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12/08/2021 Comparison of commercial battery types - Wikipedia
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Comparison of commercial battery types
This is a list of commercially-available battery types summarizing some of their characteristics for ready comparision.
Common characteristics
Rechargeable characteristics
Thermal runaway
NiCd vs. NiMH vs. Li-ion vs. Li-polymer vs. LTO
See also
References
Contents
Common characteristics
12/08/2021 Comparison of commercial battery types - Wikipedia
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Cell
chemistry
Also known as
Electrode
Re‐­
charge‐­
able
Com‐­
mercial‐­
ized
Voltage Energy density
Specific
power
Cost† Discharge
efficiency
Self-
discharge
rate
Shelf
life
Anode Cathode
Cutoff Nominal
100%
SOC
by mass by volume
year V V V
MJ/kg 

(Wh/kg)
MJ/L 

(Wh/L)
W/kg
Wh/$ 

($/kWh)
% %/month years
Lead-acid
SLA

VRLA
Lead Lead dioxide Yes 1881[1] 1.75[2] 2.1[2] 2.23–
2.32[2]
0.11–0.14

(30–40)[2]
0.22–0.27

(60–75)[2] 180[2] 6.4–16.47

(61–156)[2] 50–92[2] 3–20[2]
Zinc-carbon Carbon-zinc
Zinc
Manganese
(IV) oxide
No 1898[3] 0.75–
0.9[3] 1.5[3] 0.13

(36)[3]
0.33

(92)[3] 10–27[3] 2.93

(342)[3] 50–60[3] 0.32[3] 3–5[4]
Zinc-air PR Oxygen No 1932[5] 0.9[5] 1.45–
1.65[5]
1.59

(442)[5]
6.02

(1,673)[5] 100[5] 2.56

(390)[5] 60–70[5] 0.17[5] 3[5]
Mercury
oxide-zinc
Mercuric oxide

Mercury cell
Mercuric
oxide
No
1942–[6]
1996[7] 0.9[8] 1.35[8] 0.36–0.44

(99–123)[8]
1.1–1.8

(300–500)[8] 2[6]
Alkaline Zn/MnO

2

LR Manganese
(IV) oxide
No 1949[9] 0.9[10] 1.5[11] 1.6[10] 0.31–0.68

(85–190)[12]
0.90–1.56

(250–434)[12] 50[12] 0.46

(2186)[12] 45–85[12] 0.17[12] 5–10[4]
Rechargeable
alkaline
RAM Yes 1992[13] 0.9[14] 1.57[14] 1.6[14] <1[13]
Silver-oxide SR Silver oxide No 1960[15] 1.2[16] 1.55[16] 1.6[17] 0.47

(130)[17]
1.8

(500)[17]
Nickel-zinc NiZn
Nickel oxide
hydroxide
Yes 2009[13] 0.9[13] 1.65[13] 1.85[13] 13[13]
Nickel-iron NiFe Iron Yes 1901[18] 0.75[19] 1.2[19] 1.65[19] 0.07–0.09

(19–25)[20]
0.45

(125)[21] 100
3.89–5.19

(193–257)[1] 20–30
30–[22]
50[23][24]
Nickel-
cadmium
NiCd

NiCad
Cadmium Yes
c.
1960[25]
0.9–
1.05[26] 1.2[27] 1.3[26] 0.11

(30)[27]
0.36

(100)[27]
150–
200[28] 10[13]
Nickel-
hydrogen
NiH

2

Ni-H

2
Hydrogen Yes 1975[29] 1.0[30] 1.55[28] 0.16–0.23

(45–65)[28]
0.22

(60)[31]
150–
200[28] 5[31]
Nickel-metal
hydride
NiMH

Ni-MH
Metal
hydride
Yes 1990[1] 0.9–
1.05[26] 1.2[11] 1.3[26] 0.36

(100)[11]
1.44

(401)[32]
250–
1000
3.12

(321)[1] 30[33]
Low self-
discharge
nickel-metal
hydride
LSD NiMH Yes 2005[34] 0.9–
1.05[26] 1.2 1.3[26] 0.34

(95)[35]
1.27

(353)[36]
250–
1000
0.42[33]
Lithium-
manganese
dioxide
Lithium

Li-MnO

2

CR

Li-Mn
Lithium
Manganese
dioxide
No 1976[37] 2[38] 3[11] 0.54–1.19

(150–330)[39]
1.1–2.6

(300–710)[39]
250–
400[39] 1 5-10[39]
Lithium-
carbon
monofluoride
Li-(CF)

x

BR
Carbon
monofluoride
No 1976[37] 2[40] 3[40] 0.94–2.81

(260–780)[39]
1.58–5.32

(440–1,478)[39] 50–80[39] 0.2–0.3[41] 15[39]
Lithium-iron
disulfide
Li-FeS

2

FR
Iron disulfide No 1989[42] 0.9[42] 1.5[42] 1.8[42] 1.07

(297)[42]
2.1

(580)[43]
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Cell
chemistry
Also known as
Electrode
Re‐­
charge‐­
able
Com‐­
mercial‐­
ized
Voltage Energy density
Specific
power
Cost† Discharge
efficiency
Self-
discharge
rate
Shelf
life
Anode Cathode
Cutoff Nominal
100%
SOC
by mass by volume
year V V V
MJ/kg 

(Wh/kg)
MJ/L 

(Wh/L)
W/kg
Wh/$ 

($/kWh)
% %/month years
Lithium–
titanate
Li

4Ti

5O

12

LTO

Lithium
manganese
oxide or
Lithium
nickel
manganese
cobalt oxide
Yes 2008[44] 1.6-
1.8[45]
2.3-
2.4[45] 2.8[45] 0.22–0.40

(60–110)
0.64

(177)
3,000-
5,100[46]
0.46

(2157)[46] 85[46] 2-5[46] 10–
20[46]
Lithium
cobalt oxide
LiCoO

2

ICR

LCO

Li‑cobalt[47]
Graphite‡
Lithium
cobalt oxide
Yes 1991[48] 2.5[49] 3.7[50] 4.2[49] 0.70

(195)[50]
2.0

(560)[50]
2.6

(385)[1]
Lithium iron
phosphate
LiFePO

4

IFR

LFP

Li‑phosphate[47]
Lithium iron
phosphate
Yes 1996[51] 2[49] 3.2[50] 3.65[49] 0.32–0.58

(90–160)[50][52][53]
1.20

(333)[50][52]
200
[54]-1'200
[55]
4.5
20
years[56]
Lithium
manganese
oxide
LiMn

2O

4

IMR

LMO

Li‑manganese[47]
Lithium
manganese
oxide
Yes 1999[1] 2.5[57] 3.9[50] 4.2[57] 0.54

(150)[50]
1.5

(420)[50]
2.6

(385)[1]
Lithium
nickel cobalt
aluminium
oxides
LiNiCoAlO

2

NCA

NCR

Li‑aluminium[47]
Lithium
nickel cobalt
aluminium
oxide
Yes 1999 3.0[58] 3.6[50] 4.3[58] 0.79

(220)[50]
2.2

(600)[50]
Lithium
nickel
manganese
cobalt oxide
LiNi

xMn

yCo

1-x-yO

2

INR

NMC[47]

NCM[50]
Lithium
nickel
manganese
cobalt oxide
Yes 2008[59] 2.5[49] 3.6[50] 4.2[49] 0.74

(205)[50]
2.1

(580)[50]
^† Cost in USD, adjusted for inflation.
^‡ Typical. See Lithium-ion battery § Negative electrode for alternative electrode materials.
Rechargeable characteristics
12/08/2021 Comparison of commercial battery types - Wikipedia
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Cell chemistry
Charge efficiency Cycle durability
% # 100% depth of discharge (DoD) cycles
Lead-acid 50–92[2] 50 – 100[60] (500@40%DoD[2][60])
Rechargeable alkaline 5–100[13]
Nickel-zinc 100 to 50% capacity[13]
Nickel-iron 65–80 5000
Nickel-cadmium 70–90 500[25]
Nickel-hydrogen 85 20000[31]
Nickel-metal hydride 66 300–800[13]
Low self-discharge nickel-metal hydride battery 500–1500[13]
Lithium cobalt oxide 90 500–1000
Lithium–titanate 85-90 6000–10000 to 90% capacity[46]
Lithium iron phosphate 90 2500[54]–12000 to 80% capacity[61]
Lithium manganese oxide 90 300–700
Under certain conditions, some battery chemistries are at risk of thermal runaway, leading to cell rupture or combustion. As thermal runaway is determined not only by cell chemistry but also
cell size, cell design and charge, only the worst-case values are reflected here.[62]
Cell chemistry
Overcharge Overheat
Onset Onset Runaway Peak
SOC% °C °C °C/min
Lithium cobalt oxide 150[62] 165[62] 190[62] 440[62]
Lithium iron phosphate 100[62] 220[62] 240[62] 21[62]
Lithium manganese oxide 110[62] 210[62] 240[62] 100+[62]
Lithium nickel cobalt aluminium oxide 125[62] 140[62] 195[62] 260[62]
Lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide 170[62] 160[62] 230[62] 100+[62]
Thermal runaway
NiCd vs. NiMH vs. Li-ion vs. Li-polymer vs. LTO
12/08/2021 Comparison of commercial battery types - Wikipedia
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Types Cell Voltage Self-discharge Memory Cycles Times Temperature Weight
NiCd 1.2V 20%/month Yes Up to 800 -20℃ To 60℃ Heavy
NiMH 1.2V 30%/month Mild Up to 500 -20℃ To 70℃ Middle
Low Self Discharge NiMH 1.2V 1%/month - 3%/year [63] No 500 - 2000 -20℃ To 70℃ Middle
Li-ion (LCO) 3.6V 5-10%/month No 500 - 1000 -40℃ To 70℃ Light
Li-ion (LFP) 3.2V 2-5%/month No 2500 - 12000[61] -40℃ To 80℃ Light
LiPo (LCO) 3.7V 5-10%/month No 500 - 1000 -40℃ To 80℃ Lightest
Li-Ti (LTO) 2.4V 2-5%/month[46] No 6000 - 20000 -40℃ To 55℃ Light
[64]
Battery nomenclature
Experimental rechargeable battery types
Aluminum battery
List of battery sizes
List of battery types
Search for the Super Battery (2017 PBS film)
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directly related to the depth of discharge. The typical number of discharge/charge cycles at
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61. "CATL wants to deliver LFP batteries for ESS at 'multi-gigawatt-hour scale' into Europe and
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63. "Best rechargeable batteries (10+ charts, overviews and comparisons )" (https://eneloop10
1.com/batteries/eneloop-test-results/). eneloop101.com.
64. Resende, Caio (3 November 2017). "Best Power Tool Battery Types: NiCd VS NiMH VS li-
ion VS li-polymer" (https://www.powertoollab.com/power-tool-battery-types/).

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1628754545444 assignment-comparison of commercial battery types - wikipedia

  • 1. 12/08/2021 Comparison of commercial battery types - Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_commercial_battery_types 1/7 Comparison of commercial battery types This is a list of commercially-available battery types summarizing some of their characteristics for ready comparision. Common characteristics Rechargeable characteristics Thermal runaway NiCd vs. NiMH vs. Li-ion vs. Li-polymer vs. LTO See also References Contents Common characteristics
  • 2. 12/08/2021 Comparison of commercial battery types - Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_commercial_battery_types 2/7 Cell chemistry Also known as Electrode Re‐­ charge‐­ able Com‐­ mercial‐­ ized Voltage Energy density Specific power Cost† Discharge efficiency Self- discharge rate Shelf life Anode Cathode Cutoff Nominal 100% SOC by mass by volume year V V V MJ/kg (Wh/kg) MJ/L (Wh/L) W/kg Wh/$ ($/kWh) % %/month years Lead-acid SLA VRLA Lead Lead dioxide Yes 1881[1] 1.75[2] 2.1[2] 2.23– 2.32[2] 0.11–0.14 (30–40)[2] 0.22–0.27 (60–75)[2] 180[2] 6.4–16.47 (61–156)[2] 50–92[2] 3–20[2] Zinc-carbon Carbon-zinc Zinc Manganese (IV) oxide No 1898[3] 0.75– 0.9[3] 1.5[3] 0.13 (36)[3] 0.33 (92)[3] 10–27[3] 2.93 (342)[3] 50–60[3] 0.32[3] 3–5[4] Zinc-air PR Oxygen No 1932[5] 0.9[5] 1.45– 1.65[5] 1.59 (442)[5] 6.02 (1,673)[5] 100[5] 2.56 (390)[5] 60–70[5] 0.17[5] 3[5] Mercury oxide-zinc Mercuric oxide Mercury cell Mercuric oxide No 1942–[6] 1996[7] 0.9[8] 1.35[8] 0.36–0.44 (99–123)[8] 1.1–1.8 (300–500)[8] 2[6] Alkaline Zn/MnO 2 LR Manganese (IV) oxide No 1949[9] 0.9[10] 1.5[11] 1.6[10] 0.31–0.68 (85–190)[12] 0.90–1.56 (250–434)[12] 50[12] 0.46 (2186)[12] 45–85[12] 0.17[12] 5–10[4] Rechargeable alkaline RAM Yes 1992[13] 0.9[14] 1.57[14] 1.6[14] <1[13] Silver-oxide SR Silver oxide No 1960[15] 1.2[16] 1.55[16] 1.6[17] 0.47 (130)[17] 1.8 (500)[17] Nickel-zinc NiZn Nickel oxide hydroxide Yes 2009[13] 0.9[13] 1.65[13] 1.85[13] 13[13] Nickel-iron NiFe Iron Yes 1901[18] 0.75[19] 1.2[19] 1.65[19] 0.07–0.09 (19–25)[20] 0.45 (125)[21] 100 3.89–5.19 (193–257)[1] 20–30 30–[22] 50[23][24] Nickel- cadmium NiCd NiCad Cadmium Yes c. 1960[25] 0.9– 1.05[26] 1.2[27] 1.3[26] 0.11 (30)[27] 0.36 (100)[27] 150– 200[28] 10[13] Nickel- hydrogen NiH 2 Ni-H 2 Hydrogen Yes 1975[29] 1.0[30] 1.55[28] 0.16–0.23 (45–65)[28] 0.22 (60)[31] 150– 200[28] 5[31] Nickel-metal hydride NiMH Ni-MH Metal hydride Yes 1990[1] 0.9– 1.05[26] 1.2[11] 1.3[26] 0.36 (100)[11] 1.44 (401)[32] 250– 1000 3.12 (321)[1] 30[33] Low self- discharge nickel-metal hydride LSD NiMH Yes 2005[34] 0.9– 1.05[26] 1.2 1.3[26] 0.34 (95)[35] 1.27 (353)[36] 250– 1000 0.42[33] Lithium- manganese dioxide Lithium Li-MnO 2 CR Li-Mn Lithium Manganese dioxide No 1976[37] 2[38] 3[11] 0.54–1.19 (150–330)[39] 1.1–2.6 (300–710)[39] 250– 400[39] 1 5-10[39] Lithium- carbon monofluoride Li-(CF) x BR Carbon monofluoride No 1976[37] 2[40] 3[40] 0.94–2.81 (260–780)[39] 1.58–5.32 (440–1,478)[39] 50–80[39] 0.2–0.3[41] 15[39] Lithium-iron disulfide Li-FeS 2 FR Iron disulfide No 1989[42] 0.9[42] 1.5[42] 1.8[42] 1.07 (297)[42] 2.1 (580)[43]
  • 3. 12/08/2021 Comparison of commercial battery types - Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_commercial_battery_types 3/7 Cell chemistry Also known as Electrode Re‐­ charge‐­ able Com‐­ mercial‐­ ized Voltage Energy density Specific power Cost† Discharge efficiency Self- discharge rate Shelf life Anode Cathode Cutoff Nominal 100% SOC by mass by volume year V V V MJ/kg (Wh/kg) MJ/L (Wh/L) W/kg Wh/$ ($/kWh) % %/month years Lithium– titanate Li 4Ti 5O 12 LTO Lithium manganese oxide or Lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide Yes 2008[44] 1.6- 1.8[45] 2.3- 2.4[45] 2.8[45] 0.22–0.40 (60–110) 0.64 (177) 3,000- 5,100[46] 0.46 (2157)[46] 85[46] 2-5[46] 10– 20[46] Lithium cobalt oxide LiCoO 2 ICR LCO Li‑cobalt[47] Graphite‡ Lithium cobalt oxide Yes 1991[48] 2.5[49] 3.7[50] 4.2[49] 0.70 (195)[50] 2.0 (560)[50] 2.6 (385)[1] Lithium iron phosphate LiFePO 4 IFR LFP Li‑phosphate[47] Lithium iron phosphate Yes 1996[51] 2[49] 3.2[50] 3.65[49] 0.32–0.58 (90–160)[50][52][53] 1.20 (333)[50][52] 200 [54]-1'200 [55] 4.5 20 years[56] Lithium manganese oxide LiMn 2O 4 IMR LMO Li‑manganese[47] Lithium manganese oxide Yes 1999[1] 2.5[57] 3.9[50] 4.2[57] 0.54 (150)[50] 1.5 (420)[50] 2.6 (385)[1] Lithium nickel cobalt aluminium oxides LiNiCoAlO 2 NCA NCR Li‑aluminium[47] Lithium nickel cobalt aluminium oxide Yes 1999 3.0[58] 3.6[50] 4.3[58] 0.79 (220)[50] 2.2 (600)[50] Lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide LiNi xMn yCo 1-x-yO 2 INR NMC[47] NCM[50] Lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide Yes 2008[59] 2.5[49] 3.6[50] 4.2[49] 0.74 (205)[50] 2.1 (580)[50] ^† Cost in USD, adjusted for inflation. ^‡ Typical. See Lithium-ion battery § Negative electrode for alternative electrode materials. Rechargeable characteristics
  • 4. 12/08/2021 Comparison of commercial battery types - Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_commercial_battery_types 4/7 Cell chemistry Charge efficiency Cycle durability % # 100% depth of discharge (DoD) cycles Lead-acid 50–92[2] 50 – 100[60] (500@40%DoD[2][60]) Rechargeable alkaline 5–100[13] Nickel-zinc 100 to 50% capacity[13] Nickel-iron 65–80 5000 Nickel-cadmium 70–90 500[25] Nickel-hydrogen 85 20000[31] Nickel-metal hydride 66 300–800[13] Low self-discharge nickel-metal hydride battery 500–1500[13] Lithium cobalt oxide 90 500–1000 Lithium–titanate 85-90 6000–10000 to 90% capacity[46] Lithium iron phosphate 90 2500[54]–12000 to 80% capacity[61] Lithium manganese oxide 90 300–700 Under certain conditions, some battery chemistries are at risk of thermal runaway, leading to cell rupture or combustion. As thermal runaway is determined not only by cell chemistry but also cell size, cell design and charge, only the worst-case values are reflected here.[62] Cell chemistry Overcharge Overheat Onset Onset Runaway Peak SOC% °C °C °C/min Lithium cobalt oxide 150[62] 165[62] 190[62] 440[62] Lithium iron phosphate 100[62] 220[62] 240[62] 21[62] Lithium manganese oxide 110[62] 210[62] 240[62] 100+[62] Lithium nickel cobalt aluminium oxide 125[62] 140[62] 195[62] 260[62] Lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide 170[62] 160[62] 230[62] 100+[62] Thermal runaway NiCd vs. NiMH vs. Li-ion vs. Li-polymer vs. LTO
  • 5. 12/08/2021 Comparison of commercial battery types - Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_commercial_battery_types 5/7 Types Cell Voltage Self-discharge Memory Cycles Times Temperature Weight NiCd 1.2V 20%/month Yes Up to 800 -20℃ To 60℃ Heavy NiMH 1.2V 30%/month Mild Up to 500 -20℃ To 70℃ Middle Low Self Discharge NiMH 1.2V 1%/month - 3%/year [63] No 500 - 2000 -20℃ To 70℃ Middle Li-ion (LCO) 3.6V 5-10%/month No 500 - 1000 -40℃ To 70℃ Light Li-ion (LFP) 3.2V 2-5%/month No 2500 - 12000[61] -40℃ To 80℃ Light LiPo (LCO) 3.7V 5-10%/month No 500 - 1000 -40℃ To 80℃ Lightest Li-Ti (LTO) 2.4V 2-5%/month[46] No 6000 - 20000 -40℃ To 55℃ Light [64] Battery nomenclature Experimental rechargeable battery types Aluminum battery List of battery sizes List of battery types Search for the Super Battery (2017 PBS film) 1. "mpoweruk.com: Accumulator and battery comparisons (pdf)" (http://www.mpoweruk.com/s pecifications/comparisons.pdf) (PDF). Retrieved 2016-02-28. 2. "All About Batteries, Part 3: Lead-Acid Batteries" (http://www.eetimes.com/author.asp?secti on_id=36&doc_id=1320644). Retrieved 2016-02-26. 3. "All About Batteries, Part 5: Carbon Zinc Batteries" (http://www.eetimes.com/author.asp?sec tion_id=36&doc_id=1321416). Retrieved 2016-02-26. 4. "Energizer Non-Rechargeable Batteries: Frequently Asked Questions" (http://data.energize r.com/PDFs/non-rechargeable_FAQ.pdf) (PDF). Retrieved 2016-02-26. 5. "All About Batteries, Part 6: Zinc-Air" (http://www.eetimes.com/author.asp?section_id=36&d oc_id=1321938). Retrieved 2016-03-01. 6. Narayan, R.; Viswanathan, B. (1998). Chemical And Electrochemical Energy Systems (http s://books.google.com/books?id=hISACjsS3FsC&q=mercury%20button-cell%20battery%201 942&pg=PA92). Universities Press. p. 92. ISBN 9788173710698. 7. "Mercury Use in Batteries" (http://www.newmoa.org/prevention/mercury/imerc/factsheets/ba tteries.cfm). Retrieved 2016-03-01. 8. Crompton, Thomas Roy (2000). Batteries Reference Book (https://books.google.com/book s?id=q58IX4BM7-0C&q=mercuric%20oxide%20wh%2Fkg&pg=SA2-PA4). Newnes. ISBN 9780750646253. Retrieved 2016-03-01. 9. Herbert, W. S. (1952). "The Alkaline Manganese Dioxide Dry Cell". Journal of the Electrochemical Society. 99 (August 1952): 190C. doi:10.1149/1.2779731 (https://doi.org/1 0.1149%2F1.2779731). 10. "Alkaline Manganese Dioxide Handbook and Application Manual" (http://data.energizer.co m/PDFs/alkaline_appman.pdf) (PDF). Retrieved 2016-03-01. 11. "Primary and Rechargeable Battery Chemistries with Energy Density" (http://www.epectec.c om/batteries/chemistry/). Retrieved 2016-02-26. 12. "All About Batteries, Part 4: Alkaline Batteries" (http://www.eetimes.com/author.asp?section _id=36&doc_id=1320919). Retrieved 2016-02-26. 13. "Rechargeable Batteries — compared and explained in detail" (http://michaelbluejay.com/ba tteries/rechargeable.html). Retrieved 2016-02-28. 14. "Data Sheet of Pure Energy XL Rechargeable Alkaline Cells" (http://aphnetworks.com/revie w/pure_energy_xl/xlaaa_tds.pdf) (PDF). Retrieved 2016-03-01. 15. "The history of the battery: 2) Primary batteries" (http://www.baj.or.jp/e/knowledge/history02. html). Retrieved 2016-03-01. 16. "Silver Primary Cells & Batteries" (https://web.archive.org/web/20091215105048/http://www. duracell.com/procell/pdf/silver.pdf) (PDF). Archived from the original (http://www.duracell.co m/procell/pdf/silver.pdf) (PDF) on December 15, 2009. Retrieved 2016-03-01. 17. "ProCell Silver Oxide battery chemistry" (https://web.archive.org/web/20091220201115/htt p://www.duracell.com/procell/chemistries/silver.asp). Duracell. Archived from the original (htt p://www.duracell.com/Procell/chemistries/silver.asp) on 2009-12-20. Retrieved 2009-04-21. 18. "Edison's non-toxic nickel-iron battery revived in ultrafast form" (https://www.wired.co.uk/ne ws/archive/2012-07/11/ultrafast-nickel-iron-battery). Retrieved 2016-02-28. See also References
  • 6. 12/08/2021 Comparison of commercial battery types - Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_commercial_battery_types 6/7 19. "Nickel-Iron Power 6 cell" (https://web.archive.org/web/20120307153153/http://www.nickel-ir on-battery.com/eagle-picher.pdf) (PDF). Archived from the original on 2012-03-07. Retrieved 2017-03-19. 20. "Energy Density from NREL Testing by Iron Edison" (https://ironedison.com/images/Spec% 20Sheets/Test%20Results/Energy%20Density%20Iron%20Edison%20Nickel%20Iron%20Ni Fe%20Battery.pdf) (PDF). Retrieved 2016-02-26. 21. Jha, A.R. (2012-06-05). Next-Generation Batteries and Fuel Cells for Commercial, Military, and Space Applications (https://books.google.com/books?id=mSS0DYlTLQsC&q=Next-Gen eration%20Batteries%20and%20Fuel%20Cells%20for%20Commercial%2C%20Military%2 C%20and%20Space%20Applications.&pg=PA28). p. 28. ISBN 978-1439850664. 22. "Nickel Iron Batteries" (https://www.mpoweruk.com/nickel_iron.htm). www.mpoweruk.com. 23. 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  • 7. 12/08/2021 Comparison of commercial battery types - Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_commercial_battery_types 7/7 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Comparison_of_commercial_battery_types&oldid=1038304106" This page was last edited on 11 August 2021, at 18:49 (UTC). Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. 52. "Great Power Group, Square lithium-ion battery" (http://www.greatpower.net/cplb/info_159.a spx?itemid=292&cid=25). Retrieved 2019-12-31. 53. "Lithium Battery Mystery: This 100Ah LiFePO4 Energy Density is Off the Charts" (https://ww w.youtube.com/watch?v=-QZ8NhD7rCk). Retrieved 2019-12-31. 54. "Archived copy" (https://web.archive.org/web/20160921122814/https://www.victronenergy.n l/upload/documents/Datasheet-12,8-Volt-lithium-iron-phosphate-batteries-EN.pdf) (PDF). Archived from the original (https://www.victronenergy.nl/upload/documents/Datasheet-12,8- Volt-lithium-iron-phosphate-batteries-EN.pdf) (PDF) on 2016-09-21. Retrieved 2016-04-20. 55. "Datasheet HeadWay LiFePO4 38120" (http://www.litrade.de/pub/HeadWay%20LiFePO4% 2038120__%20Specifications1.pdf) (PDF). Retrieved 2020-04-08. 56. "Which battery type is right for you?" (https://ironedison.com/blog/battery-for-you). Retrieved 2021-08-11. 57. "Lithium-ion Battery Overview" (https://web.archive.org/web/20140617110601/http://www.lig htingglobal.org/wp-content/uploads/bsk-pdf-manager/67_Issue10_Lithium-ionBattery_Tech Note_final.pdf) (PDF). Lighting Global (May 2012, Issue 10). Archived from the original (http s://www.lightingglobal.org/wp-content/uploads/bsk-pdf-manager/67_Issue10_Lithium-ionBat tery_TechNote_final.pdf) (PDF) on 2014-06-17. Retrieved 2016-03-01. 58. "Lithium nickel cobalt aluminium oxide" (http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/product/aldric h/765171?lang=en&region=US). Retrieved 2016-03-01. 59. "Battery Technology" (http://spectrum.mit.edu/articles/battery-technology/). Retrieved 2016-02-26. 60. electricrider.com: Lithium Batteries (https://web.archive.org/web/20110902011121/http://ww w.electricrider.com/batteries/index.htm) Citat: Citat: "...The cycle life of sealed lead-acid is directly related to the depth of discharge. The typical number of discharge/charge cycles at 25°C (77°F) with respect to the depth of discharge is: * 50 - 100 cycles with 100% depth of discharge (full discharge) * 150 - 250 cycles with 70% depth of discharge (deep discharge) * 300 - 500 cycles with 50% depth of discharge (partial discharge) * 800 and more cycles with 30% depth of discharge (shallow discharge)..." 61. "CATL wants to deliver LFP batteries for ESS at 'multi-gigawatt-hour scale' into Europe and US-CATL" (https://www.catlbattery.com/en/web/index.php/news/newsinfor/21/47). catlbattery.com. Contemporary Amperex Technology Co. Limited (CATL). Retrieved 3 October 2020. 62. Doughty, Dan; Roth, E. Peter. "A General Discussion of Li Ion Battery Safety" (http://www.el ectrochem.org/dl/interface/sum/sum12/sum12_p037_044.pdf) (PDF). The Electrochemical Society Interface (Summer 2012). Retrieved 2016-02-27. 63. "Best rechargeable batteries (10+ charts, overviews and comparisons )" (https://eneloop10 1.com/batteries/eneloop-test-results/). eneloop101.com. 64. Resende, Caio (3 November 2017). "Best Power Tool Battery Types: NiCd VS NiMH VS li- ion VS li-polymer" (https://www.powertoollab.com/power-tool-battery-types/).