for Lithium Batteries
 
Rechargeable Batteries Presentation Report
Rechargeable Batteries Presentation ReportRechargeable Batteries Presentation Report
Rechargeable Batteries Presentation Report
 
Battery materials
Battery materialsBattery materials
Battery materials
 
Rechargeable Li-ion batteries based on Olivine-structured (LiFePO4) catho...
Rechargeable Li-ion batteries based on Olivine-structured     (LiFePO4) catho...Rechargeable Li-ion batteries based on Olivine-structured     (LiFePO4) catho...
Rechargeable Li-ion batteries based on Olivine-structured (LiFePO4) catho...
 
electrolyte for next generation batteries
electrolyte for next generation batterieselectrolyte for next generation batteries
electrolyte for next generation batteries
 
Brief Introduction of Lithium-ion Battery_ChristinaDu
Brief Introduction of Lithium-ion Battery_ChristinaDuBrief Introduction of Lithium-ion Battery_ChristinaDu
Brief Introduction of Lithium-ion Battery_ChristinaDu
 
Lead Acid Battery I
Lead Acid Battery ILead Acid Battery I
Lead Acid Battery I
 
Lithium Ion Batteries, an Overview
Lithium Ion Batteries, an OverviewLithium Ion Batteries, an Overview
Lithium Ion Batteries, an Overview
 
Batteries and types
Batteries and typesBatteries and types
Batteries and types
 
Rechargeable Batteries
Rechargeable BatteriesRechargeable Batteries
Rechargeable Batteries
 
Automotive battery
Automotive batteryAutomotive battery
Automotive battery
 
Wet & dry batteries
Wet & dry batteriesWet & dry batteries
Wet & dry batteries
 
Battery basics v1.1
Battery basics v1.1Battery basics v1.1
Battery basics v1.1
 
MODULE - I : BATTERY TECHNOLOGY
MODULE - I : BATTERY TECHNOLOGYMODULE - I : BATTERY TECHNOLOGY
MODULE - I : BATTERY TECHNOLOGY
 
Rechargeable Sodium-ion Battery - The Future of Battery Development
Rechargeable Sodium-ion Battery - The Future of Battery DevelopmentRechargeable Sodium-ion Battery - The Future of Battery Development
Rechargeable Sodium-ion Battery - The Future of Battery Development
 
The Lithium Battery Explorer Part 1 - Introduction to Lithium-ion Batteries
The Lithium Battery Explorer Part 1 - Introduction to Lithium-ion BatteriesThe Lithium Battery Explorer Part 1 - Introduction to Lithium-ion Batteries
The Lithium Battery Explorer Part 1 - Introduction to Lithium-ion Batteries
 
Manufacturing of Li-ion battery
Manufacturing of Li-ion batteryManufacturing of Li-ion battery
Manufacturing of Li-ion battery
 
Polymer/Ionic Liquid Electrolytes and Their Potential in Lithium Batteries
Polymer/Ionic Liquid Electrolytes and Their Potential in Lithium BatteriesPolymer/Ionic Liquid Electrolytes and Their Potential in Lithium Batteries
Polymer/Ionic Liquid Electrolytes and Their Potential in Lithium Batteries
 
Lecture on Lead Acid Battery
Lecture on Lead Acid BatteryLecture on Lead Acid Battery
Lecture on Lead Acid Battery
 
Battery ppt
Battery pptBattery ppt
Battery ppt
 

Similar to 1628754355877 assignment-working principle lithium-ion battery - e-lyte innovations

Li ion battery.pptx
Li ion battery.pptxLi ion battery.pptx
Li ion battery.pptxkowshalya21
 
Module 1 ppts Energy system.pdf engineering
Module 1 ppts Energy system.pdf engineeringModule 1 ppts Energy system.pdf engineering
Module 1 ppts Energy system.pdf engineeringakholmes2104
 
Battery presentation final
Battery presentation finalBattery presentation final
Battery presentation finalDoodleJumper
 
Lecture 6 BATTERIES 2023.pptx
Lecture 6 BATTERIES 2023.pptxLecture 6 BATTERIES 2023.pptx
Lecture 6 BATTERIES 2023.pptxAdityaVashist12
 
Battery Technology.pptx
Battery Technology.pptxBattery Technology.pptx
Battery Technology.pptxAprameya2
 
CHEMISTRY ART INTEGRATED PROJECT.DIKSHITA JAIN.pdf
CHEMISTRY ART INTEGRATED PROJECT.DIKSHITA JAIN.pdfCHEMISTRY ART INTEGRATED PROJECT.DIKSHITA JAIN.pdf
CHEMISTRY ART INTEGRATED PROJECT.DIKSHITA JAIN.pdfTauraKirstenmarie
 
Electrode material for battery in automobile
Electrode material for battery in automobileElectrode material for battery in automobile
Electrode material for battery in automobileayushkamalecell
 
BATTERY CHEMISTRY [Autosaved].pptx
BATTERY CHEMISTRY [Autosaved].pptxBATTERY CHEMISTRY [Autosaved].pptx
BATTERY CHEMISTRY [Autosaved].pptxANILGARECHEMIST
 
Lecture 5-6: Hydrogen, Storage & Batteries
Lecture 5-6: Hydrogen, Storage & BatteriesLecture 5-6: Hydrogen, Storage & Batteries
Lecture 5-6: Hydrogen, Storage & Batteriescdtpv
 
Comparison of one and two time constant models for lithium ion battery
Comparison of one and two time constant models for lithium ion battery Comparison of one and two time constant models for lithium ion battery
Comparison of one and two time constant models for lithium ion battery IJECEIAES
 
Lead Acid Battery Lecture.pdf
Lead Acid Battery Lecture.pdfLead Acid Battery Lecture.pdf
Lead Acid Battery Lecture.pdfImran Shahnawaz
 
Battery technology
Battery technologyBattery technology
Battery technologySwastika Das
 
Fuel cell and solar cell
Fuel cell and solar cellFuel cell and solar cell
Fuel cell and solar cellShrinivas Kale
 

Similar to 1628754355877 assignment-working principle lithium-ion battery - e-lyte innovations (20)

Li ion battery.pptx
Li ion battery.pptxLi ion battery.pptx
Li ion battery.pptx
 
The electrochemistry
The electrochemistryThe electrochemistry
The electrochemistry
 
Module 1 ppts Energy system.pdf engineering
Module 1 ppts Energy system.pdf engineeringModule 1 ppts Energy system.pdf engineering
Module 1 ppts Energy system.pdf engineering
 
Battery presentation final
Battery presentation finalBattery presentation final
Battery presentation final
 
eQUMEC Catalog
eQUMEC CatalogeQUMEC Catalog
eQUMEC Catalog
 
Lecture 6 BATTERIES 2023.pptx
Lecture 6 BATTERIES 2023.pptxLecture 6 BATTERIES 2023.pptx
Lecture 6 BATTERIES 2023.pptx
 
Battery Technology.pptx
Battery Technology.pptxBattery Technology.pptx
Battery Technology.pptx
 
Energy storage devices
Energy storage devicesEnergy storage devices
Energy storage devices
 
CHEMISTRY ART INTEGRATED PROJECT.DIKSHITA JAIN.pdf
CHEMISTRY ART INTEGRATED PROJECT.DIKSHITA JAIN.pdfCHEMISTRY ART INTEGRATED PROJECT.DIKSHITA JAIN.pdf
CHEMISTRY ART INTEGRATED PROJECT.DIKSHITA JAIN.pdf
 
Electrode material for battery in automobile
Electrode material for battery in automobileElectrode material for battery in automobile
Electrode material for battery in automobile
 
BATTERY CHEMISTRY [Autosaved].pptx
BATTERY CHEMISTRY [Autosaved].pptxBATTERY CHEMISTRY [Autosaved].pptx
BATTERY CHEMISTRY [Autosaved].pptx
 
detailed study on Nanobatterys
detailed study on Nanobatterys detailed study on Nanobatterys
detailed study on Nanobatterys
 
Unit-1.pptx
Unit-1.pptxUnit-1.pptx
Unit-1.pptx
 
Lecture 5-6: Hydrogen, Storage & Batteries
Lecture 5-6: Hydrogen, Storage & BatteriesLecture 5-6: Hydrogen, Storage & Batteries
Lecture 5-6: Hydrogen, Storage & Batteries
 
Comparison of one and two time constant models for lithium ion battery
Comparison of one and two time constant models for lithium ion battery Comparison of one and two time constant models for lithium ion battery
Comparison of one and two time constant models for lithium ion battery
 
Lead Acid Battery Lecture.pdf
Lead Acid Battery Lecture.pdfLead Acid Battery Lecture.pdf
Lead Acid Battery Lecture.pdf
 
Power engg.
Power engg.Power engg.
Power engg.
 
Power engg.
Power engg.Power engg.
Power engg.
 
Battery technology
Battery technologyBattery technology
Battery technology
 
Fuel cell and solar cell
Fuel cell and solar cellFuel cell and solar cell
Fuel cell and solar cell
 

Recently uploaded

React Native vs Ionic - The Best Mobile App Framework
React Native vs Ionic - The Best Mobile App FrameworkReact Native vs Ionic - The Best Mobile App Framework
React Native vs Ionic - The Best Mobile App FrameworkPixlogix Infotech
 
How to Effectively Monitor SD-WAN and SASE Environments with ThousandEyes
How to Effectively Monitor SD-WAN and SASE Environments with ThousandEyesHow to Effectively Monitor SD-WAN and SASE Environments with ThousandEyes
How to Effectively Monitor SD-WAN and SASE Environments with ThousandEyesThousandEyes
 
A Journey Into the Emotions of Software Developers
A Journey Into the Emotions of Software DevelopersA Journey Into the Emotions of Software Developers
A Journey Into the Emotions of Software DevelopersNicole Novielli
 
New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024
New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024
New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024BookNet Canada
 
2024 April Patch Tuesday
2024 April Patch Tuesday2024 April Patch Tuesday
2024 April Patch TuesdayIvanti
 
Merck Moving Beyond Passwords: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Merck Moving Beyond Passwords: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxMerck Moving Beyond Passwords: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Merck Moving Beyond Passwords: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxLoriGlavin3
 
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part one: Ado...
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part one: Ado...Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part one: Ado...
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part one: Ado...Nikki Chapple
 
Time Series Foundation Models - current state and future directions
Time Series Foundation Models - current state and future directionsTime Series Foundation Models - current state and future directions
Time Series Foundation Models - current state and future directionsNathaniel Shimoni
 
Use of FIDO in the Payments and Identity Landscape: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Use of FIDO in the Payments and Identity Landscape: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxUse of FIDO in the Payments and Identity Landscape: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Use of FIDO in the Payments and Identity Landscape: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxLoriGlavin3
 
Top 10 Hubspot Development Companies in 2024
Top 10 Hubspot Development Companies in 2024Top 10 Hubspot Development Companies in 2024
Top 10 Hubspot Development Companies in 2024TopCSSGallery
 
The Future Roadmap for the Composable Data Stack - Wes McKinney - Data Counci...
The Future Roadmap for the Composable Data Stack - Wes McKinney - Data Counci...The Future Roadmap for the Composable Data Stack - Wes McKinney - Data Counci...
The Future Roadmap for the Composable Data Stack - Wes McKinney - Data Counci...Wes McKinney
 
So einfach geht modernes Roaming fuer Notes und Nomad.pdf
So einfach geht modernes Roaming fuer Notes und Nomad.pdfSo einfach geht modernes Roaming fuer Notes und Nomad.pdf
So einfach geht modernes Roaming fuer Notes und Nomad.pdfpanagenda
 
UiPath Community: Communication Mining from Zero to Hero
UiPath Community: Communication Mining from Zero to HeroUiPath Community: Communication Mining from Zero to Hero
UiPath Community: Communication Mining from Zero to HeroUiPathCommunity
 
Generative AI - Gitex v1Generative AI - Gitex v1.pptx
Generative AI - Gitex v1Generative AI - Gitex v1.pptxGenerative AI - Gitex v1Generative AI - Gitex v1.pptx
Generative AI - Gitex v1Generative AI - Gitex v1.pptxfnnc6jmgwh
 
[Webinar] SpiraTest - Setting New Standards in Quality Assurance
[Webinar] SpiraTest - Setting New Standards in Quality Assurance[Webinar] SpiraTest - Setting New Standards in Quality Assurance
[Webinar] SpiraTest - Setting New Standards in Quality AssuranceInflectra
 
Potential of AI (Generative AI) in Business: Learnings and Insights
Potential of AI (Generative AI) in Business: Learnings and InsightsPotential of AI (Generative AI) in Business: Learnings and Insights
Potential of AI (Generative AI) in Business: Learnings and InsightsRavi Sanghani
 
Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)
Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)
Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)Kaya Weers
 
Scale your database traffic with Read & Write split using MySQL Router
Scale your database traffic with Read & Write split using MySQL RouterScale your database traffic with Read & Write split using MySQL Router
Scale your database traffic with Read & Write split using MySQL RouterMydbops
 
The Role of FIDO in a Cyber Secure Netherlands: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
The Role of FIDO in a Cyber Secure Netherlands: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxThe Role of FIDO in a Cyber Secure Netherlands: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
The Role of FIDO in a Cyber Secure Netherlands: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxLoriGlavin3
 
TrustArc Webinar - How to Build Consumer Trust Through Data Privacy
TrustArc Webinar - How to Build Consumer Trust Through Data PrivacyTrustArc Webinar - How to Build Consumer Trust Through Data Privacy
TrustArc Webinar - How to Build Consumer Trust Through Data PrivacyTrustArc
 

Recently uploaded (20)

React Native vs Ionic - The Best Mobile App Framework
React Native vs Ionic - The Best Mobile App FrameworkReact Native vs Ionic - The Best Mobile App Framework
React Native vs Ionic - The Best Mobile App Framework
 
How to Effectively Monitor SD-WAN and SASE Environments with ThousandEyes
How to Effectively Monitor SD-WAN and SASE Environments with ThousandEyesHow to Effectively Monitor SD-WAN and SASE Environments with ThousandEyes
How to Effectively Monitor SD-WAN and SASE Environments with ThousandEyes
 
A Journey Into the Emotions of Software Developers
A Journey Into the Emotions of Software DevelopersA Journey Into the Emotions of Software Developers
A Journey Into the Emotions of Software Developers
 
New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024
New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024
New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024
 
2024 April Patch Tuesday
2024 April Patch Tuesday2024 April Patch Tuesday
2024 April Patch Tuesday
 
Merck Moving Beyond Passwords: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Merck Moving Beyond Passwords: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxMerck Moving Beyond Passwords: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Merck Moving Beyond Passwords: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
 
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part one: Ado...
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part one: Ado...Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part one: Ado...
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part one: Ado...
 
Time Series Foundation Models - current state and future directions
Time Series Foundation Models - current state and future directionsTime Series Foundation Models - current state and future directions
Time Series Foundation Models - current state and future directions
 
Use of FIDO in the Payments and Identity Landscape: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Use of FIDO in the Payments and Identity Landscape: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxUse of FIDO in the Payments and Identity Landscape: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Use of FIDO in the Payments and Identity Landscape: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
 
Top 10 Hubspot Development Companies in 2024
Top 10 Hubspot Development Companies in 2024Top 10 Hubspot Development Companies in 2024
Top 10 Hubspot Development Companies in 2024
 
The Future Roadmap for the Composable Data Stack - Wes McKinney - Data Counci...
The Future Roadmap for the Composable Data Stack - Wes McKinney - Data Counci...The Future Roadmap for the Composable Data Stack - Wes McKinney - Data Counci...
The Future Roadmap for the Composable Data Stack - Wes McKinney - Data Counci...
 
So einfach geht modernes Roaming fuer Notes und Nomad.pdf
So einfach geht modernes Roaming fuer Notes und Nomad.pdfSo einfach geht modernes Roaming fuer Notes und Nomad.pdf
So einfach geht modernes Roaming fuer Notes und Nomad.pdf
 
UiPath Community: Communication Mining from Zero to Hero
UiPath Community: Communication Mining from Zero to HeroUiPath Community: Communication Mining from Zero to Hero
UiPath Community: Communication Mining from Zero to Hero
 
Generative AI - Gitex v1Generative AI - Gitex v1.pptx
Generative AI - Gitex v1Generative AI - Gitex v1.pptxGenerative AI - Gitex v1Generative AI - Gitex v1.pptx
Generative AI - Gitex v1Generative AI - Gitex v1.pptx
 
[Webinar] SpiraTest - Setting New Standards in Quality Assurance
[Webinar] SpiraTest - Setting New Standards in Quality Assurance[Webinar] SpiraTest - Setting New Standards in Quality Assurance
[Webinar] SpiraTest - Setting New Standards in Quality Assurance
 
Potential of AI (Generative AI) in Business: Learnings and Insights
Potential of AI (Generative AI) in Business: Learnings and InsightsPotential of AI (Generative AI) in Business: Learnings and Insights
Potential of AI (Generative AI) in Business: Learnings and Insights
 
Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)
Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)
Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)
 
Scale your database traffic with Read & Write split using MySQL Router
Scale your database traffic with Read & Write split using MySQL RouterScale your database traffic with Read & Write split using MySQL Router
Scale your database traffic with Read & Write split using MySQL Router
 
The Role of FIDO in a Cyber Secure Netherlands: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
The Role of FIDO in a Cyber Secure Netherlands: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxThe Role of FIDO in a Cyber Secure Netherlands: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
The Role of FIDO in a Cyber Secure Netherlands: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
 
TrustArc Webinar - How to Build Consumer Trust Through Data Privacy
TrustArc Webinar - How to Build Consumer Trust Through Data PrivacyTrustArc Webinar - How to Build Consumer Trust Through Data Privacy
TrustArc Webinar - How to Build Consumer Trust Through Data Privacy
 

1628754355877 assignment-working principle lithium-ion battery - e-lyte innovations

  • 1. Theworkingprincipleofthelithium-ion battery! Lithium-ion batteries belong to the group of batteries that generate electrical energy by converting chemical energy via redox reactions on the active materials, i.e. the negative (anode) and a positive electrode (cathode), in one or more electrically connected electrochemical cells. Lithium-ion batteries can be further divided into primary (non-rechargeable) and secondary (rechargeable) batteries, depending on whether or not they are rechargeable by applying an electric current. In conventional lithium-ion batteries, Li -ions are shuttled between the positive electrode (usually a layered transition metal oxide material) and a graphite-based negative electrode according to the “rocking chair” principle (cf. video). The term discharge is used for the process in which the battery supplies electrical energy to an external load. The electrolyte in this system contains additional Li -ions to ensure rapid transport of the ionic charge within the cell. + + (https://e-lyte-innovations.de) SERVICES PRODUCTS COMPANY CONTACT (HTTPS://E-LYTE-INNOVATIONS.DE/CONTACT/)
  • 2.   Besidesionconduction, theelectrolyte fulfillsother importantpurposes:   Support of the formation of effective interphases (e.g., solid electrolyte interphase, SEI or cathode electrolyte interphase, CEI) which: enable the battery to function are well Li -ion conducting (rate!) are protective against further electrolyte decomposition   Contribute to cell safety – being inert to other materials, such as: Separator Current collectors Conductive additives, Binders Cell casing   When discharged, the Li -ions are in the positive electrode material. Thus, the positive electrode is the source of the Li -ions necessary for the conversion of electrical energy into chemical energy. To allow Li -ions to migrate from the positive electrode to the negative electrode, the electrolyte is also enriched with Li -ions. In the very beginning of the first + Step1-Initialstate(state ofcharge(SOC)0%) + + + + Step2-FormationofSEIandCEI (https://e-lyte-innovations.de) SERVICES PRODUCTS COMPANY CONTACT (HTTPS://E-LYTE-INNOVATIONS.DE/CONTACT/)
  • 3. charging process, electrons migrate from the positive electrode⊕ material (oxidation) via an external conductor into the negative electrode⊕ material (reduction). To ensure charge neutrality, Li -ions de-intercalate from the positive electrode material into the electrolyte and migrate through the electrolyte to the negative electrode material for subsequent storage. As a result of these reactions, boundary phases, the so-called SEI and CEI⊕, are formed at the interfaces between electrolyte / negative electrode surface and electrolyte / positive electrode surface,  respectively. These interphases are built up from insoluble electrochemically induced decomposition products of electrolyte components and Li -ions originating from the positive electrode and enable a reversible cycling of the battery. After the formation of the SEI and CEI, further Li -ions de- intercalate from the positive electrode material into the electrolyte and migrate through it to the negative electrode material to be subsequently incorporated into the latter. After the formation of the SEI and CEI⊕, further Li ions de- intercalate from the positive electrode material into the electrolyte and migrate through it to the negative electrode material to be subsequently incorporated into the latter. + + + Step3-Electrode reactions + (https://e-lyte-innovations.de) SERVICES PRODUCTS COMPANY CONTACT (HTTPS://E-LYTE-INNOVATIONS.DE/CONTACT/)
  • 4. Positive electrode:       LiMO → Li MO + x·e + x·Li     Negative electrode:     C + x·e + x·Li → Li C Overall cell reaction: C + LiMO → Li C + Li MO Depending on the number of Li - ions embedded in the negative electrode (depending on the state of charge, SOC), it changes colour from black over red (early SOC) to gold (100% SOC). During discharge, the reverse reactions are taking place. The electrode⊕ reactions are:   Positive electrode = “cathode” (reduction) Li MO + x·e + x·Li → LiMO   Negative electrode = “anode” (oxidation)        2 (1-x) 2 – + 6 – + x 6        6 2  x 6 (1-x) 2 Step4-Colourchangeduring intercalation/de- intercalationintographite + Step5-Discharge (1-x) 2 – + 2 (https://e-lyte-innovations.de) SERVICES PRODUCTS COMPANY CONTACT (HTTPS://E-LYTE-INNOVATIONS.DE/CONTACT/)
  • 5. Li C → C + x·e + x·Li After discharge (SOC 0%), the Li -ions are re-stored in the positive electrode material from which they originally came. The back and forth movement of Li - ions reminds of the movement of a rocking chair, which is why this principle was called the “rocking chair principle”. Especially the first cycle (charge and discharge) is associated with an irreversible loss of Li - ions in the SEI and CEI but also in the negative electrode material. As a result, fewer Li - ions are now able to be stored in the negative electrode in the following charge cycle, which leads to a reduced capacity of the battery. Different aging processes take place in a lithium-ion battery, which reduces the performance of the battery over the period of use and depends strongly on the cell chemistry and the intended use of the battery. Especially the right choice of the electrolyte has an enormous influence on these aging mechanisms and underlines once more the importance of tailor-made electrolytes. In order to optimize lithium-ion batteries with respect to the specific energy and energy density, lifetime and safety, many efforts have been made to further expand the application possibilities of LIBs. Especially the increasing demands for both high specific energy and energy density lithium- ion batteries particularly for automotive applications, raise the research efforts all over the world. The energy density and specific energy of batteries by definition is the amount of energy stored in x 6  6 – + Step6-Rockingchair principle + + + + (https://e-lyte-innovations.de) SERVICES PRODUCTS COMPANY CONTACT (HTTPS://E-LYTE-INNOVATIONS.DE/CONTACT/)
  • 6. a given system per unit volume and per unit mass, respectively. The product of the specific capacity and the mean discharge voltage gives the specific energy and this relation finds expression in equation 1: E = C · U           (1) According to equation 1, it appears reasonable that most of the current research focuses on new positive electrode materials with higher operation voltages (high-voltage approach) and/or increased specific capacity (high-capacity approach). The high-voltage cathode materials are highly restricted by the narrow electrochemical stability window state-of-the-art carbonate-based electrolytes (≈1.0 – 4.4 V vs. Li/Li ) and reinforce the design of intrinsically stable electrolytes or suitable electrolyte additives to enable high-voltage lithium-ion batteries. + We are looking forward to your message (https://e-lyte- innovations.de/services/electrolyte- manufacturing/) Electrolyte Manufacturing (https://e-lyte- innovations.de/services/electrolyte- development/) Electrolyte Development (https://e-lyte-innovations.de) SERVICES PRODUCTS COMPANY CONTACT (HTTPS://E-LYTE-INNOVATIONS.DE/CONTACT/)
  • 7. © 2021 - E-LYTE INNOVATIONS (https://e-lyte-innovations.de/services/service-and- measurements/) Measurements and Consulting Privacy Policy (https://e-lyte-innovations.de/privacy-policy/) Imprint (https://e-lyte-innovations.de/imprint/) (https://e-lyte-innovations.de) SERVICES PRODUCTS COMPANY CONTACT (HTTPS://E-LYTE-INNOVATIONS.DE/CONTACT/)