THE EFFECTIVENESS OF
STUDENTS TEAM-ACHIEVEMENT DIVISION (STAD)
IN TEACHING READING
VIEWED FROM THE STUDENTS’ ANXIETY
(AN EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH IN EIGHT GRADE OF IN THE ACADEMIC YEAR
A.Background of the Study
E.Objectives of the Study
F.Benefits of the Study
A. BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Reading is an active process of comprehending where
students need to be taught strategies to read more
efficiently such as guessing from context, define
expectations, make inferences about the text, skimming
ahead to fill in the context, etc (Grabe, 2009: 377)
Among the four skills, reading is one of the skills that should be
taught intensively in order to open up new worlds and opportunities.
By having a good reading skill, the students can get some information
and knowledgesuch as reading newspapers, job listings, instruction
manuals, maps and so on. They can also develop their grammar and
structure understanding and enlarge their vocabulary mastery.It also
helps them to understand different ideas and to communicate.
Aebersolld and Field (1997: ix) state that the acquisition in reading
skill in a second or foreign language is apriority for millions of learnes
arround the world. That is why the students need to be habitualized
and trained in order to have a good reading skill.
The standard competence of English subject in KTSP shows
that reading is one of the language skills taught to
comprehend meanings of interactive and monolog written
text especially in the form of
descriptive, narrative, recount, procedure, report and
anecdote by understanding word meaning, finding the main
idea, finding the specific information, finding
reference, identifying communicative purpose, and
identifying the text organization.
• Based on the pretest done in SMPN 2 Wonosari, the students’ average
score in doing reading task is still low. They still have difficulties in
identifying and understanding: (1) the word meaning; (2) the main idea;
(3) the specific information; the certain word reference; (4) the
communicative purpose; and (6) the organization of the text.
• There are some factors which affect students’ reading comprehension. It
includes internal and external factors. Internal factors affecting reading
comprehension are those which stem from the learners’ own mind. The
learner's attitude to the learning process has also been identified as
being critically important to reading comprehension. The internal factors
such as learning motivation, curiosity, and anxiety in reading play an
• Besides, the external factors which influence reading
comprehension, there are also some factors which include the approach
or method used in teaching reading, the material or the text given to the
students, the classroom condition, the media and the activity used by the
teacher, and the instruction of the teacher.
• According to Slavin (1995: 71)Student Team-Achievement
Divisions (STAD) is a from of team learning which consists of
four or five students who represent a cross section of the class
in term of academic performance, sex, and race or ethnicity.
• Arends in Miller and Peterson states that STAD method is the
simplest and the straightest forward of the Cooperative Learning
• Slavin (1995: 71) also states that STAD is the simplest of all
cooperative learning method, and is a good model to begin with
for teachers who are new to cooperative approach. In STAD, the
teacher presents the content or skill in large group activities in
the regular manner, such as direct instruction and
modeling, while students are provided with learning materials
that they use in groups to master the content.
• It can be concluded that STAD is a cooperative learning
method which emphasizes on students mastering the
materials through group learning, and the group has
responsibility for their members.
• In the other condition, direct instruction method is commonly
applied in the teaching and learning process. Direct instruction
does not assume that students will develop insights on their
own. Instead, direct instruction takes learners through the steps
of learning systematically, helping them see both the purpose
and the result of each step. When teachers explain exactly what
students are expected to learn, and demonstrate the steps
needed to accomplish a particular academic task
• Beside teaching method, another important factor affecting the
students’ comprehension in reading is psychological aspect.
One of psychological aspects which affect reading
comprehension is reading anxiety.
• According to Horwitz (2001: 112) et al., reading anxiety is the
threat to an individual’s self-concept caused by the inherent
limitations of communicating in an imperfectly mastered second
• Researchers of language anxiety have investigated the possible
relationship between reading anxiety and language proficiency
to identify whether reading anxiety might predict language
performance and reading comprehension (Saito, 1999: 202).
• The students naturally perform better on reading comprehension
when there is noexpectation of a factual knowledge test. In
other words, learners with higher anxiety levels might
comprehend reading texts more poorly.
B. PROBLEMS OF IDENTIFICATION
Dealing with the background of the study, there are some problems that can be
1. Why do the students have difficulties to understand the text?
2. What factors cause low understanding in reading a text?
3. Doesthe method of teaching used by the teacher influence the students’
competence in reading?
4. Is Students Team-Achievements Division effective for students’ reading
5. Does the students’ reading anxiety in reading influence their
6. Is it necessary to consider the method of teaching used on the students’
characteristics, such as reading anxiety?
C. PROBLEMS OF LIMITATION
The writer realizes that it is impossible to investigate all the
problems, therefore, the writer only limits the problems of the reseach which are
supposed to influence the students’ reading skill, namely: the methods used by
the teacher (Students Team-Achievements Division Method and Direct
Instruction Method) and the students’ reading anxiety (high and low). The writer
also limits the subject of the research that is the eight grade students of SMPN 2
Wonosari Klaten in the academic year of 2012/2013.
D. PROBLEMS OF STUDY
Based on the background of the study, there are three problems which are
formulated as follows:
1. In general, is there any difference in reading competence between the
students taught using Students Team-Achievements Division Method and
Direct Instruction Method? If there is a difference, which group of
students has a better achievement?
2. In general, is there any difference in reading competence between the
students having high and low reading anxiety? If there is a
difference, which group of students has a better reading achievement?
3. Is there any interaction effect between teaching methods and students’
reading anxietyon reading competence?
E. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This research is aimed to know the influence of teaching methods and students’
reading anxiety on the students’ reading competence. Particularly, this research
is proposed to know whether or not:
1. There is a difference in reading achievement between the students taught
using Students Team-Achievements Division Method and Direct Instruction
2. There is a difference in reading achievement between the students having
high and low reading anxiety.
3. There is an interaction effect between teaching methods and students’
reading anxiety on reading achievement.
F. BENEFITS OF THE STUDY
Hopefully, the study can give some benefits for the teachers, students and other researchers.
For the teachers
• The result of this study gives information to the teachers about the importance of teaching
methods and students’ intellectual curiosity in readingon students’ reading achievement.
Students Team-Achievements Division can be an alternative teaching method to teach
For the students
• Since Students Team-Achievements Division is interesting, the students will be motivated
to join the class. Therefore, Students Team-Achievements Division enables students to
enhance their reading skill.
For other reseachers
• It is hoped that the result of this study can help other researchers who conduct further
research at the same subject.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
1. Definition of Reading
2. Purpose of Reading
3. Micro and Macro skills of Reading Competence
4. Models of Reading
5. Techniques of Reading
6. Factors of Reading Competence
7. Assessment of Reading
B. Student Team-Achievement Division (STAD)
1. Definition of STAD
2. Component of STAD
3. Preparation of STAD
4. Schedule of Activity
5. Advantages and the disadvantages of STAD
C. Direct Instruction Method (DIM)
1. Definition of DIM
2. Procedure of DIM
3. Advantages and Disadvantages of DIM
D. Teaching Reading Using STAD and DIM
E. Reading Anxiety
1. Definition of Foreign Language Anxiety
2. Definition of Reading Anxiety
1. Differences between STAD and DIM
2. Differences between the students who have high reading
anxiety and the students who have low reading anxiety.
3. Interaction between teaching methods and students’
STUDENT TEAM-ACHIEVEMENT DIVISION
According to Slavin (1995: 71)Student Team-Achievement Divisions (STAD) is a
from of team learning which consists of four or five students who represent a
cross section of the class in term of academic performance, sex, and race or
Arends in Miller and Peterson states that STAD method is the simplest and the
straightest forward of the Cooperative Learning (CL) approach.
Slavin (1995: 71) also states that STAD is the simplest of all cooperative
learning method, and is a good model to begin with for teachers who are new to
COMPONENT OF STAD
STAD consists of five major components (Slavin, 1995: 71-73).
They are as follows:
4.Individual improvement score
PREPARATION OF STAD
Slavin (1995: 73-75) mentions five steps which is prepared by the
teacher before the implementation of STAD, as follows:
2.Assigning Students to Team
3.Determining initial base scores
SCHEDULE OF ACTIVITY
2. Team Study
4. Team recognition
5. The main idea for team recognition is figuring the individual
improvement scores, team scores, and awarding certificates or
other team rewards.
THE ADVANTAGES AND THE DISADVANTAGES OF
The advantages of STAD are as follows:
1. Group has greater information resource than individuals do.
2. Group can employ a greater number of creative problem-solving
3. Working in group fosters improves learning and comprehension of
4. Members’ satisfaction with the group decision increases because they
participate in the problem solving process.
5. Group members gain a better understanding of themselves as they
interact with others.
The disadvantages of STAD according to Bee and Masterson
(1990: 9-11)are as follows:
1. Group members may pressure others to conform to the
2. An individual group member may dominate the discussion.
3. Some group members may rely too much on others to get
the job done.
DIRECT INSTRUCTION METHOD
According to Arends (2001: 265) Direct instruction method is a
teacher centered model that has five steps: establishing
set, explanation and/ordemonstration, guided
practice, feedback, and extended practice. A direct instruction
lesson requires careful orchestration by the teacher and a learning
environment that businesslike and task-oriented.
The basic components of direct instruction are:
1. Setting clear goals for students and making sure they understand these
2. Presenting a sequence of well-organized assignments.
3. Giving students clear, concise explanations and illustrations of the subject
4. Asking frequent questions to see if the students understand the work.
5. Giving students frequent opportunities to practice what they have learned.
PROCEDURE OF DIM
According to Rosenshine (2008: 2), the procedures of direct instruction are as follows.
1. Begin a lesson with a short review of previous learning.
2. Begin a lesson with a short statement of goals.
3. Present new material in small steps, providing for student practice after each
4. Give clear and detailed instructions and explanations.
5. Provide a high level of active practice for all students.
6. Ask a large number of questions, check for student understanding, and obtain
responses from all students.
7. Guide students during initial practice.
8. Provide systematic feedback and corrections
9. Provide explicit instruction and practice for seatwork, exercises and monitor
students during seatwork.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF DIM
The advantages of direct instructional method are that:
1. The teacher/lecturer has control of the timing of the lesson
2. Students are physically easy to monitor.
3. The teacher/lecturer has control over what will be learned, and who will
learn. If the teacher/lecturer wants to reward the middle class students, this
is the kind of teaching method to use.
4. The curriculum can be covered, so the teacher/lecturer can say that she/he
taught the material.
5. Some materials should be taught this way. Any information for which there
is one right answer, and for which that answer is relatively simple, can be
taught efficiently and honestly by using direct instruction.
Beside having some benefits, direct instruction method also has some disadvantages
1. We must learn simple tasks before complex ones, and that only measurable learning
2. Students do not have a sense of the overall purpose of the simple steps. However, if
the teacher/lecturer tells them the purpose, by using advance organizers, this
disadvantage is overcome.
3. Teachers/lecturers cannot assess what the students’ p rior knowledge is, so will be
unaware of why particular students cannot learn.
4. Retention of how to solve the problems is low, because the students have not
struggled with the problem themselves. This disadvantage can be overcome by
having the students do many complex problems on their own. However, this means
that one of the advantages (time efficiency) is lost.
5. Direct instruction as an instructional method works for only a small percentage of
students, not for a great variety. The students who have other than verbal
intelligence, or who come from different cultural world views will fail.
Anxiety is defined as “the subjective feeling of
tension, apprehension, nervousness, and worry that are experienced by
an individual,” and the “heightened activity of the autonomic nervous
system that accompanies these feelings” (Spielberger, 1976: 5).
Reading anxiety refers to the cognitive aspects such as disturbing
thoughts, distracting emotions, preoccupied feelings or fear evaluation
students have during reading. According to Zbornik and Wallarown (1991:
3), foreign language reading anxiety is defined as any discomfort or fear
accompanied by reading EFL texts during reading process.
According to Horwitz (2001: 112), reading anxiety is the threat to an
individual’s self-concept caused by the inherent limitations of
communicating in an imperfectly mastered second language.
A. Place and Time of Study
B. Research Method
C. Population, Sample, and Sampling
D. Technique of Collecting the Data
1. Validity of the Test Instrument
2. Reliability of the Instrument
E. Technique of Analyzing the Data
1. Normality Test (Zi)
2. Homogeneity Test
3. ANOVA Two-Way Factorial Design Test
4. TUKEY Test
F. Statistical Hypothesis