Gcse revision class

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Gcse revision class

  1. 1. GCSE Revision Class 15/5/2010
  2. 2. Historic Periods <ul><li>Baroque </li></ul><ul><li>Classical </li></ul><ul><li>Romantic </li></ul>1600-1750 1750-1820 1820-1900
  3. 3. Baroque <ul><li>Ornamental melody line </li></ul><ul><li>Strong Bass and Chords </li></ul><ul><li>Basso Continuo </li></ul><ul><li>Terraced Dynamics </li></ul><ul><li>Bach, Handel, Vivaldi </li></ul>
  4. 4. Classical <ul><li>Simple, balanced melody </li></ul><ul><li>Diatonic harmony </li></ul><ul><li>Piano </li></ul><ul><li>Orchestra: </li></ul><ul><li>Woodwinds: 2 Flutes, 2 Oboes, 2 Clarinets, 2 Bassoons </li></ul><ul><li>Brass: 2 or 4 Horns, 2 Trumpets  </li></ul><ul><li>Timpani </li></ul><ul><li>Strings:  Violin I, Violins II, Violas, Cellos,Double basses </li></ul><ul><li>Mozart, Haydn </li></ul>
  5. 5. Romantic <ul><li>Expressive, emotional, passionate music </li></ul><ul><li>Large orchestra allowed for large dynamics range </li></ul><ul><li>More expressive, unusual harmony </li></ul><ul><li>Tchaikovsky, Wagner </li></ul>
  6. 6. Guess the period <ul><li>Extract 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Extract 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Extract 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Extract 4 </li></ul>
  7. 7. Guess the instrument <ul><li>Extract 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Extract 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Extract 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Extract 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Extract 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Extract 6 </li></ul>
  8. 8. AOS1
  9. 9. Ground Bass and Variations <ul><li>Baroque period </li></ul><ul><li>Ground Bass </li></ul><ul><li>Basso Ostinato </li></ul><ul><li>A series of variations over a repeating pattern of bass notes </li></ul><ul><li>Explores a variety of textures, becoming more complex as it progresses. </li></ul><ul><li>Canon in D, Pachelbel </li></ul>
  10. 10. Ground <ul><li>Lowest part in musical texture </li></ul><ul><li>Repeats every 1,2, 4 or 8 bars </li></ul><ul><li>Often minor </li></ul><ul><li>Notes often long duration </li></ul><ul><li>Tempo: slow and stately </li></ul><ul><li>Tonic to dominant, cadence back to tonic </li></ul><ul><li>Mood: a solemn mood is common in many vocal arias </li></ul><ul><li>Serious mood can be created by using chromatic intervals </li></ul><ul><li>Light mood can be created usng diatonic intervals </li></ul>
  11. 11. Chaconne and Passacaglia <ul><li>Only difference between these and the ground bass form: ground bass does not stay rigidly in bass line. </li></ul><ul><li>Passacaglia in C, Bach </li></ul>
  12. 12. Classical Variations <ul><li>Theme and variations </li></ul><ul><li>Early variations are similar to theme, as music progresses, variations become more adventurous and complex </li></ul><ul><li>Often there is a final statement of the theme at the end. </li></ul><ul><li>Ah, dirai-je vous , maman ?, Mozart </li></ul>
  13. 13. Common Variation Techniques E.g. a legato section might be followed by a staccato section Dynamics/ Articulation Change the instruments playing Instrumentation Change of key Different harmonies Harmony Change of metre Change of tempo New rhythmic patterns Rhythm/tempo Imitation/Canon Diminution Augmentation Inversion Change position of melody Counter melody Decoration Melody
  14. 14. Romantic Variations <ul><li>Use of motifs </li></ul><ul><li>Variations on a theme of Haydn, Brahms </li></ul>
  15. 15. Ground Bass and Variations <ul><li>What is a ground bass? </li></ul><ul><li>In what period would you find a ground bass? </li></ul><ul><li>In which period were variations based on motifs? </li></ul><ul><li>In which period did the ‘theme and variations’ structure become popular? </li></ul><ul><li>Name 3 ways you could vary original material to make a new variation? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Ternary Form <ul><li>ABA </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition and Contrast </li></ul><ul><li>Methods of contrast: </li></ul><ul><li>Instrumentation, key, metre, rhythm, mood, pitch, tempo… </li></ul>
  17. 17. Baroque ternary form <ul><li>The ‘da capo aria’ </li></ul><ul><li>On printed music: A section, B section, da capo al fine </li></ul><ul><li>Baroque singer would improve ornaments and extra notes during the repeat </li></ul><ul><li>Each performance unique </li></ul><ul><li>The trumpet shall sound, The Messiah, Handel (ORATORIO) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Classical Ternary <ul><li>Minuet and Trio </li></ul><ul><li>Minuet, Trio, Minuet </li></ul><ul><li>Minuet: stately dance in triple time </li></ul><ul><li>Trio: features reduction in instrumental parts </li></ul><ul><li>Scherzo and trio </li></ul>
  19. 19. Listen to the Minuet and Trio from the 3 rd movement of Symphony 101 by Haydn (CD1:7) Dynamics Tempo Instrumentation Metre Key (major/minor) Similarity or Difference Section B Section A Musical Feature
  20. 20. Romantic ‘Character Pieces’ <ul><li>Ternary form </li></ul><ul><li>Character pieces: evoke a specific mood/ moment </li></ul><ul><li>Marche, The Nutcracker, Tchaikovsky </li></ul><ul><li>Why is this appropriate for toy soldiers? </li></ul>
  21. 21. Rondo Form <ul><li>Simple rondo: ABACA </li></ul><ul><li>Large scale rondo: ABACADAEA etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Episodes </li></ul>
  22. 22. Baroque Rondo <ul><li>Ritornello </li></ul><ul><li>Used lots in 1 st movement of Baroque concertos </li></ul><ul><li>Ritornello: main theme does not always return in same key when it returns…apart from last statement at end of movement </li></ul>
  23. 23. Vocab…. <ul><li>Concerto </li></ul><ul><li>Violin Concerto in A minor, 1 st mov, Vivaldi </li></ul><ul><li>CD1: 9 </li></ul><ul><li>Concerto Grosso </li></ul><ul><li>Concertino: solo group </li></ul>
  24. 24. Classical Rondo <ul><li>Rondo form used loads: small-scale keyboard music, whole concerto/ symphony movements </li></ul><ul><li>Main theme often shortened in its repeats, apart from final statement </li></ul><ul><li>Episodes often in closely related keys </li></ul><ul><li>Subdominant </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant </li></ul><ul><li>Relative major/ minor </li></ul><ul><li>Both ritornello and Rondo ideas used </li></ul><ul><li>Rondo in F, K15, Mozart. CD1: 10 </li></ul>
  25. 25. Romantic Rondo <ul><li>Rondo and ritornello ideas used </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction often added </li></ul><ul><li>Coda often added </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes short link passages added </li></ul><ul><li>Overture to Carmen, Bizet </li></ul><ul><li>CD1: 11 </li></ul>
  26. 26. AOS2
  27. 27. Expressionism and Serialism <ul><li>Expressionist artists attempted to capture intense internal emotions, often with old colours and distorted images </li></ul>
  28. 28. Social Conditions of 1920s <ul><li>Years immediately after 1WW </li></ul><ul><li>Expressionist movement strongest in Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Disillusionment and discontent </li></ul><ul><li>Intense emotions in art, music, literature etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Schoenberg, String Quartet 2 </li></ul>
  29. 29. Hallmarks of Expressionism <ul><li>Chromaticism </li></ul><ul><li>Angular Melodies </li></ul><ul><li>Dissonance </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme Contrasts of dynamics </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid cadence </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid repetition </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid sequence </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid Balanced phrases </li></ul><ul><li>Constantly changing textures and ideas </li></ul>
  30. 30. Second Viennese School <ul><li>More concerned with timbre than with melody and harmony as we understand it. </li></ul><ul><li>Music should be free from the restriction of being in a key </li></ul><ul><li>Atonality </li></ul><ul><li>Schoenberg </li></ul><ul><li>Webern, Berg </li></ul><ul><li>Hindemith </li></ul>
  31. 31. Serialism <ul><li>Without key, how could one organise ideas? </li></ul><ul><li>12 tone technique </li></ul>Prime Order
  32. 32. <ul><li>See Sibelius Score </li></ul>
  33. 33. Vocab <ul><li>Enharmonic </li></ul><ul><li>Verticalisation </li></ul><ul><li>Klangfarbenmelodie </li></ul><ul><li>Prime row </li></ul><ul><li>Retrograde </li></ul><ul><li>Inversion </li></ul><ul><li>Retrograde Inversion </li></ul><ul><li>Rhythmic Motifs </li></ul><ul><li>Augmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Diminution </li></ul>
  34. 34. Tonal Serialism <ul><li>Not only pitch controlled </li></ul><ul><li>Elements such as rhythm, dynamics also controlled by principles of serialism </li></ul><ul><li>Milton Babbitt </li></ul>
  35. 35. Minimalism <ul><li>America </li></ul><ul><li>1960s </li></ul><ul><li>Started out experimentally: a reaction to serialism </li></ul><ul><li>Glass Violin Concerto </li></ul>
  36. 36. La Monte Young <ul><li>First Minimalist composer </li></ul><ul><li>Fascinated with drones and repetition </li></ul><ul><li>Indian and Japanese music </li></ul><ul><li>Intrigued by sound of wind and electrical hum! </li></ul>
  37. 37. Terry Riley <ul><li>Friend and Colleague of Young </li></ul><ul><li>Experimented with tape loops </li></ul><ul><li>Used delay </li></ul><ul><li>He performed solo, using echo devices to give the impression of more than one performer </li></ul><ul><li>In C </li></ul>
  38. 38. Vocab <ul><li>Drone </li></ul><ul><li>Phasing </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition </li></ul><ul><li>Rhythmic Transformation </li></ul><ul><li>Melodic Transformation </li></ul><ul><li>Cells </li></ul><ul><li>Broken Chords </li></ul><ul><li>Note addition/ subtraction </li></ul>
  39. 39. Steve Reich <ul><li>‘ Process of change’ was main concern </li></ul><ul><li>Phasing </li></ul><ul><li>Africa and Indonesia </li></ul><ul><li>Polyrhythms </li></ul><ul><li>Ragas </li></ul><ul><li>DIATONIC </li></ul><ul><li>Modes and Major scales </li></ul><ul><li>Motifs </li></ul>Electric Counterpoint
  40. 40. Philip Glass <ul><li>Used Arpeggios </li></ul><ul><li>Used triads </li></ul><ul><li>Lyrical, accessible style </li></ul>
  41. 41. Experimental and Electronic Music <ul><li>Aleatoric music/ Indeterminacy (Cage’s name) </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Noise </li></ul><ul><li>Noc concern about melody/harmony/rhythm of piece </li></ul><ul><li>4’33, Cage </li></ul>
  42. 42. John Cage 1912-1992 <ul><li>Taught by Schoenberg </li></ul><ul><li>Began composing serialist music </li></ul><ul><li>Prepared Piano </li></ul><ul><li>Gamelan </li></ul>
  43. 43. Graphic Notation <ul><li>3-line stave </li></ul><ul><li>Prose score: music and its directions are written as ordinary text, and the </li></ul><ul><li>interpretation is down to the performer. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Memories of You <ul><li>CD1:18 </li></ul><ul><li>Cornelius Cardew </li></ul><ul><li>1964 </li></ul><ul><li>Written for grand piano and 3 objects of the performers choice </li></ul><ul><li>A Paperback Copy of some music, a pencil and his hand </li></ul>
  45. 45. Structuring Experimental Music
  46. 46. Music for voice <ul><li>Aria, John Cage </li></ul><ul><li>Solo for voice 22: performers instructed how to breathe: nose/ mouth/ how long for </li></ul><ul><li>Sounds fed through effects processors: </li></ul><ul><li>Reverb, flanger , delay, pan </li></ul>
  47. 47. Electronic Music <ul><li>Early explorations in Electronic music let to Music Concrete: Music made from recording non-musical noises and sounds </li></ul><ul><li>Using synthesizers and samples </li></ul><ul><li>Could control eveything about the music </li></ul><ul><li>Attack, decay, timbre, dynamics, tempo etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Stockhausen </li></ul>
  48. 48. Vocab <ul><li>Multi-track recording:  is a method of sound recording that allows for the separate recording of multiple sound sources to create a cohesive whole </li></ul><ul><li>Vari-speeding: changing the speed of the track. This can effect the pitch. </li></ul>
  49. 49. AOS3
  50. 50. Dance Music 1985-Present Day <ul><li>Club dance music </li></ul><ul><li>DJs </li></ul><ul><li>Trance is most popular genre played </li></ul><ul><li>Strong 4-to-the-floor beat </li></ul><ul><li>140bpm </li></ul>
  51. 51. Roots of club dance music <ul><li>Funk </li></ul><ul><li>Disco </li></ul><ul><li>Jazz </li></ul><ul><li>R n B (rhythm and blues) </li></ul><ul><li>Reggae </li></ul><ul><li>Western Classical music </li></ul>
  52. 52. Dub <ul><li>Remixed versions of reggae tracks: few vocals, lots of effects </li></ul><ul><li>1970s </li></ul><ul><li>King Tubby </li></ul><ul><li>Lee Scratch Perry </li></ul>
  53. 53. Chicago House <ul><li>1980s </li></ul><ul><li>The Warehouse </li></ul><ul><li>DJs took existing tracks ands remixed them/ cut them up and mixed them together with other tracks </li></ul><ul><li>Frankie Knuckles </li></ul><ul><li>Pump up the volume M/A/R/R/S: CD2:2 </li></ul>
  54. 54. Acid House <ul><li>http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v =n9hYX4XCzQ4 </li></ul><ul><li>Characterised by sound of Roland TB303: small synth to create bass sounds </li></ul><ul><li>Popular in UK and led to start of UK rave scene in late 80s. </li></ul>
  55. 55. New York Garage <ul><li>As House died out… </li></ul><ul><li>Paradise Garage </li></ul><ul><li>More melodic than house </li></ul><ul><li>Influences form R and B and Soul </li></ul>
  56. 56. M25 Rave scene <ul><li>Late 80s </li></ul><ul><li>Clubs had restricted hours </li></ul><ul><li>Dancers wanted to carry on clubbing </li></ul><ul><li>Illegal </li></ul><ul><li>Forced to be held further and further from centre of London </li></ul><ul><li>Criminal/ drugs element </li></ul>
  57. 57. Vocab <ul><li>Breakdown </li></ul><ul><li>Build up </li></ul><ul><li>Breakbeat: drum pattern, often high tempo, which includes lots of syncopation and polyrhythms </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition </li></ul><ul><li>Remix </li></ul><ul><li>Scratching </li></ul><ul><li>Vocoder </li></ul><ul><li>Chorus </li></ul><ul><li>Distortion </li></ul><ul><li>Quantization </li></ul>
  58. 58. Songs from Musicals
  59. 59. Musical? <ul><li>A piece of theatre </li></ul><ul><li>Music has a central role </li></ul><ul><li>Popular style </li></ul><ul><li>Orchestral or band accompaniment </li></ul><ul><li>West end </li></ul><ul><li>Broadway </li></ul>
  60. 60. Types of Song <ul><li>Solo Song </li></ul><ul><li>Duets </li></ul><ul><li>Choruses </li></ul><ul><li>Separated by spoken dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Action Song </li></ul><ul><li>Character Song </li></ul>
  61. 61. Vocab <ul><li>Lyrics </li></ul><ul><li>Verse-chorus structure </li></ul><ul><li>Middle 8 </li></ul><ul><li>Diatonic harmony </li></ul><ul><li>Elements of jazz (and rock) </li></ul><ul><li>Symmetrical 8 bar phrases </li></ul><ul><li>Hook </li></ul><ul><li>Intro </li></ul><ul><li>Outro </li></ul><ul><li>Word Painting </li></ul>
  62. 62. Musicals Composers <ul><li>Rogers and Hammerstein </li></ul><ul><li>Cole Porter </li></ul><ul><li>Andrew Lloyd Webber </li></ul><ul><li>Stephen Sondheim </li></ul>
  63. 63. Britpop
  64. 64. Britpop and its Influences <ul><li>Early 1980s polital idealism and music came together in the form of indie music e.g The Smiths </li></ul><ul><li>Britpop explosion in mid 90s </li></ul><ul><li>Nostalgic movement looking back to British pop music in 60s: The Kinks, The Who, The Beatles </li></ul>
  65. 65. Defining Characteristics <ul><li>Guitar driven band </li></ul><ul><li>Little use of technology </li></ul><ul><li>Structure (verse, chorus, middle 8) </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional chord sequences </li></ul><ul><li>Strong melody lines </li></ul><ul><li>Musical references (including direct quotes) from 60s bands </li></ul><ul><li>Regional accents </li></ul>
  66. 66. Subject content <ul><li>Lyrics </li></ul><ul><li>Everyday life in England </li></ul><ul><li>Social observation </li></ul><ul><li>Blur, Country House </li></ul>
  67. 67. Why did Britpop happen? <ul><li>Reaction </li></ul><ul><li>1980s/1990s American pop dominated chart </li></ul><ul><li>Further influence from ‘Madchester’ in 60s: Stone Roses and Happy Mondays </li></ul>
  68. 68. AOS4
  69. 69. Indian Raga
  70. 70. Raga <ul><li>Musicians improvise according to the strict rules of raga </li></ul><ul><li>A cross between a scale and a melody </li></ul><ul><li>Each raga associated with a particular mood, time of day, season etc. </li></ul>
  71. 71. Harmony <ul><li>Consists of rising and falling improvisations against drone in background </li></ul><ul><li>Tambura plays drone </li></ul><ul><li>Harmonium can </li></ul><ul><li>also play drone </li></ul><ul><li>sometimes </li></ul>
  72. 72. Rhythm <ul><li>Tala </li></ul><ul><li>Rhythmic Cycle of Beats </li></ul><ul><li>Played on tabla </li></ul>
  73. 73. Structure <ul><li>Alap: slow intro, no percussion, no regular metre </li></ul><ul><li>Jhor: basic pulse, though no strong beats </li></ul><ul><li>Gat: pre-composed fixed sequence which allow all instrumentalists to interact </li></ul><ul><li>Jhala: players improvise around the melody and rhythm </li></ul>
  74. 74. Instruments <ul><li>Sitar </li></ul><ul><li>Sarod </li></ul><ul><li>Sarangi </li></ul><ul><li>Tabla </li></ul><ul><li>Tambura </li></ul><ul><li>Harmonium </li></ul>
  75. 75. Context <ul><li>Master-student tradition of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Listening and memorising </li></ul><ul><li>Concerts that last for hours </li></ul><ul><li>Passed on through oral tradition </li></ul>
  76. 76. African Music <ul><li>Singing </li></ul><ul><li>Drumming </li></ul><ul><li>Instrumental music </li></ul><ul><li>Music is central to every aspect of traditional life </li></ul><ul><li>Rituals to entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>Oral tradition </li></ul>
  77. 77. Major Elements of African Music <ul><li>Repetition </li></ul><ul><li>Improvisation </li></ul><ul><li>Polyphony </li></ul><ul><li>Cross rhythms </li></ul><ul><li>Variations </li></ul><ul><li>Call and Response </li></ul>
  78. 78. Drumming <ul><li>Master Drummer </li></ul><ul><li>Djembe </li></ul><ul><li>Donno (talking drum) </li></ul><ul><li>Dundun </li></ul>
  79. 79. Instrumental music <ul><li>Mbira / Thumb Piano </li></ul><ul><li>Balaphone </li></ul><ul><li>Kora </li></ul><ul><li>Idiophone </li></ul><ul><li>Aerophone </li></ul><ul><li>Chordophone </li></ul><ul><li>Membranophone </li></ul>
  80. 80. African Song <ul><li>Call and Response </li></ul><ul><li>Use of pentatonic sclae </li></ul><ul><li>Worksongs </li></ul><ul><li>African Church Music </li></ul>
  81. 81. Fusion <ul><li>One style of music mixing with another style of music </li></ul><ul><li>Indian Fusion </li></ul><ul><li>African Fusion </li></ul><ul><li>Advances in recording technology and 20 th century globalization have led to more fusion music </li></ul>
  82. 82. Hybrid Styles <ul><li>Bhangra </li></ul><ul><li>Bollywood </li></ul>

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