Examining, treating andpreventive methods used indentistry from technological aspect
Infection Control:• Gloves: latex (allergic reaction), vinyl, some of the latex gloves are powder-free – „hypoallergen” multiple hand wash increase the porosity -> risk of infection hand creams• Visors, safety glasses, shields
Instruments used for dental examinations:• Mouth mirror – • allows indirect visualization of obscure areas of the mouth • reflects light into the area being examined or treated • retracts soft tissues • Silvering can be on the outer surface of the glass ->less resistant, or on the inner surface -> double image.
Instruments used for dental examinations:• Dental probe: favourable with rounded end• Perio-probe: with depth gauge• Material usually stainless steel -> can be sterilized, but some disinfectant solutions can be harmful
Sensibility testsThe tooth, it’s dental pulp is considered vital if the blood supply of the pulp is intact. It could be tested directly, with a laser Doppler equipment.Based on their coincidence in general, function of the nerves supply the dental pulp is usually tested.• Thermal stimuli (cold, hot)• Mild electric stimulus applied on the tooth surface (EPT)
Fixed prosthetic appliences• Crowns, bridges, post retained cores, …
• Controlling the precision fit of cast metal parts: 1. Fluids, containing stain particles (Arti-spot 2), 2. Pigment containing aerosols (Arti-spray), 3. Impression materials with very low viscosity (Fit Checker)
• Controlling the precision fit of denture parts supported by mucosa:To locate coarse imprinting of the prothesis, causing soft tissue injuries 1. Guttapercha dissolved in chloroform, disclosing waxes 2. Zinc-oxide powder mixed with Vaseline, 3. Low viscosity impression materials
Occlusal indicatorsTo locate normal and pathologic occlusal contacts• Occlusal foils, papers:Optimal thickness 8-16 µm,Irrespectively of the material of the occlusal surface mark the occlusal contacts, but only the real contactsShould not change the pattern of the occlusion,The examined surface should be dryDifferent colours for the contacts in different jaw positions,
Occlusal indicatorsTo locate normal and pathologic occlusal contacts• Occlusal foils, papers:
Occlusal indicatorsTo locate normal and pathologic occlusal contacts• waxes• Fluid dye• Colour powders,• Celluloid foils (power needed to pull out form the occluding surfaces)
Bite registration materialsTo determine the relation of the upper an lower dental arch.If the jaw-relation is strictly determined by the contacts between the upper and lower teeth, this procedure is not obligatoryIn case of signifficant tooth-loss bite-plates are necessary.• Pink-wax,• Aluminax• Elastomers• Zinc-oxide eugenol pastes• Self curing acrylic resins
Plaque indicators• To visualize the dental-plaque for the patients, making it easier to instruct them how their teeth should be cleaned• Tablets, solutions (fuchsine, erythrosine containing) plaque is stained red. Some of the pigments are visible only under UV light.
Caries indicators• Stains – for differentiating between the demineralised, infected dentin from the sound tooth substances on the bottom of the cavity, during cavity preparation.• Sound dentin, which can remineralise after correct treatment remains unstained.
Plaque, debris removing• Scaling• Polishing: abrasive pastes that remove superficial stains but do not impair the enamel. The accidentally exposed dentine, cement is less resistant to abrasive particles• „Air-polishing”: air-stream with Na+-bicarbonate particles
Materials used in dental radiology:• Intraoral plain films: usually 3- 4 teeth can be seen on the image
Materials used in dental radiology:• Occlusal films: all the teeth in the upper or lower dental arch and some of the surrounding soft tissues are depicted
Materials used in dental radiology:• Extraoral films: In different sizes, according to the user’s demands, an amplifier layer can be used (phosphorus containing layer)
Digital systemsSensors1. CCDs – wire, immediate image2. Phosphorous sensors – wireless, further procesing is needed
Radioopacity of dental materialsRadioopaque: metals, hard tissues of the teeth, bone, temporary, or permanent fillings, root canal filling materials, liners, base materials containing Ca-, Ba- ions.Radiolucent: soft tissues, polymers: materials of dentures, older composite fillings (nowadays radiopaque admixtures are used to make visible these fillings also on X-rays )