The effectiveness of stad

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The effectiveness of stad

  1. 1. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF STUDENTS TEAM-ACHIEVEMENT DIVISION (STAD) IN TEACHING READING VIEWED FROM THE STUDENTS’ ANXIETY (AN EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH IN EIGHT GRADE OF IN THE ACADEMIC YEAR OF 2013/2014)
  2. 2. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A.Background of the Study B.Problems Identification C.Problems Limitation D.Problems Statement E.Objectives of the Study F.Benefits of the Study
  3. 3. A. BACKGROUND OF STUDY Reading is an active process of comprehending where students need to be taught strategies to read more efficiently such as guessing from context, define expectations, make inferences about the text, skimming ahead to fill in the context, etc (Grabe, 2009: 377)
  4. 4. Among the four skills, reading is one of the skills that should be taught intensively in order to open up new worlds and opportunities. By having a good reading skill, the students can get some information and knowledgesuch as reading newspapers, job listings, instruction manuals, maps and so on. They can also develop their grammar and structure understanding and enlarge their vocabulary mastery.It also helps them to understand different ideas and to communicate. Aebersolld and Field (1997: ix) state that the acquisition in reading skill in a second or foreign language is apriority for millions of learnes arround the world. That is why the students need to be habitualized and trained in order to have a good reading skill.
  5. 5. The standard competence of English subject in KTSP shows that reading is one of the language skills taught to comprehend meanings of interactive and monolog written text especially in the form of descriptive, narrative, recount, procedure, report and anecdote by understanding word meaning, finding the main idea, finding the specific information, finding reference, identifying communicative purpose, and identifying the text organization.
  6. 6. • Based on the pretest done in SMPN 2 Wonosari, the students’ average score in doing reading task is still low. They still have difficulties in identifying and understanding: (1) the word meaning; (2) the main idea; (3) the specific information; the certain word reference; (4) the communicative purpose; and (6) the organization of the text. • There are some factors which affect students’ reading comprehension. It includes internal and external factors. Internal factors affecting reading comprehension are those which stem from the learners’ own mind. The learner's attitude to the learning process has also been identified as being critically important to reading comprehension. The internal factors such as learning motivation, curiosity, and anxiety in reading play an important role. • Besides, the external factors which influence reading comprehension, there are also some factors which include the approach or method used in teaching reading, the material or the text given to the students, the classroom condition, the media and the activity used by the teacher, and the instruction of the teacher.
  7. 7. • According to Slavin (1995: 71)Student Team-Achievement Divisions (STAD) is a from of team learning which consists of four or five students who represent a cross section of the class in term of academic performance, sex, and race or ethnicity. • Arends in Miller and Peterson states that STAD method is the simplest and the straightest forward of the Cooperative Learning (CL) approach. • Slavin (1995: 71) also states that STAD is the simplest of all cooperative learning method, and is a good model to begin with for teachers who are new to cooperative approach. In STAD, the teacher presents the content or skill in large group activities in the regular manner, such as direct instruction and modeling, while students are provided with learning materials that they use in groups to master the content.
  8. 8. • It can be concluded that STAD is a cooperative learning method which emphasizes on students mastering the materials through group learning, and the group has responsibility for their members.
  9. 9. • In the other condition, direct instruction method is commonly applied in the teaching and learning process. Direct instruction does not assume that students will develop insights on their own. Instead, direct instruction takes learners through the steps of learning systematically, helping them see both the purpose and the result of each step. When teachers explain exactly what students are expected to learn, and demonstrate the steps needed to accomplish a particular academic task • Beside teaching method, another important factor affecting the students’ comprehension in reading is psychological aspect. One of psychological aspects which affect reading comprehension is reading anxiety.
  10. 10. • According to Horwitz (2001: 112) et al., reading anxiety is the threat to an individual’s self-concept caused by the inherent limitations of communicating in an imperfectly mastered second language. • Researchers of language anxiety have investigated the possible relationship between reading anxiety and language proficiency to identify whether reading anxiety might predict language performance and reading comprehension (Saito, 1999: 202). • The students naturally perform better on reading comprehension when there is noexpectation of a factual knowledge test. In other words, learners with higher anxiety levels might comprehend reading texts more poorly.
  11. 11. B. PROBLEMS OF IDENTIFICATION Dealing with the background of the study, there are some problems that can be identified: 1. Why do the students have difficulties to understand the text? 2. What factors cause low understanding in reading a text? 3. Doesthe method of teaching used by the teacher influence the students’ competence in reading? 4. Is Students Team-Achievements Division effective for students’ reading competence? 5. Does the students’ reading anxiety in reading influence their readingcompetence? 6. Is it necessary to consider the method of teaching used on the students’ characteristics, such as reading anxiety?
  12. 12. C. PROBLEMS OF LIMITATION The writer realizes that it is impossible to investigate all the problems, therefore, the writer only limits the problems of the reseach which are supposed to influence the students’ reading skill, namely: the methods used by the teacher (Students Team-Achievements Division Method and Direct Instruction Method) and the students’ reading anxiety (high and low). The writer also limits the subject of the research that is the eight grade students of SMPN 2 Wonosari Klaten in the academic year of 2012/2013.
  13. 13. D. PROBLEMS OF STUDY Based on the background of the study, there are three problems which are formulated as follows: 1. In general, is there any difference in reading competence between the students taught using Students Team-Achievements Division Method and Direct Instruction Method? If there is a difference, which group of students has a better achievement? 2. In general, is there any difference in reading competence between the students having high and low reading anxiety? If there is a difference, which group of students has a better reading achievement? 3. Is there any interaction effect between teaching methods and students’ reading anxietyon reading competence?
  14. 14. E. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY This research is aimed to know the influence of teaching methods and students’ reading anxiety on the students’ reading competence. Particularly, this research is proposed to know whether or not: 1. There is a difference in reading achievement between the students taught using Students Team-Achievements Division Method and Direct Instruction Method. 2. There is a difference in reading achievement between the students having high and low reading anxiety. 3. There is an interaction effect between teaching methods and students’ reading anxiety on reading achievement.
  15. 15. F. BENEFITS OF THE STUDY Hopefully, the study can give some benefits for the teachers, students and other researchers. For the teachers • The result of this study gives information to the teachers about the importance of teaching methods and students’ intellectual curiosity in readingon students’ reading achievement. Students Team-Achievements Division can be an alternative teaching method to teach reading. For the students • Since Students Team-Achievements Division is interesting, the students will be motivated to join the class. Therefore, Students Team-Achievements Division enables students to enhance their reading skill. For other reseachers • It is hoped that the result of this study can help other researchers who conduct further research at the same subject.
  16. 16. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE A. Reading 1. Definition of Reading 2. Purpose of Reading 3. Micro and Macro skills of Reading Competence 4. Models of Reading 5. Techniques of Reading 6. Factors of Reading Competence 7. Assessment of Reading
  17. 17. B. Student Team-Achievement Division (STAD) 1. Definition of STAD 2. Component of STAD 3. Preparation of STAD 4. Schedule of Activity 5. Advantages and the disadvantages of STAD
  18. 18. C. Direct Instruction Method (DIM) 1. Definition of DIM 2. Procedure of DIM 3. Advantages and Disadvantages of DIM D. Teaching Reading Using STAD and DIM E. Reading Anxiety 1. Definition of Foreign Language Anxiety 2. Definition of Reading Anxiety
  19. 19. F. Rationale 1. Differences between STAD and DIM 2. Differences between the students who have high reading anxiety and the students who have low reading anxiety. 3. Interaction between teaching methods and students’ reading anxiety G. Hypothesis
  20. 20. STUDENT TEAM-ACHIEVEMENT DIVISION (STAD) According to Slavin (1995: 71)Student Team-Achievement Divisions (STAD) is a from of team learning which consists of four or five students who represent a cross section of the class in term of academic performance, sex, and race or ethnicity. Arends in Miller and Peterson states that STAD method is the simplest and the straightest forward of the Cooperative Learning (CL) approach. Slavin (1995: 71) also states that STAD is the simplest of all cooperative learning method, and is a good model to begin with for teachers who are new to cooperative approach.
  21. 21. COMPONENT OF STAD STAD consists of five major components (Slavin, 1995: 71-73). They are as follows: 1.Class Presentation 2.Teams 3.Quizzes 4.Individual improvement score 5.Team recognition
  22. 22. PREPARATION OF STAD Slavin (1995: 73-75) mentions five steps which is prepared by the teacher before the implementation of STAD, as follows: 1.Material 2.Assigning Students to Team 3.Determining initial base scores 4.Team building
  23. 23. SCHEDULE OF ACTIVITY 1. Teaching 2. Team Study 3. Test 4. Team recognition 5. The main idea for team recognition is figuring the individual improvement scores, team scores, and awarding certificates or other team rewards.
  24. 24. THE ADVANTAGES AND THE DISADVANTAGES OF STAD The advantages of STAD are as follows: 1. Group has greater information resource than individuals do. 2. Group can employ a greater number of creative problem-solving methods. 3. Working in group fosters improves learning and comprehension of idea discussed. 4. Members’ satisfaction with the group decision increases because they participate in the problem solving process. 5. Group members gain a better understanding of themselves as they interact with others.
  25. 25. The disadvantages of STAD according to Bee and Masterson (1990: 9-11)are as follows: 1. Group members may pressure others to conform to the majority opinion. 2. An individual group member may dominate the discussion. 3. Some group members may rely too much on others to get the job done.
  26. 26. DIRECT INSTRUCTION METHOD According to Arends (2001: 265) Direct instruction method is a teacher centered model that has five steps: establishing set, explanation and/ordemonstration, guided practice, feedback, and extended practice. A direct instruction lesson requires careful orchestration by the teacher and a learning environment that businesslike and task-oriented.
  27. 27. The basic components of direct instruction are: 1. Setting clear goals for students and making sure they understand these goals. 2. Presenting a sequence of well-organized assignments. 3. Giving students clear, concise explanations and illustrations of the subject matter. 4. Asking frequent questions to see if the students understand the work. 5. Giving students frequent opportunities to practice what they have learned.
  28. 28. PROCEDURE OF DIM According to Rosenshine (2008: 2), the procedures of direct instruction are as follows. 1. Begin a lesson with a short review of previous learning. 2. Begin a lesson with a short statement of goals. 3. Present new material in small steps, providing for student practice after each step. 4. Give clear and detailed instructions and explanations. 5. Provide a high level of active practice for all students. 6. Ask a large number of questions, check for student understanding, and obtain responses from all students. 7. Guide students during initial practice. 8. Provide systematic feedback and corrections 9. Provide explicit instruction and practice for seatwork, exercises and monitor students during seatwork.
  29. 29. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF DIM The advantages of direct instructional method are that: 1. The teacher/lecturer has control of the timing of the lesson 2. Students are physically easy to monitor. 3. The teacher/lecturer has control over what will be learned, and who will learn. If the teacher/lecturer wants to reward the middle class students, this is the kind of teaching method to use. 4. The curriculum can be covered, so the teacher/lecturer can say that she/he taught the material. 5. Some materials should be taught this way. Any information for which there is one right answer, and for which that answer is relatively simple, can be taught efficiently and honestly by using direct instruction.
  30. 30. Beside having some benefits, direct instruction method also has some disadvantages such as. 1. We must learn simple tasks before complex ones, and that only measurable learning is worthwhile 2. Students do not have a sense of the overall purpose of the simple steps. However, if the teacher/lecturer tells them the purpose, by using advance organizers, this disadvantage is overcome. 3. Teachers/lecturers cannot assess what the students’ p rior knowledge is, so will be unaware of why particular students cannot learn. 4. Retention of how to solve the problems is low, because the students have not struggled with the problem themselves. This disadvantage can be overcome by having the students do many complex problems on their own. However, this means that one of the advantages (time efficiency) is lost. 5. Direct instruction as an instructional method works for only a small percentage of students, not for a great variety. The students who have other than verbal intelligence, or who come from different cultural world views will fail.
  31. 31. READING ANXIETY Anxiety is defined as “the subjective feeling of tension, apprehension, nervousness, and worry that are experienced by an individual,” and the “heightened activity of the autonomic nervous system that accompanies these feelings” (Spielberger, 1976: 5). Reading anxiety refers to the cognitive aspects such as disturbing thoughts, distracting emotions, preoccupied feelings or fear evaluation students have during reading. According to Zbornik and Wallarown (1991: 3), foreign language reading anxiety is defined as any discomfort or fear accompanied by reading EFL texts during reading process. According to Horwitz (2001: 112), reading anxiety is the threat to an individual’s self-concept caused by the inherent limitations of communicating in an imperfectly mastered second language.
  32. 32. CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY A. Place and Time of Study B. Research Method C. Population, Sample, and Sampling D. Technique of Collecting the Data 1. Validity of the Test Instrument 2. Reliability of the Instrument E. Technique of Analyzing the Data 1. Normality Test (Zi) 2. Homogeneity Test 3. ANOVA Two-Way Factorial Design Test 4. TUKEY Test F. Statistical Hypothesis

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