Animal tissues


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  • Animal Tissues
  • Animal tissues

    1. 1. Animal Tissues
    2. 2. Animal Tissues <ul><li>Epithelial Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Connective Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous Tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Vascular Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting Tissues </li></ul>
    3. 3. Epithelial Tissues <ul><li>SIMPLE EPITHELIA </li></ul><ul><li>A. Simple Squamous Epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>Bowman’s capsule </li></ul><ul><li>Glomerulus </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus of a simple squamous epithelial cell </li></ul><ul><li>Tubule (duct) composed of simple cuboidal epithelium </li></ul>KIDNEY (parietal layer of Bowman’s capsule)
    4. 4. <ul><li>Description: Friction-reducing slick, single layer of flattened cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Common Locations: Lining of the blood and lymph vessels, heart; air sacs of lungs; peritoneum </li></ul><ul><li>Function: Diffusion; filtration; secretion of lubricants </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>B. Simple Cuboidal Epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>Outer &quot;wall&quot; composed of simple cuboidal epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>Kidney tubules composed of simple cuboidal epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus of a simple cuboidal epithelial cell </li></ul>KIDNEY (kidney tubule)
    6. 6. <ul><li>Description: single layer of squarish cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Common Locations: ducts, secretory part of small glands; retina; kidney tubules; ovaries, testes, bronchioles </li></ul><ul><li>Function: secretion, absorption </li></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>C. Simple Columnar Epithelium </li></ul>Stomach (mucous lining) 1. Simple columnar epithelium
    8. 8. <ul><li>Description: single layer of tall cells; free surface have many cilia, mucus- secreting glandular cells, microvilli </li></ul><ul><li>Common Locations: glands, ducts; gut; parts of uterus’ small bronchi </li></ul><ul><li>Function: secretion; absorption; ciliated types move substances </li></ul>
    9. 9. 1. Simple columnar epithelium 2. Villi 3. Goblet cells Small Intestine
    10. 10. <ul><li>D. Simple Columnar Ciliated Epithelium </li></ul>1 Oviduct 1. Nucleus of a simple columnar cell
    11. 11. II. STRATIFIED EPITHELIA <ul><li>Stratified epithelial tissues are named by the shape of their outer most cell layers (i.e. squamous, cuboidal or columnar). </li></ul><ul><li>In stratified squamous epithelium, the outer most layer is comprised of scale like or flattened cells that serve to protect the underlying tissues in areas subject to abrasion.  </li></ul><ul><li>Although the surface cells are squamous, note that the deeper or basal layers are composed of cuboidal and columnar cells.  These basal layers are mitotically active and produce the cells of the more superficial layers. </li></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>Stratified Squamous Epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>SKIN (epidermis) </li></ul><ul><li>Epidermis </li></ul><ul><li>Dermis </li></ul><ul><li>Squamous cell </li></ul><ul><li>Cuboidal to columnar cells </li></ul>3 4
    13. 13. <ul><li>B. Stratified Columnar Epithelium </li></ul>1 1. Columnar epithelial cells PENIS (corpus spongiosum-penile urethra)
    14. 14. Connective Tissue Proper <ul><li>Loose (Areolar) Connective Tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Dense Connective Tissue </li></ul><ul><li>a. Dense Irregular </li></ul><ul><li>b. Dense Regular </li></ul>
    15. 15. 1. Loose (Areolar) Connective Tissue 1. Nucleus of a fibroblast 2. Collagen fiber 3. Elastic fiber
    16. 16. <ul><li>Description: fibers, fibroblasts, other cells loosely arranged in extensive ground substance </li></ul><ul><li>Common Locations: beneath skin and most epithelia </li></ul><ul><li>Function: elasticity, diffusion </li></ul>
    17. 17. 2.A Dense Irregular Connective Tissue SKIN (dermis)
    18. 18. <ul><li>Description: collagen fibers, fibroblasts occupy most of the ground substance </li></ul><ul><li>Common Locations: in skin and in capsules around some organs </li></ul><ul><li>Function: structural support </li></ul>
    19. 19. 2.B Dense Regular Connective Tissue 1. Nuclei of fibroblasts 2. Collagen fibers TENDON
    20. 20. <ul><li>Description: collagen fibers bundled in parallel, long rows of fibroblasts, little ground substance </li></ul><ul><li>Common Locations: tendons, ligaments </li></ul><ul><li>Function: strength, elasticity </li></ul>
    21. 21. 3. Adipose Tissue 1. Cell membrane 2. Cell nucleus 3. Fat vacuole SKIN (hypodermis)
    22. 22. <ul><li>Description: large, tightly packed fat cells occupying most of the ground substance </li></ul><ul><li>Common Locations: under the skin, around the heart and kidneys </li></ul><ul><li>Function: energy storage, insulation, padding </li></ul>
    23. 23. Supporting Tissues <ul><li>Cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>a. Hyaline </li></ul><ul><li>b. Elastic </li></ul><ul><li>c. Fibrocartilage </li></ul><ul><li>Bone </li></ul>
    24. 24. <ul><li>Type: Cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>Description: chondrocytes inside pliable, solid ground substance </li></ul><ul><li>Common Locations: nose, ends of long bones, airways, skeleton of cartilaginous fish, vertebrate embryo </li></ul><ul><li>Function: support, flexion, low-friction surface for joint movements. </li></ul>
    25. 25. 1A. Hyaline Cartilage <ul><li>Cartilage matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Chondrocyte in lacuna </li></ul><ul><li>Perichondrium </li></ul><ul><li>Adipose (Fat) cells </li></ul>TRACHEA
    26. 27. 1B. Elastic Cartilage EPIGLOTTIS EXTERNAL EAR
    27. 28. 1C. Fibrocartilage
    28. 29. <ul><li>Type: Bone tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Description: collagen fibers, osteocytes occupying, extensive calcium- hardened ground substance </li></ul><ul><li>Common Locations: bones of all vertebrate skeletons </li></ul><ul><li>Function: movement, support, protection </li></ul>
    29. 30. 2. Compact (dense) bone <ul><li>Lacuna </li></ul><ul><li>Haversian canal </li></ul><ul><li>Lamellae </li></ul>
    30. 31. Dense (compact) bone: Haversian Canal System (osteon) <ul><li>Canaliculi </li></ul><ul><li>Haversian canal </li></ul><ul><li>Lacuna </li></ul>
    31. 32. Muscular Tissue <ul><li>Skeletal or Striated Voluntary Muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiac or Striated Involuntary Muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth or Visceral Non-striated Muscle </li></ul>
    32. 33. 1. Skeletal Muscle
    33. 34. <ul><li>Description: bundles of cylindrical, long, striated contractile cells; many mitochondria; often reflex- activated but can be consciously controlled </li></ul><ul><li>Common Locations: partner of skeletal bones, against which it exerts great force </li></ul><ul><li>Function: locomotion, posture; head, limb movements </li></ul>
    34. 36. 2. Cardiac Muscle <ul><li>Cardiac Muscle Cell </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>Intercalated Discs </li></ul>
    35. 37. <ul><li>Description: unevenly striated, fused- together cylindrical cells that contract as a unit owing to signals at gap junctions between them </li></ul><ul><li>Common Locations: heart wall </li></ul><ul><li>Function: pump blood forcefully through circulatory system </li></ul>
    36. 38. 3. Smooth Muscle
    37. 39. <ul><li>Description: contractile cells tapered at both ends; not striated </li></ul><ul><li>Common Locations: walls of arteries, sphincters, stomach, intestines, urinary bladder, many other soft internal organs </li></ul><ul><li>Function: controlled constriction; motility (as in gut); arterial blood flow </li></ul>
    38. 40. Nervous Tissue
    39. 41. 1. Nerve Cell or Neuron
    40. 42. 2. Nerve (cross section) This slide shows a single nerve composed of two bundles of nerve fibers called fascicles.  Each fascicle is surrounded by a thin layer of connective tissue called the perineurium.  A much thicker, tough fibrous sheath, the epineurium, encloses the entire nerve.  <ul><li>Epineurium </li></ul><ul><li>Perineurium </li></ul><ul><li>Fascicles </li></ul>
    41. 43. Nerve (close-up view) <ul><li>Endoneurium </li></ul><ul><li>Perineurium </li></ul><ul><li>Axon </li></ul><ul><li>Schwann cell nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Epineurium </li></ul>
    42. 44. 3. Axon (nerve fiber) <ul><li>Myelin sheath </li></ul><ul><li>Neurilemma </li></ul><ul><li>Node of Ranvier </li></ul><ul><li>Schwann cell </li></ul><ul><li>Axon </li></ul>
    43. 45. Vascular Tissues
    44. 46. Vascular or Circulating Tissues <ul><li>BLOOD and LYMPH </li></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><li>1. to distribute oxygen, nutritive substances, and hormones to all parts of the body </li></ul><ul><li>2. to remove waste substances and toxins </li></ul><ul><li>consist of plasma (fluid intercellular substance or matrix); cells or corpuscles (red and white) </li></ul>
    45. 47. ERYTHROCYTES (RBC) <ul><li>flat and appear as biconcave discs </li></ul><ul><li>lack nucleus in adult specimens </li></ul><ul><li>are carriers of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood </li></ul>
    46. 48. LEUCOCYTES (WBC) <ul><li>lack color in the fresh </li></ul><ul><li>true cells with true nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>2 groups: </li></ul><ul><li>non-granular leucocytes or agranulocytes = lack cytoplasmic granules </li></ul><ul><li>granular leucocytes or granulocytes = with cytoplasmic granules </li></ul>
    47. 49. AGRANULOCYTES <ul><li>LYMPHOCYTES </li></ul><ul><li>spherical cells; either similar in size or slightly larger than erythrocytes </li></ul><ul><li>large nucleus (w/c stains deep blue) is surrounded by a very scanty cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>are carriers of antibodies; play an important role in the mechanism of immunity </li></ul><ul><li>comprise 20-25% of leucocytes </li></ul>
    48. 50. Lymphocyte
    49. 51. <ul><li>2. MONOCYTES </li></ul><ul><li>much bigger than lymphocytes </li></ul><ul><li>nucleus is indented, kidney-shaped or horseshoe-shaped </li></ul><ul><li>cytoplasm is more abundant than that of lymphocytes </li></ul><ul><li>ingest bacteria and debris particles </li></ul><ul><li>comprise 3-8% of the leucocytes </li></ul>
    50. 52. Monocyte
    51. 53. GRANULOCYTES <ul><li>based on morphology and stainability of cytoplasmic granules, these are classified into: </li></ul><ul><li>Acidophils or eosinophils </li></ul><ul><li>Basophils </li></ul><ul><li>Heterophils or neutrophils </li></ul>
    52. 54. Acidophils or eosinophils <ul><li>spherical in shape </li></ul><ul><li>cytoplasmic granules stain bright red with acid dyes </li></ul><ul><li>nucleus usually has two oval lobes connected by a thin chromatin thread </li></ul><ul><li>are not phagocytic but are associated with certain parasitic and allergic diseases; has detoxifying role (remove and absorb histamine) </li></ul><ul><li>Comprise 2-4% of leucocytes </li></ul>
    53. 55. Eosinophil
    54. 56. BASOPHILS <ul><li>difficult to find in human blood because they comprise only 0.5 – 1% of leucocytes </li></ul><ul><li>believed to be mast cells transported by the blood to other parts of the body which elaborate or secrete histamine and heparin </li></ul>
    55. 57. Basophil
    56. 58. Neutrophils <ul><li>spherical cells with cytoplasm not strongly acidic or basic in its reaction </li></ul><ul><li>with fine cytoplasmic granules that stain light pink or pale lavender </li></ul><ul><li>nucleus is elongated, bent or twisted body consisting of 3-5 rounded or angular lobes connected by thin fine chromatin threads </li></ul><ul><li>are phagocytic (kill and digest bacteria) </li></ul><ul><li>comprise 60-75% of leucocytes </li></ul>
    57. 59. Neutrophil
    58. 60. References <ul><li>General Zoology Laboratory Manual, Biology Dept., Univ. of San Carlos </li></ul><ul><li>A/P Lab: A website for Human Anatomy and Physiology </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Bell, Allen. 1999. Anatomy 503 – Human Histology </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Ross, M., Romwell, L., and Kaye, G. 1995. Histology: A Text and Atlas. Williams and Wilkins, USA. </li></ul><ul><li>zoesanchez/zool1L/2008 </li></ul>