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BUSINESS CYCLES: ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Stages of the business cycle: ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Stages – cont’d ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
 
Features of a business cycle: ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Macro- economic variables and business cycles: ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
variable Direction  timing production Industrial production Pro-cyclical coincident expenditure Consumption Pro-cyclical coincident Business investment Pro-cyclical coincident Residential investment Pro-cyclical leading Inventory Investment  Pro-cyclical leading Government purchases Pro-cyclical
Labour market direction timing Employment Pro-cyclical Coincident Unemployment Countercyclical unclassified Average labor productivity Pro-cyclical leading Real wages Pro-cyclical (mildly) Money market Money supply Pro-cyclical leading inflation Pro-cyclical lagging Financial variables Stock Pro-cyclical leading Interest rates Pro-cyclical lagging Real interest acyclical
Multiplier & Accelerator: ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]

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Business cycles 2

  • 1.  
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 5.  
  • 6.
  • 7.
  • 8.
  • 9.
  • 10.
  • 11. variable Direction timing production Industrial production Pro-cyclical coincident expenditure Consumption Pro-cyclical coincident Business investment Pro-cyclical coincident Residential investment Pro-cyclical leading Inventory Investment Pro-cyclical leading Government purchases Pro-cyclical
  • 12. Labour market direction timing Employment Pro-cyclical Coincident Unemployment Countercyclical unclassified Average labor productivity Pro-cyclical leading Real wages Pro-cyclical (mildly) Money market Money supply Pro-cyclical leading inflation Pro-cyclical lagging Financial variables Stock Pro-cyclical leading Interest rates Pro-cyclical lagging Real interest acyclical
  • 13.