Connective and supporting tissue


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Connective and supporting tissue

  1. 1. As its name implies, connective tissue connects,holds, and supports other body tissues.The cells of connective tissue are characteristicallyseparated from one another by large amounts ofintercellular material.This extracellular material is that gives connectivetissue its strenght.Parts of the connective tissue:CellsExtracellular matrix (ECM)
  2. 2. Two types of cells are present in the connective tissueFIXED MOBILEFibroblast (fibrocyte) Plasma cellFat cells (adipocyte) Mast cellMelanocyte HistiocyteMesoblast (macrophage)Reticular cell Lymphocyte Granulocyte
  3. 3. Fibers Amorphous materialCollagen fibers GAG andElastic fibers proteoglycansReticular fibers Adhesion moleculesMicrofibrils
  4. 4. MesenchymaEmbryonic Wharton s jelly Areolar Rich in cells Reticular Spinocellular Mature Loose Rich in fibers Regular Dense Irregular
  5. 5. Slide 4, Unilocular fat (paraffin section, HE), 10X adipocytes vessels
  6. 6. Slide 4, Unilocular fat (paraffin section, HE), 40X adipocytes vessels Nuclei of adipocytes
  7. 7. To identify the following structures: adipocytes and their nuclei vessels
  8. 8. Slide 5, Unilocular fat (frozen section, Sudan), 4X epidermis dermis hypodermis
  9. 9. Slide 5, Unilocular fat (frozen section, Sudan), 10X adipocytes panniculus adiposus
  10. 10. Slide 5, Unilocular fat (frozen section, Sudan), 40X adipocytes
  11. 11. To divide the 3 parts of the skinTo identify the adipocytes
  12. 12. Slide 78, Skin (HE), 4X epidermis dermis hypodermis
  13. 13. Slide 78, Skin (HE), 10Xirregular dense connective tissue loose connective tissue dermis hypodermis
  14. 14. To divide the 3 parts of the skinTo identify the:loose connective tissuedense connective tissue
  15. 15. Slide 6, Tendon (HE), 10X regular dense connective tissue
  16. 16. Slide 6, Tendon (HE), 40X fibrocytes collagen bundles
  17. 17. To identify:collagen bundlesfibrocytes
  18. 18. Cartilage consists of cells (chondrocytes) and an extensive extracellular matrix composed of fibers and ground substance. 3 forms of cartilage have evolved, each exhibiting variations in matrix composition:1. Hyaline cartilage2. Elastic cartilage3. Fibrocartilage
  19. 19. 1. Hyaline cartilage: in the articular surfaces of the movable joints; the walls of larger respiratory passages (nose, larynx, trachea, bronchi); the ventral ends of ribs; and in the epyphyseal plates of bones2. Elastic cartilage: in the auricle of the ear; the walls of the external auditory canals, the auditory tubes, the epiglottis, and the cuneiform cartilage in the larynx3. Fibrocartilage: in the intervertebral disks; and in articular meniscs
  20. 20. Perichondrium: outer layer (stratum fibrosum) type I collagen, inner layer (stratumchondroblasticum) rich of cellsThe unit of cartilages: chondronChondrocyte: only one cell, or little groups ofcells, roundish shape, spherical nucleus In hyaline cartilage: 2-4 chondrocytes In elastic cartilage: 1-2 chondrocytes In fibrous cartilage: 1-2 chondrocytesLacunaPericellular matrixTerritorial/capsular matrixInterterritorial matrix
  21. 21. Schematic representation of hyaline cartilage perichondrium chondron lacuna interterritorial chondrocyte matrixpericellular matrix territorial/capsular matrix
  22. 22. Slide 7, Hyaline cartilage (HE), 10X chondrons interterritorial matrix stratum chondroblasticum perichondrium stratum fibrosum
  23. 23. Slide 7, Hyaline cartilage (HE), 40X lacuna chondrocytes pericellular matrix interterritorial matrix chondron
  24. 24. To identify the parts of hyaline cartilage:perichondriumchondronchondrocytepericellular matrixterritorial matrixinterterritorial matrixlacuna
  25. 25. Slide 8, ear (orcein), 10X perichondrium chondrons perichondrium
  26. 26. Slide 8, ear (orcein), 40X chondrocytes elastic fibers chondron
  27. 27. To identify the components of the elasticcartilage:elastic fiberchondronchondrocyte
  28. 28. Slide 9, Articular menisc (HE), 40Xchondrocytes collagen fibers
  29. 29. To identify the parts of the fibrocartilage:chondrocytescollagen fibers
  30. 30. Schematic drawing of the bone outer circumferential lamellae Haversian system (osteon) compact boneInner circumferentiallamellae cancellous (spongy) bone osteocyte Haversian canal Volkmann s canal
  31. 31. Slide 10, Bone (ground section) 10X outer circumferential lamellae Volkmann s canal Haversian canal osteon interstitial lamellae osteocytes inner circumferential lamellae
  32. 32. Slide 10, Bone (ground section) 40X Haversian canal osteocytes osteon
  33. 33. To recognize the following structures:osteonouter and inner circumferential lamellaeinterstitial lamellaeosteocyteVolkmann s canalHaversian canal
  34. 34. Enchondralossification
  35. 35. Slide 11, Enchondral ossification (HE) 4X bone marrow bone spicules skeletal muscle enchondral ossification
  36. 36. Slide 11, Enchondral ossification (HE) 10X resting zone bone marrow proliferative zone hypertrofic cartilage zonebone spicule ossification zone
  37. 37. To identify:enchondral ossification with its zonesbone marrowbone spiculesskeletal muscleadipose tissue