MINERALIZED  TISSUES
MESENCHYMEFIBROBLAST    SCLEROBLAST   MYOBLASTFIBROCYTE                       MYOCYTESODONTOBLAST   CHONDROBLAST OSTEOBLAS...
➲Osteology   – study of structure, function and              composition of bonesChondrology     - study of structure, fun...
Gross Anatomy of BonesI. Compact Bones   Long Bones    Diaphysis     -tubular part    Epiphyses     -bone ends    Epiphys...
•   Blood Vessel       -with nutrient arteries and veins•   Medullary cavity       -marrow cavity of bones    Membrane    ...
Chemical Composition of Bones1. Organic components Collagen fibers CHON Polyssacharides2. Inorganic components calcium...
Microscopic anatomy of bones
The haversian system
Bone DevelopmentOSSIFICATION – process of bone                development1. Intramembranous ossification       - direct bo...
Classification of Bones1. Long Bones  Ex. femur, humerus2. Short Bones  Ex. trapezoid3. Flat Bones  Ex. Sternum, ribs4. Ir...
TYPES OF BONES :             (OSTEOGENESIS)1.    Compact Bone (Lamellar Bone)      - hard bone matrix – CaCO3,CaPO4,OH)   ...
BONE MARROW  Occupies cavities between trabellae Yellow marrow – a reticulum of connective   tissue fibers that support ...
3.ACELLAR BONES (ASPIDIN)       Bones formed in scales of modern fishes       No canaliculi       Ex. Scales of fishes,...
5. Replacement Bones   Arise from pre-existing cartilages   Soft bones   Endochondral ossification   Ex. Fontannels, t...
II. Cartilage- specialized connective tissue in which fibersare laid down along the lines of stress in long,parallel array...
Cartilage            18
TYPES OF CARTILAGESBASIS       HYALINE         ELASTIC      FIBRO-                                         CARTILAGE1.Matr...
4. THE CALCIFIED CARTILAGE   The cartilages replaced by bones   Ex. Jaw, fins of sharks, fontannels of the fetal    huma...
III. DENTIN   Developed from the odontoblast   Odontoblast are not trapped in lacunae during    osteogenesis – retreat a...
IV. ENAMEL   Developed from ameloblasts   Teeth – important for digestion
V. BONE REMODELING  PRESKELETAL MESENCHYMAL BLASTEMACARTILAGESRESORPTION OF Ca       Membrane BoneReplacement Bones  CONTI...
PARATHORMONE AND            CALCITONIN   The hormones that influence or regulates the    withdrawal of calcium to maintai...
VI. CONNECTIVE TISSUES OF              BONES1.   TENDON3.   LIGAMENTS5.   CARTILAGES
Phases of Healing of Fractures   Hematoma Formation   Fibrocartilaginous Callus Formation   Body Callus Formation   Bo...
FRACTURE HEALING         HEMATOMA    CARTILAGINOUS      BONY        REMODELINGNORMAL   FORMATION      CALLUS         CALLU...
The Articular SystemJoints/articulation -places where the rigid elements of the skeleton    meet.   TYPES OF JOINTS ACCORD...
TYPES OF JOINTS ACCORDING TO STRUCTURE:1. FIBROUS JOINTS    a. structures    -minimal connected tissue    b. syndesmoses  ...
2. CARTILAGINOUS JOINTS        a. synchondrosis        -hyaline cartilage        b.symphyses        -fibrocartilage3. SYNO...
Features of Synovial joints1. Articular cartilage2. Joint cavity/ synovial cavity3. Articular Capsule     2 LAYERS:       ...
SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE
Types of Synovial joints1. Plane joints   -nonaxial joint2. Hinge joints   -uniaxial joint(flexible)3. Pivot joints   - ro...
HETEROTROPIC BONES   OS CORDIS   OS CLITORIDIS   OS BACULUM   ROSTRUM
Mineralized tissues (1)
Mineralized tissues (1)
Mineralized tissues (1)
Mineralized tissues (1)
Mineralized tissues (1)
Mineralized tissues (1)
Mineralized tissues (1)
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Mineralized tissues (1)

  1. 1. MINERALIZED TISSUES
  2. 2. MESENCHYMEFIBROBLAST SCLEROBLAST MYOBLASTFIBROCYTE MYOCYTESODONTOBLAST CHONDROBLAST OSTEOBLASTDENTIN CHONDROCYTES OSTEOCYTESTEETH CARTILAGES BONE
  3. 3. ➲Osteology – study of structure, function and composition of bonesChondrology - study of structure, function and composition of cartilges Function Of Bones Support Protection Movement Mineral storage Hemopoeisis/hematopoiesis Leverage for locomotion
  4. 4. Gross Anatomy of BonesI. Compact Bones  Long Bones Diaphysis -tubular part Epiphyses -bone ends Epiphyseal Plate
  5. 5. • Blood Vessel -with nutrient arteries and veins• Medullary cavity -marrow cavity of bones Membrane Periosteum -covers the entire outer surface of each bone except in epiphyses Endosteum - innermost covering of bones
  6. 6. Chemical Composition of Bones1. Organic components Collagen fibers CHON Polyssacharides2. Inorganic components calcium phosphate calcium carbonate Hydroxypatite ions
  7. 7. Microscopic anatomy of bones
  8. 8. The haversian system
  9. 9. Bone DevelopmentOSSIFICATION – process of bone development1. Intramembranous ossification - direct bone development of membrane bones2.Endochondral ossification - development of bones preceeded by cartilages
  10. 10. Classification of Bones1. Long Bones Ex. femur, humerus2. Short Bones Ex. trapezoid3. Flat Bones Ex. Sternum, ribs4. Irregular Bones Ex. Hip bones, vertebrae
  11. 11. TYPES OF BONES : (OSTEOGENESIS)1. Compact Bone (Lamellar Bone) - hard bone matrix – CaCO3,CaPO4,OH) - long bones2. Spongy Bone (Cancelous Bone) - consist of bony trabecullae and bone marrow - trabeculae – beams,bars,rods - irregularly arranged lamellae without haversian canals
  12. 12. BONE MARROW Occupies cavities between trabellae Yellow marrow – a reticulum of connective tissue fibers that support blood vessels, nerve fibers, adipose tissues Red Marrow – (Hemopoietic Bone) - site of RBC and Some type of WBC production- ex. Flat bones
  13. 13. 3.ACELLAR BONES (ASPIDIN)  Bones formed in scales of modern fishes  No canaliculi  Ex. Scales of fishes,cementum of teeth 4. MEMBRANE BONE formed by blastema (mesenchymal cells w/c differentiates into tissues) Develop through ossification Bone deposited directly within the membranous blastema without being preceeded by cartilages (intramembranous) May be compact or spongy,lamellar or non-lamellar, no haversian canals Ex. Lower jaw, skull, pectoral girdles,dentin, dermal bones of teleost,apodans
  14. 14. 5. Replacement Bones Arise from pre-existing cartilages Soft bones Endochondral ossification Ex. Fontannels, tetrapod bones with cartilaginous diaphysis and 2 epiphysis, epiphyseal plate
  15. 15. II. Cartilage- specialized connective tissue in which fibersare laid down along the lines of stress in long,parallel arrays firm and flexible chondrocytes - cartilage cells that live within spaces (lacunae) within cartilage matrix -CHONDRIFICATION – chondroblast- chondrocytes 17
  16. 16. Cartilage 18
  17. 17. TYPES OF CARTILAGESBASIS HYALINE ELASTIC FIBRO- CARTILAGE1.Matrix Fine collagenous Collagenous Dense fibers ,elastic collagenous fibers2. Function Cover and Flexible Withstand protect strength tension & bones,support compression3. Location Joints, Ears,nose, Vertebral trachea,costal larynx,audi- discs,pubic ribs tory canal sysmphysis
  18. 18. 4. THE CALCIFIED CARTILAGE The cartilages replaced by bones Ex. Jaw, fins of sharks, fontannels of the fetal human skull
  19. 19. III. DENTIN Developed from the odontoblast Odontoblast are not trapped in lacunae during osteogenesis – retreat as dentin deposits Canaliculi – dentibal tubules Ex. Enameloid of placoid scales, dentin of the teeth
  20. 20. IV. ENAMEL Developed from ameloblasts Teeth – important for digestion
  21. 21. V. BONE REMODELING PRESKELETAL MESENCHYMAL BLASTEMACARTILAGESRESORPTION OF Ca Membrane BoneReplacement Bones CONTINUAL RESORPTION AND REMODELING
  22. 22. PARATHORMONE AND CALCITONIN The hormones that influence or regulates the withdrawal of calcium to maintain calcification OSTEOBLAST – developing bone cells OSTEOCLAST – bone destructing cells OSTEOCYTES – bone-building cells
  23. 23. VI. CONNECTIVE TISSUES OF BONES1. TENDON3. LIGAMENTS5. CARTILAGES
  24. 24. Phases of Healing of Fractures Hematoma Formation Fibrocartilaginous Callus Formation Body Callus Formation Bone Remodeling
  25. 25. FRACTURE HEALING HEMATOMA CARTILAGINOUS BONY REMODELINGNORMAL FORMATION CALLUS CALLUS BONE & CARTILAGI- NOUS MEMBRANE
  26. 26. The Articular SystemJoints/articulation -places where the rigid elements of the skeleton meet. TYPES OF JOINTS ACCORDING TO FUNCTION: 1. Synarthroses -fixed or immovable joints 2. Amphiarthroses -slightly movable joints 3. Diarthroses -freely movable joints
  27. 27. TYPES OF JOINTS ACCORDING TO STRUCTURE:1. FIBROUS JOINTS a. structures -minimal connected tissue b. syndesmoses -connected by ligaments c. gamphoses -peg-in-socket joint
  28. 28. 2. CARTILAGINOUS JOINTS a. synchondrosis -hyaline cartilage b.symphyses -fibrocartilage3. SYNOVIAL JOINTS -most movable joints of the body -diarthoroses
  29. 29. Features of Synovial joints1. Articular cartilage2. Joint cavity/ synovial cavity3. Articular Capsule 2 LAYERS: a. fibrous capsule -strengthens joint so that bones are not pulled apart b. synovial membrane -cover enternal joint surfaces4. Synovial fluid -a filtrate of blood which contains glycoproteins5. Reinforgang ligaments -thickened parts of fibrous capsule itself
  30. 30. SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE
  31. 31. Types of Synovial joints1. Plane joints -nonaxial joint2. Hinge joints -uniaxial joint(flexible)3. Pivot joints - rotatory, uniaxial joint4. Condyloid joints - biaxial joint5. Ball and Socket joints -multiaxial joint
  32. 32. HETEROTROPIC BONES OS CORDIS OS CLITORIDIS OS BACULUM ROSTRUM

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