Formative Assessment

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Formative Assessment

  1. 1. What have the students learned today? Formative Assessment in Social Studies Using Assessment FOR Learning D.C. Everest Social Studies D.C. Everest Area Schools Weston, WI 54476 http://www.dce.k12.wi.us/jrhigh/socialstudies/
  2. 2. Definition <ul><li>Formative assessment </li></ul><ul><li>a process used by teachers and students during instruction that provides feedback to adjust ongoing teaching and learning to improve students’ achievement of intended instructional outcomes. </li></ul>The term's newfound popularity notwithstanding, the concept of formative assessment is as old as teaching itself. - Tim Wiley D.C. Everest Social Studies D.C. Everest Area Schools Weston, WI 54476
  3. 3. Research on Formative Assessment <ul><li>Black and William (1998a) conducted an extensive research review of 250 journal articles and book chapters to determine whether formative assessment raises academic standards in the classroom. They concluded that efforts to strengthen formative assessment produce significant learning gains as measured by comparing the average improvements in the test scores of the students involved… </li></ul>Black, P., and Wiliam, D. (1998a). Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in Education , 5 (1): 7-74. An analysis of the research reveals that helping teachers develop minute-by-minute and day-by-day formative assessment practices is more cost effective than any other strategy. – Dylan Wiliams D.C. Everest Social Studies D.C. Everest Area Schools Weston, WI 54476
  4. 4. Attributes of Formative Assessment <ul><li>Partnership with students </li></ul><ul><li>Learning outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>3. Success criteria </li></ul><ul><li>4. Collaboration with colleagues </li></ul><ul><li>5. Daily assessment embedded in lesson </li></ul><ul><li>6. High level questioning/discussions </li></ul><ul><li>7. Teacher as observer and data collector </li></ul><ul><li>8. Data is used to modify instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Quality feedback to students </li></ul><ul><li>Students actually use the feedback </li></ul><ul><li>11. Student self-evaluation and peer evaluation </li></ul>“ Inside the Black Box” provides strong evidence from an extensive literature review to show that classroom &quot;formative&quot; assessment, properly implemented, is a powerful means to improve student learning - Phi Delta Kappan D.C. Everest Social Studies D.C. Everest Area Schools Weston, WI 54476
  5. 5. Attributes of Formative Assessment #1 <ul><li>Partnership with Students </li></ul><ul><li>Formative assessment involves teachers and students working together to improve student learning (and teacher instruction). </li></ul>D.C. Everest Social Studies D.C. Everest Area Schools Weston, WI 54476 [Formative assessment is] the bidirectional process between teacher and student to enhance, recognize and respond to the learning. – Cowie and Bell
  6. 6. Attributes of Formative Assessment #2 <ul><li>Learning Outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Learning outcomes (also called learning targets) are what the students should accomplish during the lesson. Learning outcomes make sure that the learners have a clear view of what they should achieve. </li></ul>D.C. Everest Social Studies D.C. Everest Area Schools Weston, WI 54476 [Educators should] discuss the goals and criteria for success with learners using terms they can understand, providing examples of how the criteria for success can be met. -FAST SCASS
  7. 7. Attributes of Formative Assessment #3 Success Criteria Students must know what the success criteria is for the learning outcome. Teachers should provide models/exemplars for students. Students should be involved in the discussion of the success criteria. Sometimes teachers hesitate to involve student in co-constructing [success] criteria. Co-constructing criteria with students is a powerful strategy because it starts with student ideas. – Anne Davies D.C. Everest Social Studies D.C. Everest Area Schools Weston, WI 54476
  8. 8. Attributes of Formative Assessment #4 Collaboration with Colleagues Teachers collaboratively determine the power standards, essential understandings and develop assessments for the learning outcomes. Teachers collaboratively gather data and develop plans for remediation. D.C. Everest Social Studies D.C. Everest Area Schools Weston, WI 54476 Grade-level or department data teams plan how to deliver interventions and accelerated learning to meet the diverse needs of their students. Larry Ainsworth
  9. 9. Attributes of Formative Assessment #5 Daily Assessment Embedded in Lesson –Formative assessment takes place on a daily basis and is a part of the daily lesson. D.C. Everest Social Studies D.C. Everest Area Schools Weston, WI 54476 To adapt teaching and learning - Dylan Wiliam Using evidence of learning To meet immediate learning needs Students and teachers Minute to minute and day-by-day
  10. 10. Attributes of Formative Assessment #6 <ul><li>High Level Questioning/Discussions </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers should use questioning which goes beyond the recall and comprehension levels by using Bloom’s taxonomy. They should collaborate with colleagues to develop high level questions which will elicit intellectual discussions. </li></ul>D.C. Everest Social Studies D.C. Everest Area Schools Weston, WI 54476 Use open ended questions phrased to invite students to explore their ideas and their reasoning. – Paul Black and Dylan Wiliams
  11. 11. Levels of Questioning D.C. Everest Social Studies D.C. Everest Area Schools Weston, WI 54476 <ul><li>Knowledge : arrange, define, duplicate, label, list, memorize, name, order, recognize, relate, recall, repeat, reproduce state. </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension : classify, describe, discuss, explain, express, identify, indicate, locate, recognize, report, restate, review, select, translate, </li></ul><ul><li>Application : apply, choose, demonstrate, dramatize, employ, illustrate, interpret, operate, practice, schedule, sketch, solve, use, write. </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis : analyze, appraise, calculate, categorize, compare, contrast, criticize, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, examine, experiment, question, test. </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis : arrange, assemble, collect, compose, construct, create, design, develop, formulate, manage, organize, plan, prepare, propose, set up, write. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation : appraise, argue, assess, attach, choose, compare, defend estimate, judge, predict, rate, core, select, support, value, evaluate. </li></ul>Bloom found that over 95 % of the test questions students encounter require them to think only at the lowest possible level ... the recall of information. Hey, don’t forget about me – Benjamin Bloom! I’ve got this great little taxonomy you can use when coming up with questions to ask the students! You know, I think that Madeline Hunter was on to something when she said we need to check for understanding in every lesson!
  12. 12. <ul><li>How is ___________ similar to/different from ___________? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the characteristics/parts of __________? </li></ul><ul><li>In what other way might we show/illustrate ________? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the big idea/key concept in __________? </li></ul><ul><li>How does _________ relate to _________? </li></ul><ul><li>What ideas/details can you add to _________? </li></ul><ul><li>Give an example of ___________. </li></ul><ul><li>What is wrong with __________? </li></ul><ul><li>What might you infer from _________? </li></ul><ul><li>What conclusions might be drawn from ___________? </li></ul><ul><li>What questions are we trying to answer?  What problem are we trying to solve? </li></ul><ul><li>What are you assuming about ___________? </li></ul><ul><li>What might happen if ____________? </li></ul><ul><li>What criteria might you use to judge/evaluate ____________? </li></ul><ul><li>What evidence supports ______________? </li></ul><ul><li>How might we prove/confirm ____________? </li></ul><ul><li>How might this be viewed from the perspective of ___________? </li></ul><ul><li>What alternatives should be considered? </li></ul><ul><li>What approach/strategy could you use to ___________? </li></ul><ul><li>How else might you say ___________? </li></ul>More Questions Possibilities Taken from the Michigan State University ASSIST Program Students tend to read and think based on the kinds of questions they anticipate receiving from the teacher . - Anthony Fredericks D.C. Everest Social Studies D.C. Everest Area Schools Weston, WI 54476
  13. 13. Attributes of Formative Assessment #7 Teachers as Observers and Data Collectors Formative assessment involves teachers observing students on a daily basis. It also involves collecting data about students’ learning and responding to the data. D.C. Everest Social Studies D.C. Everest Area Schools Weston, WI 54476 Assessment encompasses teacher observation, classroom discussion, and analysis of student work, including homework and tests. – Carol Boston
  14. 14. Attributes of Formative Assessment #8 Data is Used to Modify Instruction Teachers use the data from assessments to alter their instruction (provide corrective instruction) to assist students in learning. Assessments are only considered “formative” if the information is used to adapt teaching and learning. D.C. Everest Social Studies D.C. Everest Area Schools Weston, WI 54476 “ If we are not going to try to improve what we do, there is little sense in assessing it.” - William Glaser
  15. 15. Attributes of Formative Assessment #9 <ul><li>Quality Feedback to Students </li></ul><ul><li>Students need feedback that will help them close the gap between their work and the learning outcome. Feedback should be about the qualities of a student’s work. </li></ul>D.C. Everest Social Studies D.C. Everest Area Schools Weston, WI 54476 Feedback in [formative assessment] occurs while there is still time to take action. - ASCD
  16. 16. Quality Feedback Feedback given as part of formative assessment helps learners become aware of any gaps that exist between their desired goal and their current knowledge, understanding, or skill and guides them through actions necessary to obtain the goal. D.C. Everest Social Studies D.C. Everest Area Schools Weston, WI 54476 Strengths Ways to Improve (Distance marking to close the gap)
  17. 17. <ul><li>Students Actually Use the Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Students are given time to read teacher feedback comments. Students must act upon the feedback to close the gap. </li></ul>Attributes of Formative Assessment #10 <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When teachers assess student learning for purely formative purposes, there is no </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>final mark on the paper and no summative grade in the grade book. Rather, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>assessment serves as practice for students…This is formative assessment at its most valuable. - Stephen Chappuis and Jan Chappuis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>D.C. Everest Social Studies D.C. Everest Area Schools Weston, WI 54476
  18. 18. Attributes of Formative Assessment #11 <ul><li>Student self-evaluation and peer evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Students analyze either their own work or a peer’s work in relationship to the success criteria. Students self-reflect on themselves as learners. </li></ul>Providing time for students to pause and think, to look for proof and to connect to criteria allows teachers to slow down their pace of their teaching and match the speed of student learning. - Carol Cameron D.C. Everest Social Studies D.C. Everest Area Schools Weston, WI 54476

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